SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Macedonian denar

The Macedonian denar is the currency of North Macedonia. The first Macedonian denar was established on 26 April 1992, it replaced the 1990 version of the Yugoslav dinar at par. In May 1993, the currency was reformed. A new denar was introduced, with one new denar being equal to 100 old denari; the name denar comes from the name of the denarius. The currency symbol is the first three letters of its name; the first denar was a temporary currency introduced in April 1992 to establish the monetary independence of the Republic of Macedonia. It replaced the Yugoslav dinar at par; the Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia on 8 September 1991. At the time the country was using the Yugoslav dinar. Secret preparations were started to introduce its own currency. In April 1992 the country was ready to acquire monetary independence from Yugoslavia. On 26 April the national bank was established and the denar declared the currency of the country. Notes entered circulation the next day and on 30 April the Yugoslav dinar ceased to be legal tender.

The first denar was replaced at a rate of 100 to 1 by a new, denar consisting of notes and coins in May 1993. No coins were issued for the first denar. Temporary notes were introduced on 27 April 1992, although preparations for producing them began much earlier, they remained in circulation until replaced by permanent notes of the second denar during 1993. The notes were printed by the printing firm “11 October” in Prilep. Printing started on 15 January 1992; the difficulties of creating a new currency in secret are reflected in the notes themselves. The paper, purchased from Slovenia, proved to be of poor quality and lacking adequate security. Although denominated in denari, the name of the currency does not appear on the notes because they were printed prior to the adoption of the Law on the Monetary Unit; the issuer appears as the National Bank of Republic of Macedonia, not its successor, the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia. The notes were designed by a young employee of the "11 October" printer.

He had only one week to design them and not a large budget. That is, they all feature a man and two women picking tobacco leaves on the front, with the back devoted to the Ilinden monument in Kruševo, according to the bank, “expresses the eternal fight of citizens of Macedonia for life in peace and freedom.” The denar was introduced with a fixed exchange rate against the German Mark of 360 denars to the mark. In May 1993, coins for the second denar were introduced in denominations of 50 deni, 1, 2, 5 denari; the initial design was performed by Snezhana Atanasova. 10 and 50 denari coins were introduced in November 2008. The 50 deni coin was withdrawn in 2013. Since 1996 a large number of commemorative coins for collectors has been issued. A listing can be found on the National Bank of Macedonia website. Coins are minted at the Suvenir factory in a village near Makedonski Brod. In 1995 circulation coins were struck in honor of the United Nations F. A. O programme. In 1993, the new denar was issued in denominations of 20, 50, 100 and 500 denari.

The 20 denari was only issued in this first series of notes. In 1996, 1000 and 5000 denari notes were added. In 2016, 200 and 2000 denari notes were issued, while the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia began withdrawing the 5000 denari banknote from circulation as part of the National Bank's plans to re-balance the current structure of the notes in circulation. In 2017, the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia unveiled its current banknotes, 10 and 50 denari, printed as polymer banknotes, were issued into circulation on May 15. Economy of North Macedonia Denarius Ministry of Finance website Heiko Otto. "Banknotes of Macedonia". Retrieved 2017-03-24

Rifle Gap Dam

Rifle Gap Dam is a dam in Garfield County, about five and a half miles north of Rifle. The earthen dam was constructed between 1964 and 1967 by the United States Bureau of Reclamation, with a height of 157 feet and 1450 feet long at its crest, it impounds East Rifle Creek and West Rifle Creek about 400 feet upstream from their previous point of confluence. The dam was built for irrigation water storage, is owned by the Bureau, is operated by the local Silt Water Conservancy District; the reservoir it creates, Rifle Gap Reservoir, has a water surface of 359 acres and a maximum capacity of 12,168 acre-feet. Recreation includes scuba diving in its clear water, wildlife watching, year-round camping, hiking; the area hosts Rifle Gap State Park. Brochure on Rifle Gap Dam State Park

Jules Van den Heuvel

Jules Van den Heuvel was a Roman Catholic politician from Ghent in Belgium. He made his mark as a university lecturer in public law and, more as an academic. Between 1915 and 1918 Van den Heuvel served as his war ravaged country's diplomatic representative to the Holy See, he was not born into a wealthy family. His parents ran a shop selling knitted goods, his parents were affected by the death in quick succession of their three elder children from croup, Jules was sent away to live with an aunt in Bernissart for a few years, before returning to Ghent where the educational possibilities were better. There was nothing about his early years to mark him out as a future top politician. Van de Heuvel attended the Sint-Barbaracollege, a Jesuit secondary school in Ghent, before moving on in 1873 to Ghent University where he studied Law, where fellow students included the future politician Albert Nyssens. Van den Heuvel obtained doctorates in both Law, in Political and Administrative Sciences, he obtained a substantial bursary which enabled him to study abroad: he pursued his further studies at universities in Paris and Rome, was able to study The Obstruction of Justice in England.

In 1879 he was admitted to the bar in Ghent. During this period he joined with another future national politician, Paul de Smet de Naeyer and with Albert Nyssens to found in Ghent the Catholic newspaper, L'Impartial. Despite being politically active in East Flanders, he found time to launch himself on an academic career, becoming in 1883 Professor of Public Law at the Catholic University of Louvain, he would continue to teach the subject for thirty years. He was energetic in his promotion of the university's School of Political and Social Sciences, he pioneered the teaching of Comparative Law, he soon built a reputation which contributed to his nomination, in 1899, to a government position as extra-parliamentary Minister of Justice in the Catholic Party government led by Paul de Smet de Naeyer. An activist Justice Minister, he remained in his post till May 1907. During eight years characterised by abundant "hard work and personal charm", highlights included pushing through reforms in respect Labour laws, Credit unions, Navigation law, Divorce law, Paternity law and corporate governance.

Of at least as much interest as any of these projects for many contemporary sources was the so-called Royal Donation whereby royal assets - land and buildings - was transferred from the king to the state, subject to various exceptions and restrictions covering matters such as the inalienability of the assets. This removed the risks arising from royal assets in Belgium from coming into the ownership of the king's three daughters and their foreign husbands; as Justice Minister, Van den Heuvel was involved in negotiating and drafting the necessary settlements, which in some respects, provided templates for the transfer in 1908 of the distant and inaccessible Congo Free State from the king's personal asset portfolio to the Belgian state as the Belgian Congo. After eight years at the Justice Ministry, van den Heuvel resigned his office in May 1907, which coincided with a change of prime minister, he was a Belgian delegate to the Second International Peace Conference at The Hague between June and October 1907, thereafter remained an active member of the political establishment.

He was nominated a Minister of State in 1908. "Minister of State" in Belgium may be described as an honorary title, but during the years that followed Van den Heuvel was involved in attempts to improve the conditions of the Belgian Congo. A few years in 1914, together with Paul Hymans and Henri Carton de Wiart, Jules Van den Heuvel drafted the Belgian reply to the German Ultimatum which preceded the German invasion of Belgium and so, for Britain and France, military participation in the First World War. Beyond the world of politics, on 8 May 1908 Van de Heuvel was elected a corresponding member of Belgium's Royal Academy, becoming a full member on 5 May 1919; when war broke out in August 1914 he followed the government when it relocated to Antwerp, into exile in Normandy. In 1915 the Prime Minister, Charles de Broqueville appointed him as the country's Minister Plenipotentiary to the Holy See, a de facto ambassadorship which he retained till 1918. After war ended Jules Van den Heuvel attended the Paris Peace Conference, at the request of the Foreign Ministry, drew up the schedule of damages suffered by Belgium.

He chaired one of the three sections of the allied Reparations Commission. His contribution was cut short, when he resigned his political duties and from his university teaching on health grounds, his daughter Suzanne married Paul Struye who subsequently himself became a senior Belgian politician. His other daughter, Mérinette Van den Heuvel, was politically active and an energetic campaigner for various social causes