Macedonian is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in North Macedonia and its diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia. It is the official language of North Macedonia and a recognized minority language in parts of Albania and Herzegovina, Serbia. Standard Macedonian was implemented as the official language of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1945 and has since developed a modern literature. Most of the codification was formalized during the same period. All South Slavic languages, including Macedonian, form a dialect continuum; the modern Macedonian language belongs to the eastern group of the South Slavic branch of Slavic languages in the Indo-European language family, together with Bulgarian and the extinct Old Church Slavonic. Some authors classify to this group the Torlakian dialects. Macedonian's closest relative is Bulgarian, with which it has a high degree of mutual intelligibility.
The next closest relative is Serbo-Croatian. Language contact between Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian reached its height during Yugoslav times when most Macedonians learned Serbo-Croatian as a compulsory language of education and knew and used a mixture of Serbian and Macedonian Serbian, or "pseudo-Serbian." There are claims that Macedonian was intentionally Serbianized first during the process of its standardization. At that time the Bulgarian language was prohibited there. All South Slavic languages, including Macedonian, form a dialect continuum. Macedonian, along with Bulgarian and Torlakian, falls into the Balkan Slavic linguistic area, part of the broader Balkan sprachbund, a group of languages that share typological and lexical features based on geographical convergence, rather than genetic proximity. Other principal languages in this continuum are Romanian and Albanian, all of which belong to different genetic branches of the Indo-European family. Macedonian and Bulgarian are divergent from the remaining South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian and Slovene, indeed all other Slavic languages, in that they do not use noun cases and have lost the infinitive.
They are the only Slavic languages with any definite articles. Bulgarian and Macedonian are the only Indo-European languages. Prior to the codification of the standard language, Macedonian dialects were described by linguists as being dialects of Bulgarian or Serbian, or forming an distinct language. Torlakian was widely regarded as Bulgarian; the boundaries between the South Slavic languages had yet to be "conceptualized in modern terms," and codifiers of Serbian found it necessary to argue that Bulgarian was not a Serbian dialect as late as 1822. Many Macedonian intellectuals maintained that their language "was neither a dialect of Serbian nor of Bulgarian, but a language in its own right". Prior to the standardization of Macedonian, a number of linguists, among them Antoine Meillet, André Vaillant, Mieczysław Małecki, Samuil Bernstein considered Macedonian dialects as comprising an independent language distinct from both Bulgarian and Serbian; some linguists, including Otto Kronsteiner and Michael Clyne in Bulgaria, still consider Macedonian a variety or dialect of Bulgarian, but this view is politically controversial.
According to Olga Mišeska–Tomić: Macedonian is structurally related to Bulgarian more than to any other South Slavic language. But the core of its standard was not formed out of dialects or variants, covered by the Bulgarian standard, its autonomy could not have resulted from a conscious distancing of a variant of a pluricentric language. Like the other South Slavic standards, the Macedonian standard was based on dialects which had never before been covered by a standard. Modern questions of classification are shaped by political and social factors. Structurally, Macedonian and southeastern forms of Serbo-Croatian form a dialectical continuum, a legacy of the linguistic developments during the height of the Preslav and Ohrid literary schools. Although it has been claimed that Standard Macedonian was codified on the base of those dialects most unlike Bulgarian, this interpretation stems from the works of Krste Misirkov, who suggested that Standard Macedonian should abstract on those dialects "most distinct from the standards of the other Slavonic languages".
This view does not take into account the fact that a Macedonian koiné language was in existence. The codifiers chose the same dialects, but did so because they were "most widespread and most to be adopted by speakers of other dialects." The population of the Republic of Macedonia was 2,022,547 in 2002, with 1,644,815 speaking Macedonian as their native language. Outside the Republic, there are Macedonians living in other parts of the geographical area of Macedonia. There are ethnic Macedonian minorities in neighbouring Albania, in Bulgaria, in Greece, in Serbia. According to the official Albanian census of 1989, 4,697 ethnic Macedonians reside in Albania. A large number of Macedonians live outside the traditio
Giuseppe Accoramboni JUD was an Italian Cardinal who served as bishop of Imola. Accoramboni was baptised on the same day, he was educated that the University of Perugia where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, on 6 May 1694. He worked as an auditor of Michelangelo Cardinal Conti future Pope Innocent XIII, he served as a Sub-datary of His Holiness from 1721. He worked at the Sacred Roman Rota, he was ordained on 14 February 1723. He served on the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signatura and of Grace, He was appointed archbishop of Filippi in partibus infidelium on 11 September 1724 and was consecrated on 21 September by Pope Benedict XIII with Mondilio Orsini, Titular Archbishop of Corinthus, Pierre-Guérin de Tencin, Archbishop of Embrun, serving as co-consecrators, he served as a consultor of the Ss. CC. of Rites and of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. He was transferred to the see of Imola, with personal title of archbishop and retaining all his other posts on 12 April 1728, he was created and proclaimed Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina in the consistory of 20 September 1728.
He participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. He was able to participate in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV, he was appointed to the order of Cardinal-Bishops taking the suburbicarian see of Frascati on 11 March 1743. He died around 9 p.m.. His body was exposed in the church of S. Ignazio and buried in that same church. Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
Mike Alfreds is an English theatre director, adapter and teacher. He won awards for his productions. Michael Alfreds was born in London in 1934, he spent his National Service in the RAF in Singapore from 1952-54. From 1954-62 he lived in the USA, he worked in the Publicity Department of MGM Studios from 1955-57 and directed for small theatres around Los Angeles. He trained as a director first at the American Theatre Wing in New York from 1957-60 in the Theatre Department of Carnegie Mellon. During those years, he directed seasons of operas in summer stock in Kennebunkport. After graduating, he directed for Theatre West, TUcson and from 1961-62, he was artistic director of the Cincinnati Playhouse-in-the-Park. Back in the UK, he taught at LAMDA, the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art in London from 1965-70. From 1970-1975, he worked in Israel, he was senior lecturer at the theatre department of Tel Aviv University, from 1972-1975, he was artistic director of the Khan Theatre in Jerusalem and contributed immensely to its development.
He directed plays for the Cameri Theatre in Tel Aviv, Bimot theatre, the Haifa Municipal Theatre and Beersheva Theatre. He returned to the UK in 1975 where he founded and was artistic director of Shared Experience until 1985, he directed for the Royal National Theatre between 1985 and 1988. From 1991 -- 1999, he was director of the Cambridge Theatre Company renamed Madness. In 2001 and 2002, he directed for Shakespear'es Globe and in 1994, for the Royal Shakespeare Company; as well as the USA and Israel, he has worked abroad in Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Italy and China. He has translated the texts of several of his productions and has specialised in the adaptation of novels and stories for the stage and has developed techniques for storytelling in the theatre, he has written two books on his working methods: Different Every Night, which deals with his rehearsal processes for plays, Then What Happens, concerning his methods of working on adaptations. He has divided his career between teaching acting and directing.
Alfreds is known for his special method of working with actors, inspired amongst others by the principles of Constantin Stanislavski and Rudolf Laban, with emphasis on physical work, scrupulous analysis of text and interaction with others during the play in minimalistic productions. 2018: Year of Wonders adapted by Jane Arnfield, Mike Alfreds, Salford and Phil, Alphabetti Theatre Newcastle, Gala Theatre Durham 2011: The Tin Ring adapted by Jane Arnfield, Mike Alfreds, Salford 2001: Cymbeline by William Shakespeare, The Globe 1998: The Black Dahlia by James Ellroy, National Theatre 1985: The Cherry Orchard by Anton Tchekhov, National Theatre 1982: A Handful of Dust by Evelyn Waugh, Shared Experience 1996: Jude the Obscure, by Thomas Hardy, Taunton 1987: The Wandering Jew by Mike Alfreds and Margareth Wanda, after Eugene Sue, National Theatre 1984: Marriage by Nikolai Gogol, Shared Experience La Mandragola by Niccolò Machiavelli. The Persian Protocols The House of Bernarda Alba Asses The Servant of Two Masters An Evening of Sketches by Anton Chekhov Woyzeck by Büchner The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov Ghosts by Henrik Ibsen Suitcase Packers by Hanoch Levin, premiered at the Cameri Theatre, 1983 Demons and Dybbuks, an adaptation of stories by Isaac Bashevis Singer at the Cameri Theatre, 2001 A Shared experience: The actor as story-teller Series: Theatre papers, Published 1980 by Dartington College of Arts The Wandering Jew by Michelene Wandor, Mike Alfreds, Published 27 May 1988 by Heinemann Educational Books Different Every Night: Freeing the Actor,Published 1 April 2008 by Nick Hern Books ISBN 978-1-85459-967-4Then What Happens?
Storytelling & Adapting for Theater, Published 2013 by Nick Hern Books, ISBN 978-1-84842-270-4 Published 21 August 2014 by Nick Hern Books, The Surprise of Love by Pierre Carlet De Marivaux, translated by Mike Alfreds, Published 2011, by Oberon Books, ISBN 978-1-84943-183-5, Bibliography at doollee.comArticle in the Independent, 29 May 1996 David Benedict - Alfreds' way: more method, less madness The play is not the thing- actors and storytelling in theatre, at the site of Editions Nick Hern Books Video interview with Mike Alfred on directing The Tin Ring adapted by Jane Arnold on memories of holocaust survivor Zdenka Fantlová Top theatre director Mike Alfreds coming to Bolton to share expertise with town's actors Scene of Pedro, the Great Pretender, production by the Royal Shakespeare Company, directed by M. Alfreds in 2004