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Macha was a sovereignty goddess of ancient Ireland associated with the province of Ulster with the sites of Navan Fort and Armagh, which are named after her. Several figures called Macha appear in Irish mythology and folklore, all believed to derive from the same goddess, she is said to be one of three sisters known as'the three Morrígna'. Like other sovereignty goddesses, Macha is associated with the land, kingship and horses; the name is derived from Proto-Celtic *makajā denoting "a plain". It was said that Macha was called Grian Banchure, the "Sun of Womanfolk". A poem in the Lebor Gabála Érenn mentions Macha as one of the daughters of Partholón, leader of the first settlement of Ireland after the flood, although it records nothing about her. Various sources record a second Macha as the wife of Nemed, leader of the second settlement of Ireland after the flood, she was the first of Nemed's people to die in Ireland – twelve years after their arrival according to Geoffrey Keating, twelve days after their arrival according to the Annals of the Four Masters.

It is said that the hilltop where she was buried was named after her: Ard Mhacha, "Macha's high place". The surrounding woodland was cleared by Nemed's folk and named Magh Mhacha, "Macha's plain", she is described as the daughter of red-weaponed Aed, as the raven of the raids and diffuser of all excellences. Macha, daughter of Ernmas, of the Tuatha Dé Danann, appears in many early sources, she is mentioned together with her sisters, "Badb and Morrigu, whose name was Anand". The three are considered a triple goddess associated with war. O'Mulconry's Glossary, a thirteenth-century compilation of glosses from medieval manuscripts preserved in the Yellow Book of Lecan, describes Macha as "one of the three morrígna", says the term Mesrad Machae, "the mast of Macha", refers to "the heads of men that have been slaughtered". A version of the same gloss in MS H.3.18 identifies Macha with Badb, calling the trio "raven women" who instigate battle. Keating explicitly calls them "goddesses", but medieval Irish tradition was keen to remove all trace of pre-Christian religion.

Macha is said to have been killed by Balor during the battle with the Fomorians. Macha Mong Ruad, daughter of Áed Rúad, according to medieval legend and historical tradition, the only queen in the List of High Kings of Ireland, her father Áed rotated the kingship with his cousins seven years at a time. Áed died after his third stint as king, when his turn came round again, Macha claimed the kingship. Díthorba and Cimbáeth refused to allow a woman to take the throne, a battle ensued. Macha won, Díthorba was killed, she won a second battle against Díthorba's sons. She married Cimbáeth. Macha pursued Díthorba's sons alone, disguised as a leper, overcame each of them in turn when they tried to have sex with her, tied them up, carried the three of them bodily to Ulster; the Ulstermen wanted to have them killed, but Macha instead enslaved them and forced them to build Emain Macha, to be the capital of the Ulaid, marking out its boundaries with her brooch. Macha ruled together with Cimbáeth for seven years, until he died of plague at Emain Macha, a further fourteen years on her own, until she was killed by Rechtaid Rígderg.

The Lebor Gabála synchronises her reign to that of Ptolemy I Soter. The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates her reign to 468–461 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters to 661–654 BC. Marie-Louise Sjoestedt writes of this figure: "In the person of this second Macha we discover a new aspect of the local goddess, that of the warrior and dominator. Macha, daughter of Sainrith mac Imbaith, was the wife of an Ulster farmer; some time after the death of Cruinniuc's first wife, Macha appears at his house. Without speaking, she begins acting as his wife. Soon she becomes pregnant by him; as long as they were together Cruinniuc's wealth grew. When he leaves to attend a festival organised by the king of Ulster, she warns him that she will only stay with him so long as he does not speak of her to anyone, he promises to say nothing. However, during a chariot race, he boasts; the king orders Cruinniuc be held on pain of death. Although she is pregnant, Macha is brought to the gathering and the king forces her to race the horses.

She wins the race, but cries out in pain as she gives birth to twins on the finish line. For disrespecting and humiliating her, she curses the men of Ulster to be overcome with weakness—as weak "as a woman in childbirth"—at the time of their greatest need; this weakness would last for five days and the curse would last for nine generations. Thereafter, the place where Macha gave birth would be called Emain Macha, or "Macha's twins"; this tale explains the meaning of the name Emain Macha, explains why none of the Ulstermen but the semi-divine hero Cúchulainn could resist the invasion of Ulster in the Táin Bó Cuailnge. It shows that Macha, as goddess of the land and sovereignty, can be vengeful if disrespected, how the rule of a bad king leads to disaster. Thi

Harvey Reid

Harvey Reid is a musician living in York, Maine. He won the 1981 National Fingerpicking Guitar Competition and the 1982 International Autoharp competition. In 1996, Acoustic Guitar magazine listed Harvey's album Steel Drivin' Man as one of the top 10 essential folk albums/CDs of all time, he has 19 records available from Woodpecker Records. Referred to as a troubadour or minstrel singer as well as a folk singer, Harvey is considered a master of many musical instruments including the six and twelve string acoustic guitar, slide guitar, six string banjo, autoharp. Reid is married to Joyce Andersen, an accomplished fiddler and singer/songwriter who has appeared on several of Harvey's albums/CDs. Reid was born in 1954 in California, resides in southern Maine with his family, he is best known for his solo acoustic fingerstyle guitar work, but he is a skilled flatpicker and autoharp player who performs and records with dobro, mandocello and six-string banjo. Reid is married to New Hampshire-born fiddler/singer/songwriter Joyce Andersen, they have two children.

He has been a full-time musician since 1976, has released 25 recordings on the Woodpecker label containing nearly 500 tracks of original and contemporary acoustic music. Reid won the 1981 National Fingerpicking Guitar competition and the 1982 International Autoharp contest and has performed over 6000 concerts in most of the 50 states and a number of countries in Europe. Reid won Bill Monroe's Beanblossom bluegrass guitar contest in 1976, his 1989 CD Solo Guitar Sketchbook, which has remained his best-selling recording, was chosen by Guitar Player Magazine for their Desert Island Top 20 Acoustic Guitar list. In 1992 Reid released another direct-to-digital solo all-traditional recording, Steel Drivin' Man that earned Reid a place in the Acoustic Guitar Magazine Top 10 Folk CD's of All Time list, he is responsible for quite a number of musical innovations, in addition to his considerable body of recorded and published work. Reid is one of the first artists to start his own record label, he has run Woodpecker Records since 1982 when he released his first LP of solo acoustic guitar, titled Nothin' but Guitar.

After one more LP release in 1983 and 2 cassettes in 1986 and 1987, Reid released in 1988 what many consider to be the first indie CD, titled Of Wind & Water. Reid's DAT recordings from that period were the first releases to be done direct-to-digital master, without any edits or overdubs, he was among the earliest to embrace the digital revolution in independent music. All of Reid's recordings feature extensive use of a number of types and nearly two dozen configurations of partial capo, he is the first modern person to compose, arrange and publish guitar music played with this device. Reid self-published a book in May 1980 about it, titled A New Frontier in Guitar, probably the first desktop-published book made, it was done with a beta version of Scribe software, a Xerox Alto computer and a prototype Diablo laser printer. In 1980, Reid co-founded the Third Hand Capo Company with Jefferson Hickey, has been responsible for spreading the partial capo idea around the acoustic guitar world, he has now written 6 books on the subject, is working at present on a series of instructional works showing how to use this device to expand the capabilities of the guitar.

He combines the partial capo with alternate guitar tunings — e.g. the so-called Liberty Tuning uses the second string raised by a semitone plus the partial capo on the 4th fret of the second to fourth or second to fifth strings. In 1984 Reid co-wrote the first college textbook for folk guitar, Modern Folk Guitar, published by Random House, which remains in print and in use in university music departments. Reid is responsible for the appearance of the Fishman Acoustic Blender amplification system, has been involved with the evolution of a number of on-stage acoustic guitar amplification tools, he was the first artist to endorse the Taylor Guitar brand, has been involved with a number of instrument and equipment manufacturers, helping to design and stage-test gear for modern acoustic musicians. Reid has become a role model for younger musicians who would like to pursue musical careers outside the usual channels of the music industry. 1980 "A New Frontier in Guitar" 1982 "Nothin' but Guitar" 1982 "Duck Soup Guitar" 1983 "A Very Old Song" 1983 "Sleight of Hand" 1984 "Modern Folk Guitar" 1984 "The Christmas Project" 1986 "The Coming of Winter 1987 "Heart of the Minstrel on Christmas Day 1988 "Of Wind & Water" 1989 "Solo Guitar Sketchbook" 1990 "Overview" 1992 "Steel Drivin' Man" 1994 "Circles" 1995 "Artistry of the 6-String Banjo" 1996 "In Person" 1998 "Fruit on the Wine" 2000 "Guitar Voyages" 2001 "The Great Sad River" 2002 "Dreamer or Believer" 2003 "The Autoharp Album" 2004 "Kindling the Fire" 2005 "The Christmas Project" 2006 "Capo Inventions" 2007 "The Song Train" 2009 "Blues & Branches" 2009 "The Wreck of the Isidore" 2010 "Capo Voodoo: Book 1- The Cut Capo Chord Book" 2010 "Solo Guitar Project: Vol 1" 2010 "Solo Guitar Project: Vol 2" 2010 "Capo Voodoo: Solo Guitar" 2010 "Capo Voodoo: Songs" 2011 "Songs from a Long Road" 2013 "The Autoharp Waltz" 2014 "The Liberty Guitar Album" 2014 "The Liberty Guitar Method" Woodpecker Records

Cinch (card game)

Cinch known as Double Pedro or High Five, is an American trick-taking card game derived from Pitch via Pedro. Developed in Denver, Colorado in the 1880s, it was soon regarded as the most important member of the All Fours family but went out of fashion with the rise of Auction Bridge; the game is played by 4 players in fixed partnerships, but can be played by 2–6 individual players. The game uses a regular pack of 52 cards; as in Pedro, all points are awarded to the winners of the tricks containing certain cards rather than to the players who held them. This includes the Game point. Five points each go the winner of the Right Left Pedro, respectively; the game is played for example, 42 or 51 points, of which up to 14 can be won in a single deal. The name Cinch comes from a Mexican word, applied to the practice of securing the tricks that contain a Left or Right Pedro, but it was once common to refer to the Left Pedro as the Cinch; the following rules are based on Foster's Complete Hoyle of 1897 and are similar to the modern Bicycle rules.

The game is played with a standard pack of 52 cards. The cards are ranked in Aces ranking high; as a special case, the Off-Five, i.e. the non-trump Five, of the same color as trumps, is for all purposes considered to be a member of the trump suit ranking between the Five and Four of trumps. Like Pitch, Cinch is a point-trick game, i.e. for winning the trick play one needs to maximize the total value of the cards won in tricks, rather than the number of tricks won. But in Cinch the original card-points were abolished in favor of directly assigning game points to the cards; as a result of this process, only six of the fourteen trumps carry card-values, while the plain suit cards do not score at all. The first dealer is decided by cutting; the highest bidder declares trumps. After card play, the party that captured more card-points in tricks scores the difference towards the set total that wins game; the dealer shuffles the pack, the player to the dealer's right cuts. Nine cards are dealt in batches of three.

Beginning with the eldest hand, each player gets one chance to bid for the privilege of declaring the trump suit. A bid is the number of points that the bidder's party undertakes to win in the deal, the minimum bid being 1; each player must pass. The highest possible bid is 14; when the highest bidder has announced the trump suit, starting with eldest hand each player in turn discards at least three cards face up. The dealer fills each player's hand up to six cards. In the four-player partnership version the dealer's own hand is filled up by robbing the pack: The dealer chooses the cards from the remaining stock, if any trumps remain in the stock discards them openly. Any scoring trumps discarded by the opponents are counted for the highest bidder's party; the highest bidder need not lead a trump. The standard rules for card play in trick-taking games hold, with one exception: It is always allowed to trump instead of following suit; as usual, the highest card of the suit led wins each trick, unless a trump is played, in which case the highest trump played wins.

The winner of a trick leads to the next trick. Both parties count the card-points in their tricks. If the bidding party keeps the contract, i.e. wins the required number of card-points, the party that won more card-points scores the difference. Otherwise the opponents score their own result plus the value of the bid. Chicago Cinch Club, The Laws and Etiquette of Cinch, Chicago. Foster, Robert Frederick, Foster's Complete Hoyle and New York. McLeod, John, "All Fours Group", Card Games website. Parlett, David, "High-low-Jack family", The Penguin Book of Card Games, Penguin Books, pp. 175–188, ISBN 978-0-14-103787-5. United States Playing Card Company, "Cinch", Game Rules

Katrin Pärn

Katrin Pärn is an Estonian stage and television actress and singer. Katrin Pärn was born in Tallinn to actor, theatre founder, director Eino Baskin and actress and politician Malle Pärn, she had one older half-brother, actor Roman Baskin, from her father's first marriage to actress Ita Ever. She attended primary and secondary schools in Tallinn before enrolling at the EMA Higher Drama School, graduating in 2000 under the direction of Ingo Normet. In 2008, she received a master's degree in the dramatic arts from the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre, she has lived and studied abroad in the United States, New Zealand and Germany. From 2000 to 2008 Pärn was engaged as at the Vanemuine theatre in Tartu where she performed in roles as both an actress and in musical productions; some of her more memorable roles at the Vanemuine include: Peemont, in a production of Mikhail Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita. In 2010, Katrin Pärn appeared at the Tartu New Theatre in a production of the Ivar Põllu penned and directed Ird, K. about controversial Estonian theatre actor and stage pedagogue Kaarel Ird.

For her performance, Pärn would be nominated for Best Actress by the Estonian Theatre Union. Katrin Pärn made her television debut as an actress in 2007 on an episode of the Eesti Televisioon crime-drama series Ohtlik lend, she would go on to make appearances in several popular Estonian series such as the Kanal 2 crime-drama Kelgukoerad in 2010. In 2016, Pärn made her feature-length film debut in a supporting role as Maret in the Mart Kivastik directed comedy-drama Õnn tuleb magades for Kopli Kinokompanii and Vintage Pictures, starring Katariina Unt and Ivo Ukkivi. Apart from acting, Pärn is the lead vocalist of the folk-pop band Külm Mai; the band has released one album, Igasugused, in 2006. Katrin Parn is in a long-term relationship with partner Kaur Mägi; the couple have a son and reside in Tallinn. Katrin Pärn on IMDb

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta or delta known as NR1C2 is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARD gene. This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family, it was first identified in Xenopus in 1993. PPARδ is a nuclear hormone receptor that governs a variety of biological processes and may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, obesity and cancer. In muscle PPAR-β/δ expression is increased by exercise, resulting in increased oxidative capacity and an increase in type I fibers. Both PPAR-β/δ and AMPK agonists are regarded as exercise mimetics. In adipose tissue PPAR-β/δ increases both oxidation as well as uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. PPARδ may function as an integrator of transcription repression and nuclear receptor signaling, it activates transcription of a variety of target genes by binding to specific DNA elements. Well described target genes of PPARδ include PDK4, ANGPTL4, PLIN2, CD36.

The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by adenomatosis polyposis coli, a tumor suppressor protein involved in the APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, epidermal cell proliferation, glucose and lipid metabolism; this protein has been shown to be involved in differentiation, lipid accumulation, directional sensing and migration in keratinocytes. Studies into the role of PPARδ in cancer have produced contradictory results and there is no scientific consensus on whether it promotes or prevents cancer formation. Several high affinity ligands for PPARδ have been developed, including GW501516 and GW0742, which play an important role in research. In one study utilizing such a ligand, it has been shown that agonism of PPARδ changes the body's fuel preference from glucose to lipids. PPARδ is expressed in many tissues, including colon, small intestine and keratinocytes, as well as in heart, skeletal muscle, lung and thymus.

Knockout mice lacking the ligand binding domain of PPARδ are viable. However, these mice are smaller than the wild type both postnatally. In addition, fat stores in the gonads of the mutants are smaller; the mutants display increased epidermal hyperplasia upon induction with TPA. PPARδ is activated in the cell by fatty acid derivatives. Examples of occurring fatty acids that bind with and activate PPAR delta include arachidonic acid and certain members of the 15-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid family of arachidonic acid metabolites including 15-HETE, 15-HETE, 15-HpETE. Several synthetic ligands have been identified that selectively bind PPARδ. GW501516 GW0742 Telmisartan Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta has been shown to interact with HDAC3 and NCOR2. PPAR+delta at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain

1972 Rugby League World Cup squads

This is a list of the teams which took part at the 1972 Rugby League World Cup. Coach: Harry Bath Graeme Langlands fullback from St. George Arthur Beetson, prop/second row forward from Eastern Suburbs Ray Branighan, centre/wing from Manly-Warringah Bob Fulton, five-eight/centre form Manly-Warringah John Elford, second row forward from Western Suburbs John Grant, centre/wing/fullback from South Brisbane Mark Harris, centre/wing from Eastern Suburbs Fred Jones, hooker from Manly-Warringah Stephen Knight, centre/wing from Western Suburbs Bob McCarthy, second row forward from South Sydney John O'Neill, prop-forward from Manly-Warringah Bob O'Reilly, prop forward from Parramatta Tommy Raudonikis, half-back from Western Suburbs Paul Sait, centre/lock/second row from South Sydney Geoff Starling, centre/wing/fullback from Balmain Gary Stevens, second row forward from South Sydney Gary Sullivan, lock forward from Newtown Dennis Ward, half-back from Manly-Warringah Elwyn Walters, hooker from South Sydney Francis de Nadai Michel Anglade Jean-Marie Bonal Jacques Franc Marius Frattini Jacques Garzino Serge Gleize Bernard Guilhem Jacky Imbert Serge Marsolan Michel Mazaré Michel Molinier Guy Rodriguez André Ruiz Jean-Paul Sauret Victor Serrano Roger Toujas Charles Zalduendo Coach: Jim Challinor Clive Sullivan, wing from Hull John Atkinson, wing from Leeds Paul Charlton, fullback from Salford Terry Clawson, prop/second row forward from Leeds Colin Dixon, second row/loose forward from Salford Chris Hesketh, centre/stand-off from Salford John Holmes, stand-off from Leeds Robert Irving, second row forward from Oldham David Jeanes, prop forward from Leeds Tony Karalius, hooker from St. Helens Brian Lockwood, second row forward from Castleford Phil Lowe, second row forward from Hull Kingston Rovers Steve Nash, scrum half from Featherstone Rovers George Nicholls, loose forward from Widnes Dennis O'Neill, stand-off from Widnes David Redfearn, wing from Bradford Northern Mike Stephenson, hooker from Dewsbury John Walsh, utility back from St. Helens Coach:Des Barchard Roy Christian Mocky Brereton Bill Burgoyne Tony Coll Warren Collicoat Graeme Cooksley Murray Eade Doug Gailey Peter Gurnick Don Mann Mita Mohi John O'Sullivan Phillip Orchard Bob Paul Brian Tracey Rodney Walker John Whittaker Dennis Williams John Wilson World Cup 1972 at Rugby League Project