Machinima is the use of real-time computer graphics engines to create a cinematic production. Most video games are used to generate the computer animation. Machinima-based artists, sometimes called machinimists or machinimators, are fan laborers, by virtue of their re-use of copyrighted materials. Machinima offers to provide an archive of gaming performance and access to the look and feel of software and hardware that may have become unavailable or obsolete. For game studies, "Machinima’s gestures grant access to gaming's historical conditions of possibility and how machinima offers links to a comparative horizon that informs and participates in videogame culture."The practice of using graphics engines from video games arose from the animated software introductions of the 1980s demoscene, Disney Interactive Studios' 1992 video game Stunt Island, 1990s recordings of gameplay in first-person shooter video games, such as id Software's Doom and Quake. These recordings documented speedruns—attempts to complete a level as as possible—and multiplayer matches.

The addition of storylines to these films created "Quake movies". The more general term machinima, a blend of machine and cinema, arose when the concept spread beyond the Quake series to other games and software. After this generalization, machinima appeared in mainstream media, including television series and advertisements. Machinima has disadvantages when compared to other styles of filmmaking, its relative simplicity over traditional frame-based animation limits control and range of expression. Its real-time nature favors speed, cost saving, flexibility over the higher quality of pre-rendered computer animation. Virtual acting is less expensive and physically restricted than live action. Machinima can be filmed by relying on in-game artificial intelligence or by controlling characters and cameras through digital puppetry. Scenes can be scripted, can be manipulated during post-production using video editing techniques. Editing, custom software, creative cinematography may address technical limitations.

Game companies have provided software for and have encouraged machinima, but the widespread use of digital assets from copyrighted games has resulted in complex, unresolved legal issues. Machinima productions can remain close to their gaming roots and feature stunts or other portrayals of gameplay. Popular genres include dance videos and drama. Alternatively, some filmmakers attempt to stretch the boundaries of the rendering engines or to mask the original 3-D context; the Academy of Machinima Arts & Sciences, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting machinima, recognizes exemplary productions through Mackie awards given at its annual Machinima Film Festival. Some general film festivals accept machinima, game companies, such as Epic Games, Blizzard Entertainment and Jagex, have sponsored contests involving it. 1980s software crackers added custom introductory credits sequences to programs whose copy protection they had removed. Increasing computing power allowed for more complex intros, the demoscene formed when focus shifted to the intros instead of the cracks.

The goal became to create the best 3-D demos in real-time with the least amount of software code. Disk storage was too slow for this, so graphics had to be calculated on the fly and without a pre-existing game engine. In Disney Interactive Studios' 1992 computer game Stunt Island, users could stage and play back stunts; as Nitsche stated, the game's goal was "not... a high score but a spectacle." Released the following year, id Software's Doom included the ability to record gameplay as sequences of events that the game engine could replay in real-time. Because events and not video frames were saved, the resulting game demo files were small and shared among players. A culture of recording gameplay developed, as Henry Lowood of Stanford University called it, "a context for spectatorship.... The result was nothing less than a metamorphosis of the player into a performer." Another important feature of Doom was that it allowed players to create their own modifications and software for the game, thus expanding the concept of game authorship.

In machinima, there is a dual register of gestures: the trained motions of the player determine the in-game images of expressive motion. In parallel of the video game approach, in the media art field, Maurice Benayoun’s Virtual Reality artwork The Tunnel under the Atlantic compared to video games, introduced a virtual film director autonomous intelligent agent, to shoot and edit in real time a full video from the digging performance in the Pompidou Center in Paris and the Museum of Contemporary art in Montreal; the full movie, Inside the Tunnel under the Atlantic, 21h long, was followed in 1997 by Inside the Paris New-Delhi Tunnel. Only short excerpts where presented to the public; the complex behavior of the Tunnel’s virtual director makes it a significant precursor of application to video games based machinimas. Doom's 1996 successor, offered new opportunities for both gameplay and customization, while retaining the ability to record demos. Multiplayer video games became popular, demos of matches between teams of players were recorded and studied.

Paul Marino, executive director of the AMAS, stated that deathmatches, a type of multiplayer game, became more "cinematic". At this point, they still documented gameplay without a narrative. On October 26, 1996, a well-known gaming clan, the Rangers, surprised the Quake community with Diary of a Camper, the first known machinima film; this short, 100-second demo file contained the action and gore of many others, but in the con


Tonyukuk was the baga-tarkhan and adviser of four successive Göktürk khagans - Elteriš Qaγan, Qapγan Qaγan, İnäl Qaγan and Bilgä Qaγan. He conducted victorious campaigns against various Turkic and non-Turkic steppe peoples, such as Tôlis, Toquz Oguz, Yenisei Kyrgyz, Thirty Tatar and Tatabi as well as China; the name is spelled as t-o-ň-uq-uq in the Old Turkic script, variously interpreted as Tunuquq, Tuj-uquq, Tony Yuguq, Tujun-oq, with a number of suggestions for its etymology. In Old Turkic he is written as Tuniq-Oq. Tunuk means "clear, abyss, who reached the depth" or "pure, penetrative", uq or oq means "idea, well-informed". Thus, Tonuquq is the owner of pure idea, his title "Bilge" means master. According to Klyashtorny, "tonyuquq" is derived from the verb "yoq/yuq" meaning "to hide, to protect" and it was used in Uyghur legal documents. Thus, the name means "hidden, protected thing, treasure, jewelry". Jean-Paul Roux suggested a rather bizarre idea and explains the word as "with oiled dress", discussing the culinary culture of the Mongols and suggesting that they had dirty and stained clothes.

He was born near Tuul River in Ashide tribe. He fled Tang in 679 and joined Elteriš in 681. I myself, wise Tonyukuk, born in Tabgach country. Turkic people was under Tabgach subjection. Old Turkic::::::::::::‎, romanized: Bilgä Toñuquq bän özüm Tabγač eliŋä qılıntım Türk bodun Tabγačqa körür ärti. Chinese sources state that Tonyuquq's name was Yuanzhen, he learned all Chinese traditions and was aware of the gaps in the borders and the Chinese wall. While he was supervising the surrendered clans in Chanyü military governorship, he was dismissed and jailed by the military governor Changshih. Although he lost early wars against Xue Rengui, he was formidable force in establishing Turkic Khaganate. In 687, another invasion of Tang by Elteriš and Ashide Yuanzhen began. Empress Dowager Wu commissioned the ethnically Baekje general Heichi Changzhi, assisted by Li Duozuo, to defend against Turkic attack and they were able to defeat Turk forces at Huanghuadui causing Turk forces to flee. In 703, he was sent by qaγan for marriage proposal to China.

Wu Zetian accepted the proposal, in exchange. However, Emperor Zhongzhong's accession changed political climate. Marriage was cancelled. In 712, he commanded Tujue army during Battle of Bolchu, he was not in active politics during Inäl's reign. Although Mihaly Dobrovits believes he accepted him as legitimate ruler. In 716 he was appointed to be Master Strategist by his son-in-law Bilgä Qaγan. Chinese sources state, Bilgä Qaγan wanted establish cities and temples. However, Tonyukuk discouraged him from this by pointing out that their nomadic lifestyle was what made them a greater military power when compared to Tang dynasty. While Turks' power rested on their mobility, conversion to Buddhism would bring pacifism among population; therefore sticking to Tengriism was necessary to survive. In 720 Tang chancellor Wang Jun proposed a plan to attack Bilgä Qaγan along with the Baximi, Xi, Khitan. Emperor Xuanzong recruited Qapγan Qaγan's sons Bilgä Tegin and Mo Tegin, Yenisei Kyrgyz Qaγan Qutluğ Bilgä Qaγan and Huoba Guiren to fight against Tujue.

Tonyukuk cunningly launched first attack on Baximi in 721 autumn crushing them. Meanwhile Bilgä raided Gansu, taking much of the livestock; that year Khitans, next year Xi were crushed. He died around 726, he was father to Eletmiš Bilgä Qatun and a father-in-law to Bilgä Qaγan, thus a grandfather to Yollïg and Teŋrï Qaγans. His biography and advice for state administration were carved in the so-called Orkhon-Turkic script on two stele erected around 716 at a site known as Bayn Tsokto, in Ulaanbataar's Nalaikh district, he was mentioned and remembered in some Uyghur Manichaean texts in Qocho. Yuan era Uyghur official Xie Wenzhi, as well as Korean Gyeongju Seol clan claimed descent from Tonyukuk. Portrayed by Kim Seong-hun in the 2006-2007 KBS TV series Dae Jo Yeong. E. Denison Ross, The Tonyukuk Inscription, Being a Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's final Danish Rendering, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, 1930. Nathan Light. An 8th Century Turkic Narrative: Pragmatics, Reported Speech and Managing Information.

Turkic languages. 10.2, 2006. Pp 155–186. Tonyukuk Inscriptions complete text Tonyukuk’s Memorial Complex, Language Committee of Ministry of Culture and Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Larry Drebes

Larry Drebes is an American businessman and the co-founder of Janrain, Four11 Corporation, He was an early leader of the OpenID initiative, supported by Google, Yahoo!, other providers of online identity. In 1992, Drebes was a co-founder and Chief Technology Officer of Four11 Corporation, the parent company of Rocketmail, an early webmail provider. Four11 was acquired by Yahoo in October 1997 for $97 million, RocketMail became Yahoo! Mail. Drebes founded in 1999 " Secures $29M in First-Round Financing". InternetNews. and secured $29 million in financing. The company was shut down in 2001 after giving back about half the venture capital. In 2002, Drebes began working with the early proponents of the OpenID protocol. In response to his work, he founded Janrain in 2002 to build software for user management based on OpenID; the company is best known for its social ID login technology, which allows users of Facebook and many other social networks to log into any web site using established social IDs.

Janrain has received over $79 million in venture capital funding, including $15.5 million in 2011 $33 million in 2013 and $27 million in 2015. Drebes was born in St. Louis, he graduated from St. Paul's School and earned a BS in Marketing from Maryville University. Drebes is married to Karen Drebes and has three children