Apple Desktop Bus
Apple Desktop Bus is a proprietary bit-serial peripheral bus connecting low-speed devices to computers. It was introduced on the Apple IIGS in 1986 as a way to support low-cost devices like keyboards and mice, allowing them to be connected together in a daisy chain without the need for hubs or other devices. Apple Device Bus was introduced on Macintosh models, on models of NeXT computers, saw some other third-party use as well. Like the similar PS/2 connector used in many PC-compatibles at the time, Apple Desktop Bus was replaced by USB as that system became popular in the late 1990s. Early during the creation of the Macintosh computer, the engineering team had selected the sophisticated Zilog 8530 to supply serial communications; this was done to allow multiple devices to be plugged into a single port, using simple networking protocols implemented inside the 8530 to allow them to send and receive data with the host computer. During development of this AppleBus system, computer networking became a vitally important feature of any computer system.
With no card slots, the Macintosh was unable to add support for Ethernet or similar local area networking standards. Work on AppleBus was re-directed to networking purposes, was released in 1985 as the AppleTalk system; this left the Mac with the original single-purpose mouse and keyboard ports, no general-purpose system for low-speed devices to use. Apple Desktop Bus was created by Steve Wozniak, looking for a project to work on in the mid-1980s. Someone suggested that he should create a new connection system for devices like mice and keyboards, one that would require only a single daisy-chained cable, be inexpensive to implement; the first system to use Apple Desktop Bus is the Apple IIGS of 1986. It is used on all Apple Macintosh machines starting with the Macintosh II and Macintosh SE. Apple Desktop Bus is used on models of NeXT computers; the vast majority of Apple Desktop Bus devices are for input, including trackballs, graphics tablets and similar devices. Special-purpose uses include software protection dongles and the TelePort modem.
The first Macintosh to move on from Apple Desktop Bus was the iMac in 1998, which uses USB in its place. The last Apple computer to have an Apple Desktop Bus port is the Power Macintosh G3 in 1999. PowerPC-based PowerBooks and iBooks still use the Apple Desktop Bus protocol in the internal interface with the built-in keyboard and touchpad. Subsequent models use a USB-based trackpad. In keeping with Apple's general philosophy of industrial design, Apple Desktop Bus was intended to be as simple to use as possible, while still being inexpensive to implement. A suitable connector was found in the form of the 4-pin mini-DIN connector, used for S-Video; the connectors are small available, can only be inserted the "correct way". They do not lock into position, but with a friction fit they are firm enough for light duties like those intended for Apple Desktop Bus. Apple Desktop Bus protocol requires only a single pin for data, labeled Apple Desktop Bus. Two of the other pins are used for ground; the +5 V pin guarantees at least 500 mA, requires devices to use only 100 mA each.
ADB includes the PSW pin, attached directly to the power supply of the host computer. This is included to allow a key on the keyboard to start up the machine without needing the Apple Desktop Bus software to interpret the signal. In more modern designs, an auxiliary microcontroller is always kept running, so it is economical to use a power-up command over the standard USB channel. Most serial digital interfaces use a separate clock pin to signal the arrival of individual bits of data. However, Wozniak decided. Like modems, the system locks onto fall times to recreate a clock signal; the decoding transceiver ASIC as well as associated patents were controlled by Apple. In the Macintosh SE, the Apple Desktop Bus is implemented in an Apple-branded Microchip PIC16CR54 Microcontroller; the Apple Desktop Bus system is based around the devices having the ability to decode a single number and being able to hold several small bits of data. All traffic on the bus is driven by the host computer, which sends out commands to read or write data: devices are not allowed to use the bus unless the computer first requests it.
These requests take the form of single-byte strings. The upper four bits contain the ID of one of the devices on the chain; the four bits allow for up to 16 devices on a single bus. The next two bits specify one of four commands, the final two bits indicate one of four registers; the commands are: talk - send the contents of a register to the computer listen - set the register to the following number flush - clear the contents of the register reset - tell everyone on the bus to resetFor instance, if the mouse is known to be at address $D, the computer will periodically send out a message on the bus that looks something like: 1101 11 00 This says that device $D should talk and return the contents of register zero. To a mouse this means "tell me the latest position changes". Registers can contain between eight bytes. Register zero is the primary communications channel. Registers one and two are undefined, are intended to allow 3rd party developers to store configuration information
Silicon Graphics, Inc. was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software. Founded in Mountain View, California in November 1981 by Jim Clark, its initial market was 3D graphics computer workstations, but its products and market positions developed over time. Early systems were based on the Geometry Engine that Clark and Marc Hannah had developed at Stanford University, were derived from Clark's broader background in computer graphics; the Geometry Engine was the first very-large-scale integration implementation of a geometry pipeline, specialized hardware that accelerated the "inner-loop" geometric computations needed to display three-dimensional images. For much of its history, the company focused on 3D imaging and was a major supplier of both hardware and software in this market. Silicon Graphics reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in January 1990. Through the mid to late-1990s, the improving performance of commodity Wintel machines began to erode SGI's stronghold in the 3D market.
The porting of Maya to other platforms is a major event in this process. SGI made several attempts to address this, including a disastrous move from their existing MIPS platforms to the Intel Itanium, as well as introducing their own Linux-based Intel IA-32 based workstations and servers that failed in the market. In the mid-2000s the company repositioned itself as a supercomputer vendor, a move that failed. On April 1, 2009, SGI filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and announced that it would sell all of its assets to Rackable Systems, a deal finalized on May 11, 2009, with Rackable assuming the name Silicon Graphics International; the remains of Silicon Graphics, Inc. became Graphics Properties Holdings, Inc. James H. Clark left his position as an electrical engineering associate professor at Stanford University to found SGI in 1982 along with a group of seven graduate students and research staff from Stanford: Kurt Akeley, David J. Brown, Tom Davis, Rocky Rhodes, Marc Hannah, Herb Kuta, Mark Grossman.
Ed McCracken was CEO of Silicon Graphics from 1984 to 1997. During those years, SGI grew from annual revenues of $5.4 million to $3.7 billion. The addition of 3D graphic capabilities to PCs, the ability of clusters of Linux- and BSD-based PCs to take on many of the tasks of larger SGI servers, ate into SGI's core markets; the porting of Maya to Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows further eroded the low end of SGI's product line. In response to challenges faced in the marketplace and a falling share price Ed McCracken was fired and SGI brought in Richard Belluzzo to replace him. Under Belluzzo's leadership a number of initiatives were taken which are considered to have accelerated the corporate decline. One such initiative was trying to sell workstations running Windows NT called Visual Workstations instead of just ones which ran IRIX, the company's version of UNIX; this put the company in more direct competition with the likes of Dell, making it more difficult to justify a price premium. The product line abandoned a few years later.
SGI's premature announcement of its migration from MIPS to Itanium and its abortive ventures into IA-32 architecture systems damaged SGI's credibility in the market. In 1999, in an attempt to clarify their current market position as more than a graphics company, Silicon Graphics Inc. changed its corporate identity to "SGI", although its legal name was unchanged. At the same time, SGI announced a new logo consisting of only the letters "sgi" in a proprietary font called "SGI", created by branding and design consulting firm Landor Associates, in collaboration with designer Joe Stitzlein. SGI continued to use the "Silicon Graphics" name for its workstation product line, re-adopted the cube logo for some workstation models. In November 2005, SGI announced that it had been delisted from the New York Stock Exchange because its common stock had fallen below the minimum share price for listing on the exchange. SGI's market capitalization dwindled from a peak of over seven billion dollars in 1995 to just $120 million at the time of delisting.
In February 2006, SGI noted. In mid-2005, SGI hired Alix Partners to advise it on returning to profitability and received a new line of credit. SGI announced it was postponing its scheduled annual December stockholders meeting until March 2006, it proposed a reverse stock split to deal with the de-listing from the New York Stock Exchange. In January 2006, SGI hired Dennis McKenna as its new chairman of the board of directors. Mr. McKenna succeeded Robert Bishop. On May 8, 2006, SGI announced that it had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection for itself and U. S. subsidiaries as part of a plan to reduce debt by $250 million. Two days the U. S. Bankruptcy Court approved its first day motions and its use of a $70 million financing facility provided by a group of its bondholders. Foreign subsidiaries were unaffected. On September 6, 2006, SGI announced the end of development for the MIPS/IRIX line and the IRIX operating system. Production would end on December 29 and the last orders would be fulfilled by March 2007.
Support for these products would end after December 2013. SGI emerged from bankruptcy protection on October 17, 2006, its stock symbol at that point, SGID.pk, was canceled, new stock was issued on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol SGIC. This new stock was distributed to the company's creditors, the SGID common stockh
A drive bay is a standard-sized area for adding hardware to a computer. Most drive bays are fixed to the inside of a case. Over the years since the introduction of the IBM PC, it and its compatibles have had many form factors of drive bays. Four form factors are in the 5.25 ″, 3.5 ″, 2.5 ″ or 1.8 ″ drive bays. These names do not refer to the width of the bay itself, but rather to the width of the disks used by the drives mounted in these bays. 8.0″ drive bays were found in early IBM computers, CP/M computers, the TRS-80 Model II. They were 4.624″ high by 9.5″ wide, 14.25″ deep, used for hard disk drives and floppy disk drives. This form factor is obsolete. Full-height bays were found in old PCs in the early to mid-1980s, they were 3.25″ high by 5.75″ wide, up to 8″ deep, used for hard disk drives and floppy disk drives. This is the size of the internal part of the bay, as the front side is 5.875″. The difference between those widths and the name of the bay size is because it is named after the size of floppy that would fit in those drives, a 5.25″-wide square.
Half-height drive bays are 1.625″ high by 5.75″ wide, are the standard housing for CD and DVD drives in modern computers, but were sometimes used for other things in the past, including hard disk drives and floppy disk drives. As the name indicates, two half-height devices can fit in one full-height bay. Represented as 5.25-inch, these floppy disk drives are obsolete. The dimensions of a 5.25″ floppy drive are specified in the SFF standard specifications which were incorporated into the EIA-741 "Specification for Small Form Factor 133.35 mm Disk Drives" by the Electronic Industries Association. Dimensions of 5.25 optical drives are specified in the SFF standard. 3.5″ bays, like their larger counterparts, are named after diskette dimensions. Those with an opening in the front of the case are used for floppy or Zip drives. Hard drives in modern computers are mounted in internal 4″ bays. Most modern computers do not come with an internal floppy drive at all and lack any externally accessible 3.5″ bays.
There are adapters, sometimes called a "sled", which can be used to mount a 3.5″ device in a 5.25″ bay. More it is becoming common to use 3.5″ bays for smart card and memory card readers, or for panels with additional USB ports. The dimensions of a 3.5″ drive are specified in the SFF standard specifications SFF-8300 and SFF-8301 which were incorporated into the EIA-740 specification by the Electronic Industries Association. For 2.5 ″ bays, actual dimensions are 2.75 ″ wide by 0.197 to 0.750 ″ 3.955 ″ deep. However most laptops have drive bays smaller than the 15 mm specification. 2.5″ hard drives may range from 7 mm to 15 mm in height, there are two sizes that appear to be prominent. 9.51 mm size drives are predominantly used by laptop manufacturers, however at present 2.5″ Velociraptor and some higher capacity drives, are 15 mm in height. The greater height of the 15 mm drives allow more platters and therefore greater data capacities. Many laptop drive bays are designed to be removable trays in which the drives are mounted, to ease removal and replacement.
The dimensions of a 2.5″ drive are specified in the SFF standard specifications SFF-8200 and SFF-8201 which were incorporated into the EIA-720 specification by the Electronic Industries Association. 1.8″ bays have two specifications, a 60 mm × 70 mm form factor, a 54 mm × 78 mm form factor. The actual dimensions of the 60 mm × 70 mm are 2.75 ″ wide by 0.276 -- 2.362 ″ deep. The actual dimensions of the 54 mm × 78 mm are 0.315 ″ high and 3.091 ″ deep. These drives have been used in small devices including as add-ons to game systems; the dimensions of a 1.8″ drive are specified in the SFF standard specifications SFF-8111 and SFF-8120 which were incorporated into the EIA-720 specification by the Electronic Industries Association. Drive bays are most used to store disk drives, although they can be used for front-end USB ports, I/O bays, card readers, fan controllers, RAID controllers, tool storage, other uses; some computers have a small system. When installing a drive in a bay, it is secured with four screws that hold the drive in the bay, although toolless fasteners are becoming more common.
Any necessary power, data transfer, other cables are routed into and connected to the rear of the drive. The drive bay is just big enough for the drive to fit inside. Since computers have 12 V rails on their motherboards, some computer hobbyist websites sell addons for cigarette lighter receptacles to power or recharge devices made to draw power from automobiles, though USB is available for charging devices like cell phones and portable media players. Drive bay-compatible computer case accessories that do not connect to the motherboard or power supply at all are common, such as small storage drawers or cup holders. Device Bay
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus. An expansion bus is a computer bus which moves information between the internal hardware of a computer system and peripheral devices, it is a collection of protocols that allows for the expansion of a computer. Vacuum-tube based computers had modular construction, but individual functions for peripheral devices filled a cabinet, not just a printed circuit board. Processor, memory and I/O cards became feasible with the development of integrated circuits. Expansion cards allowed a processor system to be adapted to the needs of the user, allowing variations in the type of devices connected, additions to memory, or optional features to the central processor. Minicomputers, starting with the PDP-8, were made of multiple cards, all powered by and communicating through a passive backplane.
The first commercial microcomputer to feature expansion slots was the Micral N, in 1973. The first company to establish a de facto standard was the Altair 8800, developed 1974-1975, which became a multi-manufacturer standard, the S-100 bus. Many of these computers were passive backplane designs, where all elements of the computer, plugged into a card cage which passively distributed signals and power between the cards. Proprietary bus implementations for systems such as the Apple II co-existed with multi-manufacturer standards. IBM introduced what would retroactively be called the Industry Standard Architecture bus with the IBM PC in 1981. At that time, the technology was called the PC bus; the IBM XT, introduced in 1983, used the same bus. The 8-bit PC and XT bus was extended with the introduction of the IBM AT in 1984; this used a second connector for extending the address and data bus over the XT, but was backward compatible. Industry Standard Architecture became the designation for the IBM AT bus after other types were developed.
Users of the ISA bus had to have in-depth knowledge of the hardware they were adding to properly connect the devices, since memory addresses, I/O port addresses, DMA channels had to be configured by switches or jumpers on the card to match the settings in driver software. IBM's MCA bus, developed for the PS/2 in 1987, was a competitor to ISA their design, but fell out of favor due to the ISA's industry-wide acceptance and IBM's licensing of MCA. EISA, the 32-bit extended version of ISA championed by Compaq, was used on some PC motherboards until 1997, when Microsoft declared it a "legacy" subsystem in the PC 97 industry white-paper. Proprietary local buses and the VESA Local Bus Standard, were late 1980s expansion buses that were tied but not exclusive to the 80386 and 80486 CPU bus; the PC/104 bus is an embedded bus. Intel launched their PCI bus chipsets along with the P5-based Pentium CPUs in 1993; the PCI bus was introduced in 1991 as a replacement for ISA. The standard is found on PC motherboards to this day.
The PCI standard supports bus bridging: as many as ten daisy chained PCI buses have been tested. Cardbus, using the PCMCIA connector, is a PCI format that attaches peripherals to the Host PCI Bus via PCI to PCI Bridge. Cardbus is being supplanted by ExpressCard format. Intel introduced the AGP bus in 1997 as a dedicated video acceleration solution. AGP devices are logically attached to the PCI bus over a PCI-to-PCI bridge. Though termed a bus, AGP supports only a single card at a time. From 2005 PCI-Express has been replacing both PCI and AGP; this standard, approved in 2004, implements the logical PCI protocol over a serial communication interface. PC/104 or Mini PCI are added for expansion on small form factor boards such as Mini-ITX. For their 1000 EX and 1000 HX models, Tandy Computer designed the PLUS expansion interface, an adaptation of the XT-bus supporting cards of a smaller form factor; because it is electrically compatible with the XT bus, a passive adapter can be made to connect XT cards to a PLUS expansion connector.
Another feature of PLUS cards is. Another bus that offered stackable expansion modules was the "sidecar" bus used by the IBM PCjr; this may have been electrically comparable to the XT bus. Again, PCjr sidecars are not technically expansion cards, but expansion modules, with the only difference being that the sidecar is an expansion card enclosed in a plastic box. Most other computer lines, including those from Apple Inc. Tandy, Commodore and Atari, offered their own expansion buses; the Amiga used Zorro II. Apple used a proprietary system with seven 50-pin-slots for Apple II peripheral cards later used the NuBus for its Macintosh series until 1995, when they switched to a PCI Bus. PCI expansion cards will function on any CPU platform if there is a software driver for that type. PCI video cards and other cards that contain a BIOS are problematic, although video cards conforming to VESA Standards may be used for secondary monitors. DEC Alpha, IBM PowerPC, NEC MIPS workstations used PCI bus connectors.
Steven Paul Jobs was an American business magnate and investor. He was the chairman, chief executive officer, co-founder of Apple Inc.. Jobs is recognized as a pioneer of the microcomputer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s, along with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak. Jobs was born in San Francisco and put up for adoption, he was raised in the San Francisco Bay Area. He attended Reed College in 1972 before dropping out that same year, traveled through India in 1974 seeking enlightenment and studying Zen Buddhism, his declassified FBI report states that he used marijuana and LSD while he was in college, once told a reporter that taking LSD was "one of the two or three most important things" he had done in his life. Jobs and Wozniak co-founded Apple in 1976 to sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer. Together the duo gained fame and wealth a year with the Apple II, one of the first successful mass-produced personal computers. Jobs saw the commercial potential of the Xerox Alto in 1979, mouse-driven and had a graphical user interface.
This led to development of the unsuccessful Apple Lisa in 1983, followed by the breakthrough Macintosh in 1984, the first mass-produced computer with a GUI. The Macintosh introduced the desktop publishing industry in 1985 with the addition of the Apple LaserWriter, the first laser printer to feature vector graphics. Jobs was forced out of Apple in 1985 after a long power struggle with the company's board and its then-CEO John Sculley; that same year, Jobs took a few of Apple's members with him to found NeXT, a computer platform development company that specialized in computers for higher-education and business markets. In addition, he helped to develop the visual effects industry when he funded the computer graphics division of George Lucas's Lucasfilm in 1986; the new company was Pixar. Apple merged with NeXT in 1997, Jobs became CEO of his former company within a few months, he was responsible for helping revive Apple, at the verge of bankruptcy. He worked with designer Jony Ive to develop a line of products that had larger cultural ramifications, beginning in 1997 with the "Think different" advertising campaign and leading to the iMac, iTunes, iTunes Store, Apple Store, iPod, iPhone, App Store, the iPad.
In 2001, the original Mac OS was replaced with a new Mac OS X, based on NeXT's NeXTSTEP platform, giving the OS a modern Unix-based foundation for the first time. Jobs was diagnosed with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in 2003, he died of respiratory arrest related to the tumor at age 56 on October 5, 2011. Steven Paul Jobs was born on February 24, 1955, to Abdulfattah Jandali and Joanne Schieble, was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs, his biological father, Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, grew up in Homs and was born into an Arab Muslim household. Jandali is the son of a self-made millionaire who did not go to college and a mother, a traditional housewife. While an undergraduate at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, he was a student activist and spent time in jail for his political activities. Although Jandali wanted to study law, he decided to study economics and political science, he pursued a PhD in the latter subject at the University of Wisconsin, where he met Joanne Carole Schieble, a Catholic of Swiss and German descent, who grew up on a farm in Wisconsin.
As a doctoral candidate, Jandali was a teaching assistant for a course Schieble was taking, although both were the same age. Mona Simpson, Jobs's biological sister, notes that her maternal grandparents were not happy that their daughter was dating Jandali: "it wasn't that he was Middle-Eastern so much as that he was a Muslim, but there are a lot of Arabs in Wisconsin. So it's not that unusual." Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs's official biographer, additionally states that Schieble's father "threatened to cut Joanne off completely" if she continued the relationship. Jobs's adoptive father, Paul Reinhold Jobs, grew up in a Calvinist household, the son of an "alcoholic and sometimes abusive" father; the family lived on a farm in Wisconsin. Paul bore an ostensible resemblance to James Dean, he joined the United States Coast Guard as an engine-room machinist. After World War II, Paul Jobs decided to leave the Coast Guard when his ship docked in San Francisco, he made a bet that he would find his wife in San Francisco and promptly went on a blind date with Clara Hagopian.
They were engaged ten days and married in 1946. Clara, the daughter of Armenian immigrants, grew up in San Francisco and had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. After a series of moves and Clara settled in San Francisco's Sunset District in 1952; as a hobby, Paul Jobs rebuilt cars, but his career was as a "repo man", which suited his "aggressive, tough personality." Meanwhile, their attempts to start a family were halted after Clara had an ectopic pregnancy, leading them to consider adoption in 1955. Schieble became pregnant with Jobs in 1954 when she and Jandali spent the summer with his family in Homs, Syria. Jandali has stated that he "was much in love with Joanne... but sadly, her father was a tyrant, forbade her to marry me, as I was from Syria. And so she told me she wanted to give the ba