The Macintosh LC is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1990 to March 1992. The first in the Macintosh LC family, the LC was introduced with the Macintosh Classic and the Macintosh IIsi, offered for half the price the of Macintosh II but lesser in performance overall; the creation of the LC was prompted by Apple's desire to produce a product that could be sold to school boards for the same price as an Apple IIGS. It was designed for inexpensive manufacturing, with five major components that robots could assemble; the computer had a $2400 list price. Not long after the Apple IIe Card was introduced for the LC, Apple announced the retirement of the IIGS, as the company wanted to focus its sales and marketing efforts on the LC; the original Macintosh LC was introduced on October 1990, with initial shipments to dealers following in December and January. It was replaced by Macintosh LC II, the same but was built around a Motorola 68030 processor; the LC uses a "pizza box" case with a Processor Direct Slot but no NuBus slots.
It has a 16 MHz 68020 microprocessor. The LC has a 16-bit data bus, a major performance bottleneck as the 68020 is a 32-bit CPU; the LC's memory management chipset places a limit of 10 MB RAM no matter. The LC shipped with 256 kB of VRAM, supporting a display resolution of 512×384 pixels at 8-bit color; the VRAM is upgradeable to 512 kB, supporting a display resolution of 512×384 pixels at 16-bit color or 640×480 pixels at 8-bit color. The LC was purchased with an Apple 12" RGB monitor which had a fixed resolution of 512×384 pixels and a form factor matching the width of the LC chassis, giving the two together a near all-in-one appearance. An Apple 13" 640×480 Trinitron display was available, but at a list price of $999, it cost as much as the LC itself; until the introduction of the LC, the lowest resolution supported on color Macs had been 640×480. Many programs written for color Macintosh II family computers had assumed this as a minimum, some were unusable at the lower resolution. For several years software developers had to add support for this smaller screen resolution in order to guarantee that their software would run on LCs.
Overall, general performance of the machine was disappointing due to the crippling data bus bottleneck, making it run far slower than the 16 MHz 68020-based Macintosh II from 1987, which had an identical processor but ran twice as fast. One difference between the Mac II and the Mac LC is the latter had no socket for a 68851 MMU. Therefore, it could not take advantage of System 7's virtual memory features; the standard configuration included a floppy drive and a 40 MB or 80 MB hard drive, but a version was available for the education market which had an Apple II card in the PDS slot, two floppy drives, no hard drive. The LC was the final Macintosh model to allow for dual internal floppy drives; the LC, as with other Macs of the day, featured built-in networking on the serial port using LocalTalk. Ethernet was available as an option via the single PDS slot. If the single expansion slot was a limitation, multifunction cards were available combining Ethernet functionality with an MMU or FPU socket.
The Apple IIe Card for the PDS slot was offered in a bundle with education models of the LCs. The card allowed the LC to emulate an Apple IIe; the combination of a low-cost color Macintosh with Apple IIe compatibility was intended to encourage the education market to transition from aging Apple II models to the Macintosh platform instead of to the new low-cost IBM PC compatibles. Despite the LC's minimal video specs with a 12" monitor, any LC that supports the card can be switched into 560×384 resolution for better compatibility with the IIe's 280×192 High-Resolution graphics. Introduced October 15, 1990: Macintosh LC: 2 MB RAM, 40 MB HDD. Apple Macintosh LC Specs at everymac.com. Mac LC at lowendmac.com
The Apple IIe is the third model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer. The e in the name stands for enhanced, referring to the fact that several popular features were now built-in that were only available as upgrades or add-ons in earlier models. Improved expandability combined with the new features made for a attractive general-purpose machine to first-time computer shoppers; as the last surviving model of the Apple II computer line before discontinuation, having been manufactured and sold for nearly 11 years with few changes, the IIe earned the distinction of being the longest-lived computer in Apple's history. Apple Computer planned to discontinue the Apple II series after the introduction of the Apple III in 1980. Management believed that "once the Apple III was out, the Apple II would stop selling in six months", cofounder Steve Wozniak said. By the time IBM released the rival IBM PC in 1981, the Apple II's technology was four years old. In September 1981 InfoWorld reported—below the PC's announcement—that Apple was secretly developing three new computers "to be ready for release within a year": Lisa, "McIntosh", "Diana".
Describing the last as a software-compatible Apple II replacement—"A 6502 machine using custom LSI" and a simpler motherboard—it said that Diana "was ready for release months ago" but decided to improve the design to better compete with the Xerox 820. "Now it appears that when Diana is ready for release, it will offer features and a price that will make the Apple II uncompetitive", the magazine wrote."Apple's plans to phase out the Apple II have been delayed by complications in the design of the Apple III", the article said. After the Apple III struggled, management decided in 1981 that the further continuation of the Apple II was in the company's best interest. After 3 1⁄2 years of the Apple II Plus at a standstill, came the introduction of a new Apple II model — the Apple IIe; the Apple IIe was released in the successor to the Apple II Plus. The Apple IIe was the first Apple computer with a custom ASIC chip, which reduced much of the old discrete IC-based circuitry to a single chip; this change resulted in reducing the size of the motherboard.
Some of the hardware features of the Apple III were borrowed in the design of the Apple IIe, some from incorporating the Apple II Plus Language card. The culmination of these changes led to increased sales and greater market share of home and small business use. One of the most notable improvements of the Apple IIe is the addition of a full ASCII character set and keyboard; the most important addition is the ability to display lower-case letters. Other keyboard improvements include four-way cursor control and standard editing keys, two special Apple modifier keys, a safe off-to-side relocation of the "Reset" key; the auto-repeat function is now automatic, no longer requiring the "REPT" key found on the keyboards of previous models. The machine came standard with 64 KB RAM, with the equivalent of a built-in Apple Language Card in its circuitry, had a new special "Auxiliary slot" for adding more memory via bank-switching RAM cards. Through this slot it includes built-in support for an 80-column text display on monitors and could be doubled to 128 KB RAM by alternatively plugging in Apple's Extended 80-Column Text Card.
As time progressed more memory could be added through third-party cards using the same bank-switching slot or, general-purpose slot cards that addressed memory 1 byte at a time. A new ROM diagnostic routine could be invoked to test the motherboard for faults and test its main bank of memory; the Apple IIe lowered production costs and improved reliability by merging the function of several off-the-shelf ICs into single custom chips, reducing total chip count to 31. The IIe switched to using newer single-voltage 4164 DRAM chips instead of the unreliable triple-voltage 4116 DRAM in the II/II+. For this reason the motherboard design is much cleaner and runs cooler as well, with enough room to add a pin-connector for an external numeric keypad. Added was a backport-accessible DE-9 joystick connector, making it far easier for users to add and remove game and input devices. Improved were port openings for expansion cards. Rather than cutout V-shaped slot openings as in the Apple II and II Plus, the IIe has a variety of different-sized openings, with thumb-screw holes, to accommodate mounting interface cards with DB-xx and DE-xx connectors.
Although the lower IC count improved reliability over previous Apple II models, Apple still retained the practice of socketing all ICs so that servicing and replacement could be performed more easily. Later-production IIe models had the RAM soldered to the system board rather than socketed. Despite the hardware changes, the IIe maintains a high degree of backwards compatibility with the previous models, allowing most hardwa
The Macintosh IIsi is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1990 to March 1993. Introduced as a lower-cost alternative to the other Macintosh II family of desktop models, it was popular for home use, as it offered more expandability and performance than the Macintosh LC, introduced at the same time. Like the LC, it has built-in sound support, as well as support for color displays, with a maximum screen resolution of 640×480 in eight-bit color; the IIsi remained on the market for two and a half years, was discontinued shortly after the introduction of its replacement, the Centris 610. The IIsi's case design is a compact three-box desktop unit used for no other Macintosh model, one of the only Macintosh models of which this is true. Positioned below the Macintosh IIci as Apple's entry-level professional model, the IIsi's price was lowered by the redesign of the motherboard substituting a different memory controller and the deletion of all but one of the expansion card slots and removal of the level 2 cache slot.
It shipped with either a 40-MB or 80-MB internal hard disk, a 1.44-MB floppy disk drive. The MC 68882 FPU was an optional upgrade, mounted on a special plug-in card. Ports included SCSI, two serial ports, an ADB port, a floppy drive port, 3.5mm stereo headphone sound output and microphone sound input sockets. A bridge card was available for the IIsi to convert the Processor Direct slot to a standard internal NuBus card slot, compatible with other machines in the Macintosh II family; the bridge card included a math co-processor to improve floating-point performance. The NuBus card was mounted horizontally above the motherboard. To cut costs, the IIsi's video shared the main system memory, which had the effect of slowing down video especially as the IIsi had 1 MB of slow RAM soldered to the motherboard. David Pogue's book Macworld Macintosh Secrets observed that one could speed up video if one set the disk cache size large enough to force the computer to draw video RAM from faster RAM installed in the SIMM banks.
The IIsi suffers from sound difficulties: over time, the speaker contacts can fail, causing the sound to periodically drop out. This problem was caused by the modular construction of the computer, where the mono loudspeaker is on a daughterboard under the motherboard, with springy contacts. Speaker vibrations led to fretting of the touching surfaces; the problem could be solved by removing the motherboard and using a pencil eraser to clean the contacts of the daughterboard holding the loudspeaker. As the IIsi is the only Macintosh to use this case design, these issues were never corrected in a subsequent model; the IIsi was designed to be and cheaply manufactured, such that no tools were required to put one together – everything is held in place with clips or latches. Because of its heritage as a cut-down IIci, it was a simple modification to substitute a new clock crystal to increase the system's clock rate to 25 MHz for a slight increase in performance. Charles Bukowski was an enthusiastic user of the IIsi.
Macintosh IIsi teardown at ifixit.com
A Compact Macintosh is an all-in-one Apple Mac computer with a display integrated in the computer case, beginning with the original Macintosh 128K. Compact Macs include the original Macintosh through to the Color Classic sold between 1984 and the mid-1990s; the larger Macintosh LC 500 series, Power Macintosh 5000 series and iMac are not described as a "Compact Mac." Apple divides these models into five form factors: The Macintosh 128K, Macintosh SE, Macintosh Classic, the modernized Macintosh Color Classic with a 10 in color screen, the different Macintosh XL. *220 V international models are appended with the letter "P" All-in-one desktop computer List of Apple Macintosh models by case type Compact Macs Index and Compact Macs Guide at lowendmac.com Early Compact "Classic" Macs at EveryMac The Vintage Mac Museum: Compact Mac -9inch/mono Display 68000-
The Apple IIc, the fourth model in the Apple II series of personal computers, is Apple Computer’s first endeavor to produce a portable computer. The result was a 7.5 lb notebook-sized version of the Apple II that could be transported from place to place. The c in the name stood for compact, referring to the fact it was a complete Apple II computer setup squeezed into a small notebook-sized housing. While sporting a built-in floppy drive and new rear peripheral expansion ports integrated onto the main logic board, it lacks the internal expansion slots and direct motherboard access of earlier Apple II models, making it a closed system like the Macintosh. However, the intended direction for this model — a more appliance-like machine, ready to use out of the box, requiring no technical know-how or experience to hook up and therefore attractive to first-time users; the Apple IIc was released on April 1984, during an Apple-held event called Apple II Forever. With that motto, Apple proclaimed the new machine was proof of the company's long-term commitment to the Apple II series and its users, despite the recent introduction of the Macintosh.
The IIc was seen as the company's response to the new IBM PCjr, Apple hoped to sell 400,000 by the end of 1984. While an Apple IIe computer in a smaller case, it was not a successor, but rather a portable version to complement it. One Apple II machine would be sold for users who required the expandability of slots, another for those wanting the simplicity of a plug and play machine with portability in mind; the machine introduced Apple’s Snow White design language, notable for its case styling and a modern look designed by Hartmut Esslinger which became the standard for Apple equipment and computers for nearly a decade. The Apple IIc introduced a unique off-white coloring known as “Fog,” chosen to enhance the Snow White design style; the IIc and some peripherals were the only Apple products. While light-weight and compact in design, the Apple IIc was not a true portable in design as it lacked a built-in battery and display. Codenames for the machine while under development included: Lollie, ET, Teddy, VLC, IIb, IIp.
Technically the Apple IIc was an Apple IIe in a smaller case, more portable and easier to use but less expandable. The IIc used the CMOS-based 65C02 microprocessor which added 27 new instructions to the 6502, but was incompatible with programs that used deprecated illegal opcodes of the 6502; the new ROM firmware allowed Applesoft BASIC to recognize lowercase characters and work better with an 80-column display, fixed several bugs from the IIe ROM. In terms of video, the text display added 32 unique character symbols called "MouseText" which, when placed side by side, could display simple icons and menus to create a graphical user interface out of text, similar in concept to IBM code page 437 or PETSCII's box-drawing characters. A year the Apple IIe would benefit from these improvements in the form of a four-chip upgrade called the Enhanced IIe; the equivalent of five expansion cards were built-in and integrated into the Apple IIc motherboard: An Extended 80 Column Card, two Apple Super Serial Cards, a Mouse Card, a disk floppy drive controller card.
This meant the Apple IIc had 128 KB RAM, 80-column text, Double-Hi-Resolution graphics built-in and available right out of the box, unlike its older sibling, the Apple IIe. It meant less of a need for slots, as the most popular peripheral add-on cards were built-in, ready for devices to be plugged into the rear ports of the machine; the built-in cards were mapped to phantom slots so software from slot-based Apple II models would know where to find them. The entire Apple Disk II Card, used for controlling floppy drives, had been shrunk down into a single chip called the “IWM” which stood for Integrated Woz Machine. In the rear of the machine were its expansion ports for providing access to its built-in cards; the standard DE-9 joystick connector doubled as a mouse interface, compatible with the same mice used by the Lisa and early Macintosh computers. Two serial ports were provided to support a printer and modem, a floppy port connector supported a single external 5.25-inch drive. A Video Expansion port provided rudimentary signals for add-on adapters but, could not directly generate a video signal.
A port connector tied into an internal 12 V power converter for attaching batteries. The same composite video port found on earlier Apple II models remained present; the Apple IIc had a built-in 5.25-inch floppy drive along the right side of the case—the first Apple II model to include such a feature. Along the left side of the case was a dial to control the volume of the internal speaker, along with a 1⁄8-inch monaural audio jack for headphones or an external speaker. A fold-out carrying handle doubled as a way to prop up the back end of the machine to angle the keyboard for typing, if desired; the keyboard layout mirrored that of the Apple IIe. Two toggle switches were located in the same area: an “80/40”-column switch for software
Apple Computer 1 known as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company in 1976. It was hand-built by Steve Wozniak. Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs had the idea of selling the computer; the Apple I was Apple's first product, to finance its creation, Jobs sold his only motorized means of transportation, a VW Microbus, for a few hundred dollars, Steve Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for $500. It was demonstrated in July 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in California. Production was discontinued on September 30, 1977, after the June 10, 1977 introduction of its successor, the Apple II, which Byte magazine referred to as part of the "1977 Trinity" of personal computing. On March 5, 1975, Steve Wozniak attended the first meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club in Gordon French's garage, he was so inspired that he set to work on what would become the Apple I computer. After building it for himself and showing it at the Club, he and Steve Jobs gave out schematics for the computer to interested club members and helped some of them build and test out copies.
Steve Jobs suggested that they design and sell a single etched and silkscreened circuit board—just the bare board, with no electronic parts—that people could use to build the computers. Wozniak calculated that having the board design laid out would cost $1,000 and manufacturing would cost another $20 per board. To fund this small venture—their first company—Jobs sold his van and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator. Soon after, Steve Jobs arranged to sell "something like 50" built computers to the Byte Shop at $500 each. To fulfill the $25,000 order, they obtained $20,000 in parts at 30 days net and delivered the finished product in 10 days; the Apple I went on sale in July 1976 at a price of US$666.66, because Wozniak "liked repeating digits" and because of a one-third markup on the $500 wholesale price. The first unit produced was used in a high school math class, donated to Liza Loop's public-access computer center. About 200 units were produced, all but 25 were sold within nine or ten months.
The Apple I's built-in computer terminal circuitry was distinctive. All one needed was a television set. Competing machines such as the Altair 8800 were programmed with front-mounted toggle switches and used indicator lights for output, had to be extended with separate hardware to allow connection to a computer terminal or a teletypewriter machine; this made the Apple I an innovative machine for its day. In April 1977, the price was dropped to $475, it continued to be sold through August 1977, despite the introduction of the Apple II in April 1977, which began shipping in June of that year. In October 1977, the Apple I was discontinued and removed from Apple's price list; as Wozniak was the only person who could answer most customer support questions about the computer, the company offered Apple I owners discounts and trade-ins for Apple IIs to persuade them to return their computers. These recovered boards were destroyed by Apple, contributing to their rarity today; as of 2013, sixty-three Apple I computers have been confirmed to exist.
Only six have been verified to be in working condition. The Apple-1 Registry lists every known Apple I computer; this registry serves an additional purpose by including a list of all auctions since 2000. An Apple I sold for US$50,000 at auction in 1999. In 2008, the website Vintage Computing and Gaming reported that Apple I owner Rick Conte was looking to sell his unit and was "expecting a price in excess of $15,000 U. S." The site reported Conte had donated the unit to the Maine Personal Computer Museum in 2009. A unit was sold in September 2009 for $17,480 on eBay. A unit belonging to early Apple Computer engineers Dick and Cliff Huston was sold on March 23, 2010, for $42,766 on eBay. In November 2010, an Apple I sold for £133,250 at Christie's auction house in London; the high price was due to the rare documents and packaging offered in the sale in addition to the computer, including the original packaging, a typed and signed letter from Jobs, the original invoice showing "Steven" as the salesman.
The computer was brought to Polytechnic University of Turin where it was fixed and used to run the BASIC programming language. On June 15, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Sotheby's for a then-record $374,500, more than double the expected price; this unit is on display at the Nexon Computer Museum in South Korea. In October 2012, a non-working Apple I from the estate of former Apple Computer employee Joe Copson was put up for auction by Christie's, but found no bidder, willing to pay the starting price of US$80,000. Copson's board had been listed on eBay in December 2011, with a starting bid of $170,000 and failed to sell. Following the Christie's auction, the board was restored to working condition by computer historian Corey Cohen. Copson's Apple I was once again listed on eBay, where it sold for US$236,100.03 on April 23, 2015. On November 24, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Auction Team Breker for €400,000. On May 25, 2013, a functioning 1976 model was sold for a then-record €516,000 in Cologne.
Auction Team Breker said "an unnamed Asian