Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish from the family Scombridae. They are found in both temperate and tropical seas living along the coast or offshore in the oceanic environment. Mackerel species have vertical stripes on their backs and forked tails. Many are restricted in their distribution ranges and live in separate populations or fish stocks based on geography; some stocks migrate in large schools along the coast to suitable spawning grounds, where they spawn in shallow waters. After spawning they return the way they came in smaller schools to suitable feeding grounds near an area of upwelling. From there they may spend the winter in relative inactivity. Other stocks migrate across oceans. Smaller mackerel are forage fish including larger mackerel and Atlantic cod. Flocks of seabirds, dolphins and schools of larger fish such as tuna and marlin follow mackerel schools and attack them in sophisticated and cooperative ways. Mackerel flesh is intensively harvested by humans.
In 2009, over 5 million tons were landed by commercial fishermen. Sport fishermen value the fighting abilities of the king mackerel. Over 30 different species, principally belonging to the family Scombridae, are referred to as mackerel; the term "mackerel" means "marked" or "spotted", derives from the Old French maquerel, from around 1300, meaning a pimp or procurer. The connection is not altogether clear, but mackerel spawn enthusiastically in shoals near the coast, medieval ideas on animal procreation were creative. About 21 species in the family Scombridae are called mackerel; the type species for the scombroid mackerel is the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus. Until Atlantic chub mackerel and Indo-Pacific chub mackerel were thought to be subspecies of the same species. In 1999, Collette established, on molecular and morphological considerations, that these are separate species. Mackerel are smaller with shorter lifecycles than their close relatives, the tuna, which are members of the same family.
The true mackerels belong to the tribe Scombrini. The tribe consists of each belonging to one of two genera: Scomber or Rastrelliger; the Spanish mackerels belong to the tribe Scomberomorini, the "sister tribe" of the true mackerels. This tribe consists of 21 species in all—18 of those are classified into the genus Scomberomorus, two into Grammatorcynus, a single species into the monotypic genus Acanthocybium. In addition, a number of species with mackerel-like characteristics in the families Carangidae and Gempylidae are referred to as mackerel; some confusion had occurred between the Pacific jack mackerel and the harvested Chilean jack mackerel. These are now recognised as separate species; the term "mackerel" is used as a modifier in the common names of other fish, sometimes indicating the fish has vertical stripes similar to a scombroid mackerel: Mackerel icefish—Champsocephalus gunnari Mackerel pike—Cololabis saira Mackerel scad—Decapterus macarellus Mackerel shark—several species Shortfin mako shark—Isurus oxyrinchus Mackerel tuna—Euthynnus affinis Mackerel tail goldfish—Carassius auratusBy extension, the term is applied to other species such as the mackerel tabby cat, to inanimate objects such as the altocumulus mackerel sky cloud formation.
Most mackerel belong to the family Scombridae, which includes tuna and bonito. Mackerel are much smaller and slimmer than tuna, though in other respects, they share many common characteristics, their scales, if present at all, are small. Like tuna and bonito, mackerel are voracious feeders, are swift and manoeuvrable swimmers, able to streamline themselves by retracting their fins into grooves on their bodies. Like other scombroids, their bodies are cylindrical with numerous finlets on the dorsal and ventral sides behind the dorsal and anal fins, but unlike the deep-bodied tuna, they are slim; the type species for scombroid mackerels is the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus. These fish are iridescent blue-green above with a silvery underbelly and 200-30 near-vertical wavy black stripes running across their upper bodies; the prominent stripes on the back of mackerels are there to provide camouflage against broken backgrounds. That is not the case, because mackerel live in midwater pelagic environments which have no background.
However, fish have an optokinetic reflex in their visual systems that can be sensitive to moving stripes. For fish to school efficiently, they need feedback mechanisms that help them align themselves with adjacent fish, match their speed; the stripes on neighbouring fish provide "schooling marks", which signal changes in relative position. A layer of thin, reflecting platelets is seen on some of the mackerel stripes. In 1998, E J Denton and D M Rowe argued that these platelets transmit additional information to other fish about how a given fish moves; as the orientation of the fish changes relative to another fish, the amount of light reflected to the second fish by this layer changes. This sensitivity to orientation gives the mackerel "considerable advantages in being able to react while schooling and feeding."Mackerel range in size from small forage fish to larger game fish. Coastal mackerel tend to be small; the king mackerel is an example of a larger mackerel. Most fish are cold-blooded. Certain species of fish maintain elevated body temperatures.
Penzance RFC formed in 1876, was a rugby union club based in Penzance, England. They amalgamated with Newlyn RFC in 1944 to form Penzance and Newlyn RFC known as the Cornish Pirates; the first recorded rugby match in Penzance is from 1870, played in the grounds of Poltair House and organised by W Borlase of Marlborough School. The Penzance team was public schoolboys, home on holiday, the opponents the Eastern Telegraph Company based in Porthcurno; the club, formed in 1876, played for a few seasons, did not flourish and was restarted in 1883, by J B Cornish who acted as secretary and captain. The club played in claret and blue but soon changed to black and white in varying styles. Fixtures in their first season included Redruth and Lelant and the club won all their matches with only one try was scored against them. At the 1878 AGM it was stated that it would be desirable if all the players should wear the same colour jerseys! Arthur Trounson was the first player to win a Cornwall cap when picked to play in the first match against Devon, at Plymouth on 12 January 1894, lost by two goals and three tries.
Club captain Cornish was to win the first of his six caps, a year in 1885 and captained Cornwall on two occasions in 1886–87 and 1889–90. Success came to the club, fourteen years after they were founded, when the Cornwall Rugby Cup was won in two consecutive seasons. By now the Cornwall selectors were picking Penzance players for Cornwall. By the Great War, thirty-eight different Penzance RFC players had represented Cornwall winning over two hundred caps between them. Fixtures between Penzance and Newlyn were hotly contested and sometimes suspended. Between 1929 and 1932 matches between the clubs were cancelled, a big loss of income to both clubs and one they could not afford. In 1930 the club had a deficit of £58 for the season, in 1933 a balance of 1/3d and by 1936 there was a vote on whether Penzance RFC should continue; the club did continue and so did the poor finances and at the 1939 AGM the club had only 17 shillings. Suggestions of an amalgamation with Newlyn were considered premature by that club and the start of the Second World War put an end to club rugby for a few years.
In November 1944, after a public meeting, Newlyn RFC agreed to hold talks with Penzance RFC with a view to amalgamation. A subsequent Penzance RFU committee meeting on 21 November agreed to wind up the rugby club. Penzance-Nelwyn RFC was born. Cornwall Senior Rugby Table winners: 1896–97, 1897–98, 1898–99, 1903–04 A number of playing fields were used around Penzance including the Alexandra Grounds, Coombe Lane, St Just Road - until April 1905, St Clare from the start of the 1905–06 season. In January 1934 a sub-committee was formed to negotiate with the Borough Council the use of the Mennaye Fields as a rugby ground, it is considered a great honour to be invited to play for the Barbarians and in 1908 Barrie Bennetts was invited to join the annual tour to South Wales playing against Penarth and Cardiff. A year he was capped twice by England and in 1909 selected to join John Raphael's, 1910 Combined British team's tour of Argentina, playing in Argentina's first international test. An injury robbed him of the chance to play in the 1908 Olympics when Cornwall, as County Champions, represented Great Britain in the games.
Barrie B Bennetts Barrie B Bennetts Fifty-two players from Penzance RFC were picked to represent Cornwall with six of them going on to be captain. Key: Name in gold indicates the player captained Cornwall on at least one occasion Abbey School Football Club – played in 1879 Causewayhead United – played in the Town rugby cup St John's Bible Class – played in 1898 Black Watch beat Scarlet Runners in the replayed tie of the 1902 Penzance Junior Town Cup. Newlyn RFC Cornish Pirates Penzance RFC history Cornish Pirates home page
"Shawty Is a 10" is the debut single from American singer and record producer The-Dream's debut studio album, Love/Hate. The track is produced by The-Dream alongside longtime collaborator Carlos McKinney; the song has three remixes. The first, featuring Fabolous, was only intended to be used in the video; the second remix, featuring R. Kelly and a new verse by The-Dream, was released on July 10, 2007; the third "extended remix" features Aaliyah, Kid Cudi, Keri Hilson, Aasim. Swedish pop duo jj included a cover version of the song on their 2012 EP High Summer, titled "10"; the video premiered on BET's 106 & Park on September 10, 2007. Cameo appearances include Jazze Pha, Mariah Carey, Keri Hilson, DJ Khaled and Yung Joc