Macon, Georgia

Macon Macon–Bibb County, is a consolidated city-county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. Macon lies near the geographic center of the state 85 miles south of Atlanta, hence the city's nickname "The Heart of Georgia". Located near the fall line of the Ocmulgee River, Macon had a 2017 estimated population of 152,663. Macon is the principal city of the Macon metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 228,914 in 2017. Macon is the largest city in the Macon–Warner Robins Combined Statistical Area, a larger trading area with an estimated 420,693 residents in 2017. In a 2012 referendum, voters approved the consolidation of the governments of the City of Macon and Bibb County, Macon became Georgia's fourth-largest city; the two governments merged on January 1, 2014. Macon is served by three interstate highways: I-16, I-75, I-475; the city has several institutions of higher education, as well as numerous museums and tourism sites. The area is served by the Herbert Smart Downtown Airport.

The mayor of Macon is Robert Reichert, a former Democratic member of the Georgia House of Representatives. Reichert was elected mayor of the newly consolidated city of Macon–Bibb, he took office on January 1, 2014. Macon was founded on the site of the Ocmulgee Old Fields, where the Creek Indians lived in the 18th century, their predecessors, the Mississippian culture, built a powerful chiefdom based on the practice of agriculture. The Mississippian culture constructed earthwork mounds for ceremonial and religious purposes; the areas along the rivers in the Southeast had been inhabited by indigenous peoples for 13,000 years before Europeans arrived. Macon developed at the site of Fort Benjamin Hawkins, built in 1809 at the fall line of the Ocmulgee River to protect the community and to establish a trading post with Native Americans; the fort was named in honor of Benjamin Hawkins, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southeast territory south of the Ohio River for over 20 years. He was married to a Creek woman.

This was the most inland point of navigation on the river from the Low Country. President Thomas Jefferson forced the Creek to cede their lands east of the Ocmulgee River and ordered the fort built. Fort Hawkins guarded the Lower Creek Pathway, an extensive and well-traveled American Indian network improved by the United States as the Federal Road from Washington, D. C. to the ports of Mobile and New Orleans, Louisiana. A gathering point of the Creek and U. S. cultures for trading, it was a center of state militia and federal troops. The fort served as a major military distribution point during the War of 1812 against Great Britain and during the Creek War of 1813. Afterward, the fort was used as a trading post for several years and was garrisoned until 1821, it was decommissioned about 1828 and burned to the ground. A replica of the southeast blockhouse was built in 1938 and still stands today on a hill in east Macon. Part of the fort site is occupied by the Fort Hawkins Grammar School. In the 21st century, archeological excavations have revealed more of the fort's importance, stimulated planning for additional reconstruction of this major historical site.

As many Europeans had begun to move into the area, Fort Hawkins was renamed "Newtown." After the organization of Bibb County in 1822, the city was chartered as the county seat in 1823 and named Macon. This was in honor of the North Carolina statesman Nathaniel Macon, because many of the early residents of Georgia hailed from North Carolina; the city planners envisioned "a city within a park" and created a city of spacious streets and parks. They designated 250 acres for Central City Park, passed ordinances requiring residents to plant shade trees in their front yards; the city thrived due to its location on the Ocmulgee River. Cotton became the mainstay of Macon's early economy, based on the enslaved labor of African Americans. Macon was in the Black Belt of Georgia. Cotton steamboats, stage coaches, in 1843, a railroad increased marketing opportunities and contributed to the economic prosperity to Macon. In 1836, the Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church founded Wesleyan College in Macon.

Wesleyan was the first college in the United States chartered to grant degrees to women. In 1855, a referendum was held to determine a capital city for Georgia. Macon came in last with 3,802 votes. During the American Civil War, Macon served as the official arsenal of the Confederacy manufacturing percussion caps, friction primers, pressed bullets. Camp Oglethorpe, in Macon, enlisted men, it held officers only, up to 2,300 at one time. The camp was evacuated in 1864. Macon City Hall, which served as the temporary state capitol in 1864, was converted to a hospital for wounded Confederate soldiers; the Union General William Tecumseh Sherman spared Macon on his march to the sea. His troops had sacked the nearby state capital of Milledgeville, Maconites prepared for an attack. Sherman, passed by without entering Macon; the Macon Telegraph wrote that, of the 23 companies which the city had furnished the Confederacy, only enough men survived and were fit for duty to fill five companies by the end of the war.

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E1 Series Shinkansen

The E1 series was a high-speed Shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company in Japan from July 1994 until September 2012. They were the first double-deck trains built for Japan's Shinkansen, they were along with their fellow double-deck class the E4 series, known by the marketing name "Max". The fleet was withdrawn from regular service on 28 September 2012. Intended to be classified as 600 series, the E1 series trains were introduced to relieve overcrowding on services used by commuters on the Tohoku Shinkansen and Joetsu Shinkansen. E1 series sets were used on the following services. Joetsu Shinkansen Max Asahi Max Tanigawa Max Toki Tohoku Shinkansen Max Nasuno Max Yamabiko The fleet of 12-car sets, numbered M1 to M6, were formed as follows, with car 1 at the Tokyo end. Cars 6 and 10 were each equipped with a PS201 scissors-type pantograph; the E1 series was the first revenue-earning shinkansen to feature 3+3 abreast seating in standard class for increased seating capacity. The upper deck saloons of non-reserved cars 1 to 4 were arranged 3+3 with no individual armrests, did not recline.

The lower decks of these cars, the reserved-seating saloons in cars 5 to 12 had regular 2+3 seating. The Green car saloons on the upper decks of cars 9 to 11 had 2+2 seating; the trains had a total seating capacity of 1,235 passengers. The first E1 series set, M1, was delivered to Sendai Depot on 3 March 1994. ローカル鉄道途中下車の旅 The first two E1 series sets delivered entered revenue-earning service on the Tohoku Shinkansen on 15 July 1994, with the original "DDS" logos replaced by "Max" logos. The original livery was "sky grey" on the upper body side and "silver grey" on the lower body side, separated by a "peacock green" stripe. From 4 December 1999, all six trainsets were transferred from Sendai Depot to Niigata Depot, with operations limited to use on Joetsu Shinkansen Max Asahi and Max Tanigawa services only. From late 2003, the fleet underwent refurbishment, which included the installation of new seating and repainting in a new livery of "stratus white" on the upper body side and "aster blue" on the lower body side, separated by a "ibis pink" stripe.

All cars were made no-smoking from the start of the revised timetable on 18 March 2007. The first two sets were withdrawn in April 2012: M1 on 2 April, M2 on 14 April; the remaining fleet was withdrawn from service from the start of the revised timetable on 29 September 2012. A special Thank you Max Asahi service ran from Niigata to Tokyo on 27 October 2012 using an E1 series set, followed by a final run from Tokyo to Niigata on 28 October 2012, using set M4. Between 1 December 2001 and 31 March 2002, the E1 series fleet was adorned with "Alpen Super Express" logos as part of JR East's "JR + Snow" promotional campaign. From mid August 2012 until the fleet's final withdrawal on 28 September, the remaining three sets had a second toki crested ibis added to their logos to celebrate the rare hatching of ibis chicks in the wild. One E1 series car is preserved: car E153-104 of set M4; this was moved to the Railway Museum in Saitama in December 2017, is on display since spring 2018. TGV Duplex, French double-deck high speed train List of high speed trains "E1 series Max Toki/Max Tanigawa".

Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 2008-08-10


Thiobenzophenone is an organosulfur compound with the formula 2CS. It is the prototypical thioketone. Unlike other thioketones that tend to dimerize to form rings and polymers, thiobenzophenone is quite stable, although it photoxidizes in air to form benzophenone and sulfur. Thiobenzophenone is deep blue and dissolves in many organic solvents; the C=S bond length of thiobenzophenone is 1.63 Å, comparable to 1.64 Å, the C=S bond length of thioformaldehyde, measured in the gas phase. Due to steric interactions, the phenyl groups are not coplanar and the dihedral angle SC-CC is 36°. A variety of thiones with structures and stability related to thiobenzophenone have been prepared. One of the first reported syntheses of thiobenzophenone involves the reaction of sodium hydrosulfide and diphenyldichloromethane": Ph2CCl2 + 2 NaSH → Ph2C=S + 2 NaCl + H2SAn updated method involves sulfiding of benzophenone: Ph2C=O + H2S → Ph2C=S + H2OIn the above reaction scheme, a mixture of gaseous hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide are passed into a cooled solution of benzophenone in ethanol.

Thiobenzophenone can be produced by a Friedel-Crafts reaction of thiobenzoyl chloride and benzene. Due to the weakness of the C=S bond, thiobenzophenone is more reactive than its C=O benzophenone counterpart. Thiobenzophenone as well as other thioketones are considered to be superdipolarophiles and dienophiles that combine with 1,3-dienes in Diels-Alder cycloadditions.. The rate of thioketones in cycloadditions is related but not limited to the size of the small HOMO/LUMO energy gap of the π-MOs of the C=S double bond. Reactions between thiobenzophenone and most dienes yield Diels-Alder adducts whereas reactions with monoolefins yield bicyclic compounds