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Macquarie University

Macquarie University is a public research university based in Sydney, Australia, in the suburb of Macquarie Park. Founded in 1964 by the New South Wales Government, it was the third university to be established in the metropolitan area of Sydney. Established as a verdant university, Macquarie has five faculties, as well as the Macquarie University Hospital and the Macquarie Graduate School of Management, which are located on the university's main campus in suburban Sydney; the university is the first in Australia to align its degree system with the Bologna Accord. The idea of founding a third university in Sydney was flagged in the early 1960s when the New South Wales Government formed a committee of enquiry into higher education to deal with a perceived emergency in university enrollments in New South Wales. During this enquiry, the Senate of the University of Sydney put in a submission which highlighted'the immediate need to establish a third university in the metropolitan area'. After much debate a future campus location was selected in what was a semi-rural part of North Ryde, it was decided that the future university be named after Lachlan Macquarie, an important early governor of the colony of New South Wales.

Macquarie University was formally established in 1964 with the passage of the Macquarie University Act 1964 by the New South Wales parliament. The initial concept of the campus was to create a new high technology corridor, similar to the area surrounding Stanford University in Palo Alto, the goal being to provide for interaction between industry and the new university; the academic core was designed in the Brutalist style and developed by the renowned town planner Walter Abraham who oversaw the next 20 years of planning and development for the university. A committee appointed to advise the state government on the establishment of the new university at North Ryde nominated Abraham as the architect-planner; the fledgling Macquarie University Council decided that planning for the campus would be done within the university, rather than by consultants, this led to the establishment of the architect-planners office. The first Vice-Chancellor of Macquarie University, Alexander George Mitchell, was selected by the University Council which met for the first time on 17 June 1964.

Members of the first university council included: Colonel Sir Edward Ford OBE, David Paver Mellor, Rae Else-Mitchell QC and Sir Walter Scott. The university first opened to students on 6 March 1967 with more students than anticipated; the Australian Universities Commission had allowed for 510 effective full-time students but Macquarie had 956 enrolments and 622 EFTS. Between 1968 and 1969, enrolment at Macquarie increased with an extra 1200 EFTS, with 100 new academic staff employed. 1969 saw the establishment of the Macquarie Graduate School of Management. Macquarie grew during the seventies and eighties with rapid expansion in courses offered, student numbers and development of the site. In 1972, the university established the third law school in Sydney. In their book Liberality of Opportunity, Bruce Mansfield and Mark Hutchinson describe the founding of Macquarie University as'an act of faith and a great experiment'. An additional topic considered in this book is the science reform movement of the late 1970s that resulted in the introduction of a named science degree, thus facilitating the subsequent inclusion of other named degrees in addition to the traditional BA.

An alternative view on this topic is given by theoretical physicist John Ward. In 1973 the student union worked with the Builders Labourers Federation to organise one of the first "pink bans". Similar in tactic to the green ban, the pink ban was recommended when one of the residential colleges at Macquarie University, Robert Menzies College, ordered a student to lead a celibate life and undertake therapy and confession to cure himself of his homosexuality; the BLF decided to stop all construction work at the college until the university and the college Master made statements committing to a non-discriminatory university environment. MUSC was successful in engaging with the BLF again in 1974 when a woman at Macquarie University had her NSW Department of Education scholarship cancelled on the basis that she was a lesbian and therefore unfit to be a teacher. After over a decade of service, the first Vice Chancellor Mitchell was succeeded by Edwin Webb in December 1975. Webb was required to steer the university through one of its most difficult periods as the value of universities were debated and the governments introduced significant funding cuts.

Webb left the university in 1986 and was succeeded by Di Yerbury, the first female Vice-Chancellor in Australia. Yerbury would go on to hold the position of Vice-Chancellor for nearly 20 years. In 1990 the university absorbed the Institute of Early Childhood Studies of the Sydney College of Advanced Education, under the terms of the Higher Education Act 1989. L Steven Schwartz replaced Di Yerbury at the beginning of 2006. Yerbury's departure was attended with much controversy, including a "bitter dispute" with Schwartz, disputed ownership of university artworks worth $13 million and Yerbury's salary package. In August 2006, Schwartz expressed concern about the actions of Yerbury in a letter to university auditors. Yerbury denied any wrongdoing and claimed the artworks were hers. During 2007, Macquarie University restructured its student organisation after an audit raised questions about management of hundreds of thousands of dollars in funds by student organisations At the centre of the investigation was Victor Ma, president of the Macquarie University Students' Council, involved in a high-profile case of student election fixing at the University of Sydn

Great Atlanta fire of 1917

The Great Atlanta Fire of 1917 began just after noon on 21 May 1917 in the Old Fourth Ward of Atlanta, Georgia. It is unclear just how the fire started, but it was fueled by hot temperatures and strong winds which propelled the fire; the fire, which burned for nearly 10 hours, destroyed 300 acres and 1,900 structures displacing over 10,000 people. Damages were estimated at $5 million, it was a clear and sunny day with a brisk breeze from the south. This was not the only fire of the day, but the fourth call in the span of an hour: a small fire at the Candler Warehouse at 11:39 AM and at 11:43 a fire seven blocks north that destroyed three houses. At 12:46 a call came from a small warehouse just north of Decatur Street between Fort and Hilliard, the crew sent to inspect it found a stack of burning mattresses, but had no firefighting equipment with them. If the fire department had not been spread across so many different parts of the city the fire would have been put out there; the fire spread up to Edgewood Avenue and from there throughout the main residential areas of Sweet Auburn, sparing little.

The area between Decatur and Edgewood was crammed with shanties and lean-tos, which provided fuel for the fire to grow strong and move fast through the area. A corridor was burned due north between Jackson and Boulevard, with a few prominent bulges at Highland and just south of Ponce de Leon Avenue. At Houston Street, the fire was still being stopped on the east by Boulevard; when the fire reached Highland, it raced both west through many fine homes. Around 4:00 in the afternoon, fire-fighters had begun to stall the fire by using dynamite to destroy many homes along Pine and Ponce de Leon. By nightfall the fire crossed Ponce de Leon. While reduced, it headed north through the built-out neighborhood along St. Charles, Vedado Way and Greenwood Avenue, it stopped at 10 PM, more than 1 mile north of where it began. In eleven hours, 22,000,000 US gallons of water were pumped to put out the fire. Additional fire trucks had been sent from nine Georgia towns, as well as from Chattanooga and Knoxville in Tennessee.

1,938 buildings were destroyed over 300 acres spanning 73 city blocks. Fires smoldered for the rest of the week. Since more than 85% of the destroyed buildings had wood shingles, the city passed an ordinance banning them for new construction. By 1931 all older buildings had replaced the wood shingles. In the history of the city, only Sherman's fire of 1864 did more extensive damage. Rebuilding was sporadic, with large swaths kept open for years. Commercial strips were built on the destroyed portions of Edgewood and Auburn where busy streetcar routes ran: 17 and 3 respectively. Where large estates with spacious front yards had been, along the entire stretch of Boulevard up to Ponce, dozens of two- and three-storey apartment buildings that hugged the sidewalk were built. Large open spaces were left at what is now the King Memorial and at Bedford-Pine Park, now named Central Park. Low-income housing developments were built in the destroyed extreme southern section and the areas south of North Avenue.

Some 50 acres around Boulevard and Highland were developed as the campus for Atlanta Medical Center. Except for where single family homes were rebuilt north of Ponce de Leon, the character of this large area of Atlanta was changed forever; the next U. S. fire of more significance wouldn't occur for more than 70 years: The Oakland Hills firestorm of 1991. Atlanta Journal, 22 May 1917 Campbell, Steve B. "The Great Fire of Atlanta, May 21, 1917", Atlanta Historical Bulletin, Vol. XIII, No. 2, p. 9-48 Garrett, Franklin and Its Environs, 1954, Vol II, p. 700-706 Pomerantz, Where Peachtree Meets Sweet Auburn, Scribner, 1996 Frank B. Davenport Photographs, 1917 from the Digital Library of Georgia

Funky Kingston

Funky Kingston is the name of two albums by reggae singing group Toots and the Maytals. The first was issued in Jamaica and the United Kingdom in 1972 on Dragon Records, DRLS 5002, a subsidiary label of Island Records, owned by Chris Blackwell. A different album, with the same cover and title, was issued in the United States in 1975 on Mango Records, MLPS 9330; that album peaked at #164 on the Billboard 200 and was voted the eleventh best album of 1975 in the annual Pazz & Jop poll. In 2003, the American version was placed at number 378 on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, 380 in a 2012 revised list. Funky Kingston acknowledged American rhythm and blues with covers of songs by Ike Turner and Shep and the Limelites, along with a reggae take on Richard Berry's composition, "Louie Louie"; the track "Funky Kingston" came from a suggestion by producer Chris Blackwell who noted the success of The Beginning of the End's 1971 semi-crossover hit "Funky Nassau". In 1975, a revised version of the album was released in the United States.

It kept only three tracks from the Jamaican album, substituting six taken from the follow-up In the Dark, adding in the 1969 "Pressure Drop" single, issued on album with The Harder They Come. On March 25, 2003, Funky Kingston was released on compact disc by Universal complete in its original format, along with the Jamaican In the Dark album and the "Pressure Drop" single; when the music for this album was recorded at Dynamic Sound Studios in Kingston, reggae music was little known outside of its native Jamaica, other than in musical circles. The first international release by The Wailers, Catch A Fire, would not be until 1973. Awareness of reggae began to change in 1972 with the release of the seminal film The Harder They Come, which became a cult hit that year in the UK, with its soundtrack featuring two numbers by the Maytals; the Maytals had been consistent hit makers in Jamaica during the 1960s, had given the genre its name with their single "Do the Reggay". As he would with the Wailers the following year, producer Chris Blackwell tailored the Maytals for the international market on this album.

The title track, "Funky Kingston", appears in the Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas video game soundtrack, on the fictitious radio station K-Jah West. It features as the opening theme for the reality show Miami Ink, it was the basis for the "Funky Vodka" track, which in turn fueled "Don't Stop The Party". The song can be heard in the film "Notes On A Scandal" where the Hart family can be seen dancing to it; the song "Time Tough" was featured on the soundtrack for Tony Hawk's Project 8. Given the significant differences between the two versions of this album, critical reception varies depending on which version is being reviewed; the reception of the US release invariably regards it as a classic given its inclusion in several "best of" lists. The original Rolling Stone review states that "this is the cream of their crop, with a couple of exceptions". Funky Kingston and the Maytals’ first release to be distributed by Chris Blackwell’s Island Records label proved to be a critical triumph. Rock critic Lester Bangs, writing in Stereo Review, described the album as “perfection, the most exciting and diversified set of reggae tunes by a single artist yet released.”

Reviewing the 1975 American release, Robert Christgau wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies: "The quick way to explain the Maytals is to say that in reggae they're the Beatles to the Wailers' Rolling Stones. But how do I explain Toots himself? Well, he's the nearest thing to Otis Redding left on the planet: he transforms'do re mi fa sol la ti do' into joyful noise. I wish he had real politics—any Jamaican who can only pray to God about this time tough hasn't been compelled to explore all his options—and his arrangements have been looser than I'd like, but this is a gift." All songs written by Frederick "Toots" Hibbert except. "Sit Right Down" — 4:44 "Pomp And Pride" — 4:30 "Louie, Louie" — 5:46 "I Can't Believe" — 3:29 "Redemption Song" — 3:26 "Daddy's Home" — 5:05 "Funky Kingston" — 4:54 "It Was Written Down" — 3:04 "Time Tough" — 4:23 "In the Dark" — 2:48 "Funky Kingston" — 4:54 "Love is Gonna Let Me Down" — 3:15 listed as "Love's Gonna Walk Out on Me" on Jamaican release "Louie, Louie" — 5:46 "Pomp and Pride" — 4:30 "Got to Be There" — 3:06 "Country Road" — 3:23 "Pressure Drop" — 3:46 "Sailin' On" — 3:35 Ralphus "Raleigh" Gordon - vocals Nathaniel "Jerry" Matthias - vocals Neville Hinds - keyboards Jackie Jackson - bass Paul Douglas - drums Winston Grennan - drums Funky Kingston at Myspace


Onspeed was a web accelerator service designed to accelerate an internet connection using compression techniques. Onspeed improves the speed of an internet connection, including dial-up, low-speed broadband, mobile connections such as 3G, GPRS and UMTS; the Onspeed software is installed onto the user's hard drive and using the existing ISP connection to the internet, it utilises data compression techniques to process a website, before it is transmitted by the user's ISP to their computer. The Onspeed software works by compressing text and graphics contained on any website; each internet access is routed through their UK, United States, South Africa and Indian based servers, which compress the data before transmitting them to a computer. Onspeed has dedicated algorithms for compressing the following web page elements: Photo-realistic images, Line Art and Drawings, Animated objects, HTML objects, Office Documents, PDF Documents, Macromedia Flash, it does not accelerate certain files such as music and video files.

Onspeed provides a service for mobile phone users using a GPRS/UMTS connection. Operating in a similar way to its PC service, it accelerates and resizes most websites so they can be viewed on a mobile phone. AOL customers experience problems with the service due to AOL's proxy settings. However, Onspeed's website states that AOL customers may still use the service providing they use an alternative browser such as Mozilla Firefox. Onspeed claims that the software can be used in any country worldwide, however this is not true. Onspeed will not work in certain African and Middle Eastern countries that connect to the Internet via a forced proxy. Onspeed website

Château de Vézins

The Château de Vézins is a much-altered castle in the commune of Vézins-de-Lévézou between Millau and Rodez in the Aveyron département of France. It has been in the possession of the Vézins family for 900 years; the first fortress was built in 1120 by Vesian de Vézins to command the Lévezou district. Following a disastrous fire in 1642, the only remains of this original castle are the vaulted rooms of the ground floor; the castle was redeveloped in the Renaissance style. Modern-day visitors to the horseshoe-shaped château can see the vaulted hall from the Middle Ages and the first floor rooms. Of particular note are the sculpted coats of arms on the chimney places, Aubusson tapestries from the 16th and 17th centuries and a canopied bed; the château was awarded the 2000 Prix du Patrimoine 2000 for the Midi-Pyrénées region. It is one of a group of 23 castles in Aveyron that have joined together to provide a tourist itinerary as the Route des Seigneurs du Rouergue. In 1990 the Château de Vézins was listed as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.

List of castles in France Route des Seigneurs du Rouergue Ministry of Culture photos "Tourist information". Aveyron. France. Archived from the original on 2015-10-07. Retrieved 2015-09-19

List of presidents of the Gaelic Athletic Association

This is a List of presidents of the Gaelic Athletic Association. The role of president of Gaelic Athletic Association has existed since the foundation of the GAA; the president of the GAA is one of the leading figures in civil society in Ireland, as the association has around one million members and is present in every parish in the country. The role of president involves representing the GAA across the world. Former presidents of the GAA have a key role within the GAA, sitting on the motions committee which rules if motions to the annual Congress are in order; the current president is John Horan, installed in 2018 succeeding Aogan O' Fearghail. The president travels across the world to promote the organisation and attend games.