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Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a large molecule, such as protein composed of the polymerization of smaller subunits called monomers. They are composed of thousands of atoms or more; the most common macromolecules in biochemistry are large non-polymeric molecules. Synthetic macromolecules include common plastics and synthetic fibers as well as experimental materials such as carbon nanotubes; the term macromolecule was coined by Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger in the 1920s, although his first relevant publication on this field only mentions high molecular compounds. At that time the term polymer, as introduced by Berzelius in 1832, had a different meaning from that of today: it was another form of isomerism for example with benzene and acetylene and had little to do with size. Usage of the term to describe large molecules varies among the disciplines. For example, while biology refers to macromolecules as the four large molecules comprising living things, in chemistry, the term may refer to aggregates of two or more molecules held together by intermolecular forces rather than covalent bonds but which do not dissociate.

According to the standard IUPAC definition, the term macromolecule as used in polymer science refers only to a single molecule. For example, a single polymeric molecule is appropriately described as a "macromolecule" or "polymer molecule" rather than a "polymer," which suggests a substance composed of macromolecules; because of their size, macromolecules are not conveniently described in terms of stoichiometry alone. The structure of simple macromolecules, such as homopolymers, may be described in terms of the individual monomer subunit and total molecular mass. Complicated biomacromolecules, on the other hand, require multi-faceted structural description such as the hierarchy of structures used to describe proteins. In British English, the word "macromolecule" tends to be called "high polymer". Macromolecules have unusual physical properties that do not occur for smaller molecules. Another common macromolecular property that does not characterize smaller molecules is their relative insolubility in water and similar solvents, instead forming colloids.

Many require particular ions to dissolve in water. Many proteins will denature if the solute concentration of their solution is too high or too low. High concentrations of macromolecules in a solution can alter the rates and equilibrium constants of the reactions of other macromolecules, through an effect known as macromolecular crowding; this comes from macromolecules excluding other molecules from a large part of the volume of the solution, thereby increasing the effective concentrations of these molecules. All living organisms are dependent on three essential biopolymers for their biological functions: DNA, RNA and proteins; each of these molecules is required for life since each plays a distinct, indispensable role in the cell. The simple summary is that DNA makes RNA, RNA makes proteins. DNA, RNA, proteins all consist of a repeating structure of related building blocks. In general, they are all unbranched polymers, so can be represented in the form of a string. Indeed, they can be viewed as a string of beads, with each bead representing a single nucleotide or amino acid monomer linked together through covalent chemical bonds into a long chain.

In most cases, the monomers within the chain have a strong propensity to interact with other amino acids or nucleotides. In DNA and RNA, this can take the form of Watson-Crick base pairs, although many more complicated interactions can and do occur; because of the double-stranded nature of DNA all of the nucleotides take the form of Watson-Crick base pairs between nucleotides on the two complementary strands of the double-helix. In contrast, both RNA and proteins are single-stranded. Therefore, they are not constrained by the regular geometry of the DNA double helix, so fold into complex three-dimensional shapes dependent on their sequence; these different shapes are responsible for many of the common properties of RNA and proteins, including the formation of specific binding pockets, the ability to catalyse biochemical reactions. DNA is an information storage macromolecule that encodes the complete set of instructions that are required to assemble and reproduce every living organism. DNA and RNA are both capable of encoding genetic information, because there are biochemical mechanisms which read the information coded within a DNA or RNA sequence and use it to generate a specified protein.

On the other hand, the sequence information of a protein molecule is not used by cells to functionally encode genetic information. DNA has three primary attributes that allow it to be far better than RNA at encoding genetic information. First, it is double-stranded, so that there are a minimum of two copies of the information encoding each gene in every cell. Second, DNA has a much greater stability against breakdown than does RNA, an attribute associated with the absence of the 2'-hydroxyl group within every nucleotide of DNA. Third sophisticated DNA surveillance and repair systems are present which monitor damage to the DNA and repair the sequence when necessary. Analogous systems have not evolved for repairing damaged RNA molecules. Chromosomes can contain many billions of atoms, arranged in a specific chemical structure. Proteins are functional macromolecules responsible for catalysing the biochemical reactions that sustain life. Proteins carry out all functions of an organism, for example phot

Threshold limit value

The threshold limit value of a chemical substance is believed to be a level to which a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse effects. Speaking, TLV is a reserved term of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs issued by the ACGIH are the most accepted occupational exposure limits both in the United States and most other countries. However, it is sometimes loosely used to refer to other similar concepts used in occupational health and toxicology, such as acceptable daily intake and tolerable daily intake. Concepts such as TLV, ADI, TDI can be compared to the no-observed-adverse-effect level in animal testing, but whereas a NOAEL can be established experimentally during a short period, TLV, ADI, TDI apply to human beings over a lifetime and thus are harder to test empirically and are set at lower levels. TLVs, along with biological exposure indices, are published annually by the ACGIH; the TLV is an estimate based on the known toxicity in humans or animals of a given chemical substance, the reliability and accuracy of the latest sampling and analytical methods.

It is not a static definition since new research can modify the risk assessment of substances and new laboratory or instrumental analysis methods can improve analytical detection limits. The TLV is a recommendation by ACGIH, with only a guideline status; as such, it should not be confused with exposure limits having a regulatory status, like those published and enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The OSHA regulatory exposure limits permissible exposure limits published in 29CFR 1910.1000 Table Z1 are based on recommendations made by the ACGIH in 1968, although other exposure limits were adopted more recently. Many OSHA exposure limits are not considered by the industrial hygiene community to be sufficiently protective levels since the toxicological basis for most limits have not been updated since the 1960s; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health publishes recommended exposure limits which OSHA takes into consideration when promulgating new regulatory exposure limits.

The TLV for chemical substances is defined as a concentration in air for inhalation or skin exposure. Its units are in parts per million for gases and in milligrams per cubic meter for particulates such as dust and mist; the basic formula for converting between ppm and mg/m3 for gases is ppm = * 24.45 / molecular weight. This formula is not applicable to airborne particles. Three types of TLVs for chemical substances are defined: Threshold limit value − time-weighted average: average exposure on the basis of a 8h/day, 40h/week work schedule Threshold limit value − short-term exposure limit: A 15-minute TWA exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday if the 8-hour TWA is within the TLV-TWA. Threshold limit value − ceiling limit: absolute exposure limit that should not be exceeded at any timeThere are TLVs for physical agents as well as chemical substances. TLVs for physical agents include those for noise exposure, vibration and non-ionizing radiation exposure and heat and cold stress.

The TLV and most other occupational exposure limits are based on available toxicology and epidemiology data to protect nearly all workers over a working lifetime. Exposure assessments in occupational settings are most performed by Occupational / Industrial Hygiene professionals who gather "Basic Characterization" consisting of all relevant information and data related to workers, agents of concern, materials and available exposure controls; the exposure assessment is initiated by selecting the appropriate exposure limit averaging time and "decision statistic" for the agent. The statistic for deciding acceptable exposure is chosen to be the majority of all exposures to be below the selected occupational exposure limit. For retrospective exposure assessments performed in occupational environments, the "decision statistic" is a central tendency such as the mean or geometric mean or median for each worker or group of workers. Methods for performing occupational exposure assessments can be found in "A Strategy for Assessing and Managing Occupational Exposures, Third Edition Edited by Joselito S. Ignacio and William H. Bullock".

The TLV is equivalent in spirit to various occupational exposure limits developed by organizations around the world. These occupational exposure limits include: WEEL created by a committee of the American Industrial Hygiene Association. Australia OES Occupational exposure standard Austria TRK MAK Brazil LT France VME VLE Germany AGW MAK Indonesia NAB Malaysia PEL Netherlands MAC New Zealand WES Poland NDS Russia ПДК UK WEL Ukrainian ГДК The opp

HMCS Comox (J64)

HMCS Comox was a Fundy-class minesweeper that served in the Royal Canadian Navy from 1938–1945. She served during the Second World War as a local patrol craft for Esquimalt, British Columbia before transferring to Halifax, Nova Scotia performing general minesweeping duties. After the war she converted to a tugboat named Sung Ming; the ship's registry was deleted in 1993. In 1936, new minesweepers were ordered for the Royal Canadian Navy. Based on the British Basset class, those built on the west coast would cost $403,000 per vessel. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy considered constructing more, but chose to build Bangor-class minesweepers instead upon learning of that design due to their oil-burning engines; the Fundy class, named after the lead ship, displaced 460 long tons. They were 163 ft long, with a beam of 27.5 ft and a draught of 14.5 ft. They had a complement of 3 officers and 35 ratings; the Fundy class was propelled by one shaft driven by vertical triple expansion engine powered by steam from a one-cylinder boiler.

This created between 850–950 indicated horsepower and gave the minesweepers a top speed of 12 knots. The ships were capable of carrying between 180–196 long tons of coal; the ships were armed. The minesweepers were armed with two 20 mm Oerlikon anti-aircraft cannons, they were equipped with 25 depth charges. Comox was ordered on 23 August 1937; the ship was laid down on 5 February 1938 by Burrard Dry Dock Co. Ltd. at Vancouver, British Columbia with the yard number 117 and launched on 9 August that year. She was commissioned into the Royal Canadian Navy on 23 November 1938. Comox was assigned to the west coast. At the onset of the Second World War, she remained at Esquimalt carrying out local patrol duties. In March 1940, she and her sister ship Nootka were reassigned to the east coast. Arriving in April 1940 Comox spent the rest of the war performing minesweeping duties for Halifax Harbour. Along with her sister ship, she rescued survivors of the torpedoed Liberty ship SS Martin Van Buren on 15 January 1945.

Comox was paid off on 27 July 1945. The vessel was sold in 1946 for commercial service to Ming Sung Industrial Co Ltd and converted to the tugboat Sung Ming; the ship was deleted in 1993

Lopes Suasso

Lopes Suasso is the name of an important aristocratic Portuguese Jewish family that played an important role in banking. The family history begins with Dr. Pedro Lopes Fránces, his grandson Antonio was granted title of Baron of Avernas le Gras by Charles II of Spain. He en was parnas of the Portuguese-Jewish community in The Hague, his descendants held important leading functions within the Portuguese-Jewish communities in the Netherlands. Through its banking activities, the family became one of the wealthiest families in the Netherlands, they are well known for having financed the Glorious Revolution In 1818, 1821 and 1831 three members of the Lopes Suasso family were accepted into the Dutch nobility. They received; the last family member died in 1970. The Lopes Suasso art collection became the foundation for the Stedelijk Museum of which Jan Eduard van Someren Brand was the first curator. Antonio Lopes Suasso, baron van Avernas le Gras, agent of King Charles II of Spain. Antonio Lopes Suasso Diaz da Fonseca, captain Horseguards and publicist.

From a French aristocratic family. Jhr. Hugo Antonio Lopez Suasso Diaz da Fonseca Jkvr. Esther Leonor Rachel Lopez Suasso Diaz da Fonseca married in 1859 captain Alphonse Gustave Caspar Anton baron van Voorst tot Voorst Jhr. Mr. Alonso Antonio Lopez Suasso Diaz da Fonseca married Amelia Lempriere de Carteret, Jeanne Deleu. Jhr. Antonio Carteret Lopes Suasso Diaz da Fonseca married in 1851 Marie Isabelle Lopez Suasso, in 1862 Marie Adrienno Louise Herminie de Wersenay, in 1871 Adelaide Cecile Antoinette Burrieu. Jkvr. Maria Helena Elvira Lopez Suasso Diaz da Fonseca married in 1894 Albert Louis Joseph vicomte d'Alos Boscaud. Jhr. Antonio Alvares Alexamder Lopez Suasso Diaz da Fonseca. Jhr. Francisco Antonio Lopez Suasso Diaz da Fonseca, civil engineer in Buenos Aires, married in 1884 Adèle Ristorini. Jhr. dr. Diego Lopez Suasso, medical doctor and judge in Amsterdam married in 1803 Sarotta de Chavel jhr. Augustus Pieter Lopez Suasso. Moses Lopes Suasso married in 1761 his cousin Rachel Lopes Suasso, dochter van Francisco Lopes Suasso and Sara da Costa jhr.

Abraham Suasso da Costa, banker. Abraham Suasso de Pinto married. Abraham Lopes Suasso, married in 1845 Rachel Mendes da Costa. Rebecca Lopes Suasso married in 1869 David Spinossa Cattela. Jhr. Emanuel Lopes Suasso, owner of the Gebr. Lopes Suasso company. Selima Lopes Suasso, last member of the family. Jhr. Abraham Lopes Suasso, painter. Sara Lopes Suasso de Pinto jkvr. Céline Elisabeth Emma Lopes Suasso, painter. Elisabeth Lopes Suasso. Sara Lopes Suasso de Pinto. Rachel Suasso da Costa. Benjamin Lopes Suasso, banker jhr. Moses Lopes Suasso, married in 1827 met Esther Henriques de Castro, painter jhr. David Lopes Suasso, married Rivca Moresco jhr. Francisco Ephraïm Lopes Suasso, married Estella Henriques de Castro. Jhr. David Gabriël Leonard Lopes Suasso jkvr. Anna Lopes Suasso. Jhr. Isaac Lopes Suasso, stock broker jhr. Mozes Lopes Suasso, stock broker, married in 1927 Rachel Anna Mendes da Costa jkvr. Esther Lopes Suasso. Jhr. Jacob Lopes Suasso, president of the Portuguese-Jewish synagogue in The Hague. Jhr.

David Lopis de Suasso. Nederland's Adelsboek 94, p. 284-303. Daniël Swetschinski, Loeki Schönduve, De familie Lopes Suasso, financiers van Willem III. Zwolle, 1988

Lilo & Stitch: Trouble in Paradise

Disney's Lilo & Stitch: Trouble in Paradise is a 2002 action-platform video game developed by Blitz Games for PlayStation and Microsoft Windows. The game is a tie-in to and based on Lilo & Stitch; the PlayStation version was published by Sony Computer Entertainment, while the Windows version was published by Disney Interactive Studios. The player controls either Lilo Stitch around Kauai. Players must avoid and/or attack enemies and obstacles while traversing moving platforms and elaborate environments; some levels require the player to collect a number of photographs, vinyl records, or communication devices before finishing them. In other levels, Lilo or Stitch must run away from Mertle Edmonds on her tricycle, Cobra Bubbles, or Jumba Jookiba and Pleakley. Both characters can run and attack by jumping slamming the ground. Lilo can lift and carry red explosive pots and use voodoo spells to attack enemies, while Stitch can attack enemies by spitting or spinning. In addition, both characters can collect certain items that will allow them to use more powerful attacks.

Trouble in Paradise was met with mixed reception. Review aggregator sites GameRankings and Metacritic gave the PlayStation version scores of 57.73% based on fifteen reviews and 54 out of 100 based on seven reviews, respectively. Disney's Lilo & Stitch: Trouble in Paradise at MobyGames Lilo & Stitch on IMDb

Arthur Treacher

Arthur Veary Treacher was an English film and stage actor active from the 1920s to the 1960s, known for playing English stereotypes butler and manservant roles, such as the P. G. Wodehouse valet character Jeeves and the kind butler Andrews opposite Shirley Temple in Heidi. In the 1960s, he became well-known on American television as an announcer/sidekick to talk show host Merv Griffin, he lent his name to the Arthur Treacher's Chips chain of restaurants. Treacher was the son of a Sussex solicitor, he was educated at a boarding school in Uppingham in Rutland. In 1936, he married Virginia Taylor. Treacher was a veteran of World War I, serving as an officer of the Royal Garrison Artillery. After the war, he established an acting career in England, in March 1926 went to New York as part of a musical-comedy revue named Great Temptations, he was featured in Low. He began his movie career during the 1930s, which included roles in four Shirley Temple movies: Curly Top, uncredited Stowaway and The Little Princess.

Scenes intentionally had the 6' 4" Treacher standing or dancing side-by-side with the tiny child actress. Treacher filled the role of the ideal butler, he portrayed P. G. Wodehouse's valet character Jeeves in the movies Thank You, Jeeves! and Step Lively, Jeeves. Treacher played a valet or butler in several other movies, including Personal Maid's Secret, Mister Cinderella and Bordertown, he was caricatured in the 1941 cartoon Hollywood Steps Out. Treacher did radio programs in the 1940s and early 1950s, most notably as a waiter on Duffy's Tavern. During 1961 and 1962, he and William Gaxton appeared in Guy Lombardo's production of the musical revue Paradise Island, which played at the Jones Beach Marine Theater. In 1962, he replaced Robert Coote as King Pellinore in the original Broadway production of Lerner and Loewe's musical play Camelot, he remained with the show through the Chicago engagement and post-Broadway tour that ended during August 1964. From the mid-1950s on, Treacher became a familiar figure on American television as a guest on talk shows and panel games, including The Tonight Show, I've Got a Secret, The Garry Moore Show.

In 1964, Treacher was cast in the role of Constable Jones in the hugely successful Walt Disney movie Mary Poppins. That same year, he played the role of stuffy English butler Arthur Pinckney in two episodes of The Beverly Hillbillies. Pinckney mistakenly believed the hillbillies were the domestic servants of the family by whom he was hired, while the hillbillies believed Pinckney was a boarder at their Beverly Hills mansion, he became better known to American television audiences when talk-show host Merv Griffin made him announcer and occasional bantering partner on The Merv Griffin Show from 1965–70. When in 1969 Griffin switched from syndication to the CBS network, network executives insisted that Treacher was too old for the show, but Griffin fought to keep Treacher and won. However, when Griffin relocated his show to Los Angeles the next year, Treacher stayed behind, telling Griffin "at my age, I don't want to move to someplace that shakes!" During this period of latter-day popularity, Treacher capitalised on his name recognition through the use of his name and image for such franchised business concerns as the Call Arthur Treacher Service System and Arthur Treacher's Fish and Chips restaurants.

The restaurants became popular during the 1970s and increased to nearly 900 outlets, although it is unclear whether or not Treacher had any direct ownership involvement with the company. By 2016, there were seven restaurants. Treacher died at the age of 81 due to cardiovascular disease. Arthur Treacher on IMDb Arthur Treacher at the Internet Broadway Database Arthur Treacher at Find a Grave