Mad scientist is a stock character of a scientist, described as "mad" or "insane" owing to a combination of unusual or unsettling personality traits and the unabashedly ambitious, taboo or hubristic nature of their experiments. As a motif in fiction, the mad scientist may be antagonistic, benign or neutral; some may have benevolent or good-spirited intentions if their actions are dangerous or questionable, which can make them accidental villains. The prototypical fictional mad scientist was Victor Frankenstein, creator of his eponymous monster, who made his first appearance in 1818, in the novel Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley. Though the novel's title character, Victor Frankenstein, is a sympathetic character, the critical element of conducting experiments that cross "boundaries that ought not to be crossed", heedless of the consequences, is present in Shelley's novel. Frankenstein was trained as both an alchemist and a modern scientist, which makes him the bridge between two eras of an evolving archetype.
The book is said to be a precursor of a new genre, science fiction, although as an example of gothic horror it is connected with other antecedents as well. The year 1896 saw the publication of H. G. Wells's The Island of Doctor Moreau, in which the titular doctor—a controversial vivisectionist—has isolated himself from civilisation in order to continue his experiments in surgically reshaping animals into humanoid forms, heedless of the suffering he causes. Fritz Lang's movie Metropolis brought the archetypical mad scientist to the screen in the form of Rotwang, the evil genius whose machines had given life to the dystopian city of the title. Rotwang's laboratory influenced many subsequent movie sets with its electrical arcs, bubbling apparatus, bizarrely complicated arrays of dials and controls. Portrayed by actor Rudolf Klein-Rogge, Rotwang himself is the prototypically conflicted mad scientist. Rotwang's appearance was influential—the character's shock of flyaway hair, wild-eyed demeanor, his quasi-fascist laboratory garb have all been adopted as shorthand for the mad scientist "look."
His mechanical right hand has become a mark of twisted scientific power, echoed notably in Stanley Kubrick's film Dr. Strangelove, Or--How I Learned To Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb and in the novel The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch by Philip K. Dick. A recent survey of 1,000 horror films distributed in the UK between the 1930s and 1980s reveals mad scientists or their creations have been the villains of 30 percent of the films. Mad scientists were most conspicuous in popular culture after World War II; the sadistic human experimentation conducted under the auspices of the Nazis those of Josef Mengele, the invention of the atomic bomb, gave rise in this period to genuine fears that science and technology had gone out of control. That the scientific and technological build-up during the Cold War brought about increasing threats of unparalleled destruction of the human species did not lessen the impression. Mad scientists figure in science fiction and motion pictures from the period. Girl Genius Fringe science Boffin Crank Creativity techniques Creativity and mental illness Edisonade, a similar trope, about a brilliant inventor, but of positive attitudes List of mad scientists Megalomania Allen, Glen Scott.
Master Mechanics and Wicked Wizards: Images of the American Scientist from Colonial Times to the Present. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-703-0. Frayling, Christopher – Mad and Dangerous?: The Scientist and the Cinema ISBN 1-86189-255-1 Garboden, Nick. Mad Scientist or Angry Lab Tech: How to Spot Insanity. Portland: Doctored Papers. ISBN 1-56363-660-3. Haynes, Roslynn Doris. From Faust to Strangelove: Representations of the Scientist in Western Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4801-6. Junge, Torsten. Wahnsinnig genial: Der Mad Scientist Reader. Aschaffenburg: Alibri. ISBN 3-932710-79-7. Norton, Trevor. Smoking Ears and Screaming Teeth.. Century. ISBN 978-1-84605-569-0. Schlesinger, Judith; the Insanity Hoax: Exposing the Myth of the Mad Genius. Ardsley-on-Hudson, N. Y. Shrinktunes Media ISBN 978-0-98369-824-1. James T. Webb, Ph. D.. "A Book Review of The Insanity Hoax: Exposing the Myth of the Mad Genius". The National Psychologist. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
Schneider, Reto U.. The Mad Science Book. 100 Amazing Experiments from the History of Science. London: Quercus. ISBN 978-1-84724-494-9. Tudor, Andrew. Monsters and Mad Scientists: A Cultural History of the Horror Movie. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-15279-2. Weart, Spencer R.. Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Gary Hoppenstand, "Dinosaur Doctors and Jurassic Geniuses: The Changing Image of the Scientist in the Lost World Adventure" The Scarecrow's Brain – images of the scientist in film, Christopher Frayling Breaking Down the Stereotypes of Science by Recruiting Young Scientists The Mad Scientist Database with links and Looks Mad Science Experiments TV Tropes article on the Mad Scientist stock character
The 2014–15 Malaysia floods affected Malaysia from 15 December 2014 – 3 January 2015. More than 200,000 people were affected; this flood have been described as the worst floods in decades. As part of the northeast monsoon, heavy rains since 17 December forced 3,390 people in Kelantan and 4,209 people in Terengganu to flee their homes. Several Keretapi Tanah Melayu intercity train services along the East Coast route were disrupted on 18 December following the floods. On 20 December, the area of Kajang, was hit by serious floods. By 23 December, most rivers in Kelantan, Pahang and Terengganu had reached dangerous levels. Due to rising water levels, most businesses were affected and about 60,000 people were evacuated the following day; the state of Kelantan had the most evacuees, followed by Terengganu, Perak and Perlis. The situation continues to worsen in Terengganu, due to heavy rain. Most roads in Kelantan have been closed; the worst-hit district in Terengganu is Kemaman, followed by Dungun, Kuala Terengganu, Hulu Terengganu and Marang.
In Pahang, the worst-hit areas are Kuantan, Jerantut and Pekan. Dozens of foreign tourists were stranded at a resort in a Malaysian national park in Pahang. Most were travellers from Canada, Britain and Romania. All were rescued via helicopter. In Kedah, at least 51 people were evacuated. A teenager in Perlis was the first victim to die in this flood. In southern Malaysia, between 300 and 350 people have been displaced in both Johor and Negeri Sembilan; the number of evacuees nationwide reached more than 200,000 by 28 December, with 10 people killed. The flooding is considered the country's worst in decades. However, the exact numbers of evacuees, missing persons and deaths are unknown, as the Malaysian flood centre was unable to provide any accurate figures; some victim were found in miserable condition as the victim had to survive on one meal of rice a day after he was stranded in the floods. On 31 December, a Royal Malaysia Police Ecureuill AS 355F2 helicopter crashed during a patrol in Kelantan, injuring four crews on board.
In Sabah, heavy rains since 21 December resulted in flooding throughout most areas in the district of Beaufort. As many as 30 villages were affected due to the water level of Padas River rising up to 9.26 metres above the danger level, with the floods caused by the overflow of water from the river's upper reaches in the Tenom district. About 292 people were evacuated as the flood situation worsened in Beaufort, while the condition improved in the interior districts of Tenom and Kemabong; the number of victims increased to 300 overnight. Most victims in Tenom were able to return home, with only one of the eleven flood relief centres still operational as water levels receded. However, more relief centres are expected to be opened if the rain continues and the water from upper Tenom and Keningau flood the Padas River. In Kudat, 9 families comprising 63 people were affected by floods and have sought shelter at relatives' and neighbours' houses. In Sarawak, several villages in upper Baram hit by floods on 29 December.
As of 2 January 2015, floodwaters continued to recede and the number of evacuees in Kelantan, Terengganu and Perak continued to reduce while the state of Sabah once again prepared for rising numbers of evacuees as floodwaters has started to rise in Kota Belud. Over 1,000 people been evacuated in northern Sabah during the floods. On 3 January, the area of south-western Sipitang district was flooded while floods in the northern Sabah including Kota Belud, Kota Marudu and Pitas had receded. In Tawau, three primary schools were affected by floods but the waters began to recede at the afternoon; as of 29 December, the flooding has affected 102 health facilities in West Malaysia, 38 of which are still operating. An anaesthesiologist working in Kelantan's Kuala Krai Hospital had to intubate a baby in the dark after a diesel generator ran out of fuel. Helicopters were used to evacuate patients from Kuala Krai Hospital; the 180 hospital staffs have been working tirelessly for over 5 days. The hospital doubled as a temporary relief centre for flood victims.
Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital in Kubang Kerian, experienced a blood shortage due to overwhelming life-saving demands. Medical students were mobilised to assist medical officers on duty at HUSM. Three universities namely Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin were affected by floods. Students of UMK decided to flee from their university in view of worsening flood crisis; such affected universities will be allowed to defer their examinations scheduled in early January 2015. In the meantime, Universiti Sains Malaysia Penang campus have been urging its Kelantan students to return to their campus earlier to avoid being trapped by floods; as of 28 December 2014, a total of 340 schools in Malaysia have either been converted into flood relief centres or flooded by waters. The Ministry of Education Malaysia announced that opening of all primary and secondary schools will be delayed by 1 week; this is to ensure that all schools are safe for the students before the opening day.
Palm oil and rubber prices have surged. Rubber output in Thailand and Malaysia will drop at least 30 per cent and prices been predicted to rise further; as floodwaters in Malaysia are not receding, palm oil production decline sharply. Shortage of food supplies, clean water, banking services and erratic communication problems continue to affect flood victims after the flood started to recede. Lack of banking services
Tygart Creek is a tributary of the Little Kanawha River, 14.5 miles long, in western West Virginia in the United States. Via the Little Kanawha and Ohio rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 51 square miles on the unglaciated portion of the Allegheny Plateau. Tygart Creek flows for its entire length in southern Wood County, it rises south of Rockport and flows northward through Rockport and Mineral Wells. It flows into the Little Kanawha River from the south 2 miles north of Mineral Wells, 6.7 miles upstream of the Little Kanawha River's mouth in Parkersburg. According to the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection 71% of the Tygart Creek watershed is forested deciduous. 28% is used for pasture and agriculture. List of rivers of West Virginia
"I Shot the Sheriff" is a song written by Bob Marley and released in 1973 by Bob Marley and the Wailers. The narrator claims to have acted in self-defense; the song was first released in 1973 on The Wailers' album Burnin'. Marley explained his intention as follows: "I want to say'I shot the police' but the government would have made a fuss so I said'I shot the sheriff' instead… but it's the same idea: justice."In 1992, with the controversy surrounding the Ice-T song "Cop Killer", Marley's song was cited by Ice-T's supporters as evidence of his detractors' hypocrisy, considering that the older song was never criticized despite having much the same theme. In 2012, Bob Marley's former girlfriend Esther Anderson claimed that the lyrics, "Sheriff John Brown always hated me, For what, I don't know: Every time I plant a seed, He said kill it before it grow" are about Marley being opposed to her use of birth control pills. Eric Clapton recorded a cover version, included on his 1974 album 461 Ocean Boulevard.
His take on the song has a soft rock and reggae sound. It is the most successful version of the song, peaking at number one on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2003, Clapton's version was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. "I Shot the Sheriff" was the lead single released from Warren G's second album, Take a Look Over Your Shoulder. Warren replaced Marley's original lyrics with his own, although Clapton's version of the song is sampled and R&B singer Nancy Fletcher sings the original chorus; the song was a hit in several countries. In the US, it peaked at number 20 on the Billboard Hot 100 and was certified Gold by the RIAA on 2 May 1997, it peaked at number two at number one in New Zealand. The official remix was produced by EPMD member Erick Sermon, it is based around EPMD's "Strictly Business", which sampled Clapton's version of the song
The Sanjak of Ioannina was a sanjak of the Ottoman Empire whose capital was Ioannina in Epirus. The Sanjak of Ioannina consisted of the following kazas: the central kaza of Ioannina, Filat, Leshovik, Konice and Permedi. From 1430 to 1670 the sanjak of Janina was part of Rumelia Eyalet. From 1670 to 1787 the Sanjak of Ioannina was part of the Ioannina Eyalet. In 1788 Ali Pasha gained control of Ioannina and merged it with Sanjak of Trikala into the Pashalik of Yanina. Ali Pasha was killed in 1822. In 1834 Mahmood Hamdi pasha was appointed to govern the Sanjak of Delvina and Avlona. In 1867 the Sanjak of Ioannina was merged with Berat, Gjirokastër, Preveza and Kastoria into the Vilayet of Ioannina. Kesriye was demoted to kaza and bounded to Monastir Vilayet. During the reign of Bayazid II the sanjakbey of Ioannina was Dâvud Pasha-zâde Mustafa Bey. At the elections of 1908 the region elected two representatives for the Ottoman parliament, both of them Greeks: Dimitraki Kingos Efendi and Konstantin Surla Efendi.
The area was occupied by Greek troops during the First Balkan War, was ceded to Greece in the London peace conference in 1913. From 1520 to 1538, according to the Ottoman census, the Sanjak of Ioannina was populated with 32,097 Christian families and 613 Moslem families. Birken, Andreas. Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients. 13. Reichert. ISBN 9783920153568. Nikolaidou, Eleftheria I.. "Η οργάνωση του κράτους στην απελευθερωμένη Ήπειρο". Dodoni. Ioannina: History and Archaeology Department of the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Ioannina. 16: 496–610
Manasu Palike Mouna Raagam is a 2006 Telugu film directed by K. Nagabhushan starring Sneha and Vikramaditya in the lead roles, it was a heroine oriented film and Sneha's performance was well appreciated. It was dubbed to Tamil in the year 2009 as Yen Indha Mounam; the movie was a flop. Gowri was an educated and beautiful young woman who lives along with her father in a village, but due to fate she becomes an orphan. Rao, friend of her father takes her to his home in town and Gowri starts her new life among the complete strangers, she pretty much does all the work at their home though Chandna, wife of Rao doesn't approve of her much. Uma, Rao's daughter Uma gets married to Viswa, who starts flirting with Gowri; when it becomes known to family, Gowri takes all the blame to avoid conflicts between the couple. But Viswa comes out and tells everyone that he was the one who started pursuing Gowri as his marital life wasn't good. Everybody gets shocked to know that Uma and Viswa are planning to get divorced but Gowri advises marital counselling to avoid all that.
To everyone's relief and Viswa manage their differences with the help of counselling and reconcile. Chandana, Rao's wife grows fond of her, their son Vikram comes to visit them from abroad and Gowri gets impressed with him. Rao's couple settles Gowri's marriage somewhere else without asking her consent, she halfheartedly agrees. But Vikram finds out that groom gets him arrested minutes before the wedding. Gowri becomes happy about that but Vikram still shows no interest for her, his parents arrange a match for him but girl leaves after listening to Vikram's proposal of staying together for some time before marriage. He comes to Gowri and tries to get physically intimate with her, she refuses and expresses her love for him. Vikram says that he wouldn't believe in all this love nonsense but Gowri explains him the sanctity and selfless nature of love, it impresses Vikram and impresses Chandana who happens to overhear all this conservation. She gives her consent for their marriage and Gowri settles as daughter-in-law in that house.
Sneha as Gowri Vikramaditya as Vikram Sarath Babu as Rao Ambika as Jyothi Aishwarya as Rani Raghavayya Chandana L. B. Sriram Suman Setty Ramesh Khanna Pandu as Pandian Manasu Palike Mouna Raagam Review Sneha's performance Manasu Palike Mouna Raagam to be dubbed to Tamil and Phto Gallery