Madama Butterfly

Madama Butterfly is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. It is based on the short story "Madame Butterfly" by John Luther Long, which in turn was based on stories told to Long by his sister Jennie Correll and on the semi-autobiographical 1887 French novel Madame Chrysanthème by Pierre Loti. Long's version was dramatized by David Belasco as the one-act play Madame Butterfly: A Tragedy of Japan, after premiering in New York in 1900, moved to London, where Puccini saw it in the summer of that year; the original version of the opera, in two acts, had its premiere on 17 February 1904 at La Scala in Milan. It was poorly received, despite having such notable singers as soprano Rosina Storchio, tenor Giovanni Zenatello and baritone Giuseppe De Luca in lead roles; this was due in part to a late completion by Puccini. Puccini revised the opera, splitting the second act in two, with the Humming Chorus as a bridge to what became Act III, making other changes.

Success ensued. Madama Butterfly has become a staple of the operatic repertoire around the world, ranked 6th by Operabase. Puccini wrote five versions of the opera; the original two-act version, presented at the world premiere at La Scala on 17 February 1904, was withdrawn after the disastrous premiere. Puccini substantially rewrote it, this time in three acts; this second version was performed on 28 May 1904 in Brescia, where it was a great success, with Solomiya Krushelnytska as Cio-Cio-san. It was this second version that premiered in the United States in 1906, first in Washington, D. C. in October, in New York in November, performed by Henry Savage's New English Opera Company. In 1906, Puccini wrote a third version, performed at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. In 1907, Puccini made several changes in the orchestral and vocal scores, this became the fourth version, performed in Paris. In 1907, Puccini made his final revisions to the opera in a fifth version, which has become known as the "Standard Version" and is the one, most performed around the world.

However, the original 1904 version is performed, such as for the opening of La Scala's season on 7 December 2016, with Riccardo Chailly conducting. Premieres of the standard version in major opera houses throughout the world include those in the Teatro de la Opera de Buenos Aires on 2 July 1904, under Arturo Toscanini, this being the first performance in the world outside Italy, its first performance in Britain was in London on 10 July 1905 at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, while the first US performance was presented in English on 15 October 1906, in Washington, D. C. at the Columbia Theater. The first performance in New York took place on 12 November of the same year at the Garden Theatre; the Metropolitan Opera first performed the work on 11 February 1907 in the presence of the composer with Geraldine Farrar as Cio-Cio San, Enrico Caruso as Pinkerton, Louise Homer as Suzuki, Antonio Scotti as Sharpless, Arturo Vigna conducting. Three years the first Australian performance was presented at the Theatre Royal in Sydney on 26 March 1910, starring Amy Eliza Castles.

Between 1915 and 1920, Japan's best-known opera singer Tamaki Miura won international fame for her performances as Cio-Cio-san. A memorial to this singer, along with one to Puccini, can be found in the Glover Garden in the port city of Nagasaki, where the opera is set. Time: 1904. Place: Nagasaki, Japan. In 1904, a U. S. naval officer named Pinkerton rents a house on a hill in Nagasaki, for himself and his soon-to-be wife, "Butterfly". Her real name is Ciocio-san, she is a 15-year-old Japanese girl whom he is marrying for convenience, he intends to leave her once he finds a proper American wife, since Japanese divorce laws are lax. The wedding is to take place at the house. Butterfly had been so excited to marry an American that she had earlier secretly converted to Christianity. After the wedding ceremony, her uninvited uncle, a bonze, who has found out about her conversion, comes to the house, curses her and orders all the guests to leave, which they do while renouncing her. Pinkerton and Butterfly prepare to spend their first night together.

Three years Butterfly is still waiting for Pinkerton to return, as he had left shortly after their wedding. Her maid Suzuki keeps trying to convince her that he is not coming back, but Butterfly will not listen to her. Goro, the marriage broker who arranged her marriage, keeps trying to marry her off again, but she does not listen to him either; the American consul, comes to the house with a letter which he has received from Pinkerton which asks him to break some news to Butterfly: that Pinkerton is coming back to Japan, but Sharpless cannot bring himself to finish it because Butterfly becomes excited to hear that Pinkerton is coming back. Sharpless asks Butterfly, she reveals that she gave birth to Pinkerton's son after he had left and asks Sharpless to tell him. From the hill house, Butterfly sees Pinkerton's ship arriving in the harbour, she and Suzuki prepare for his arrival, they wait. Suzuki and the child Butterfly stays up all night waiting for him to arrive. Suzuki wakes up in the morning and Butterfly falls asleep.

Sharpless and Pinkerton arrive at the house, along with Pinkerton

Stanborough School, Watford

Stanborough School is a coeducational independent day and boarding school in Watford, England. Situated in 40 acres of parkland in the village of Garston, it was founded by the Seventh-day Adventist church and remains under the governance of the church, it is a member of the Independent Schools Association. It is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system, the world's second largest Christian school system. Stanborough School was founded in 1919, it catered to the children of overseas missionaries. Over the years, the school began to cater for a wider range of students; as the school grew, the Primary section moved to a new facility in 1974 and an Early Learning Unit was added in 1990. The construction of a new complex for secondary and boarding students was completed in 1991. Stanborough school is set in over 40 acres of parkland, located 30 minutes from London; the boarding school occupies a section of the main school building. All the bedrooms have en-suite facilities with either a toilet.

The shared bedrooms can accommodate two or three boarders. The boarders are separated by gender with the boys on the first floor and the girls on the second floor. Boarders have access to all communal facilities; the communal area in the first floor has computers for the boarders to use, logging in with their school account. For those with their own laptop wireless internet is available. Boarders can communicate with their family and friends via Skype or social media. Boarders share the main school cafeteria for their main meals. Under the school policy the main meals are vegetarian. However, in the recreational lounge is a mini kitchen where boarders can prepare their own meals and snacks. Not all the boarders are vegetarian; the school grounds are over 40 acres and they are utilised by the students in sporting and relaxation activities. The boarders have access with supervision; the local amenities include the Medical Centre and the supermarkets, which are within walking distance. There are a wide range of clubs as well as a fine ensemble.

Peripatetic teachers offer tuition in a wide range of instruments. Some pupils in years 7 to 9 participate in drama and choir, with performances throughout the year and a major International Arts Festival held in the summer term. All pupils are placed in one of three Houses. Stanborough School has a student body of around 120 pupils; the school has an enrolment representing 40 different nationalities. Between 2011 and 2016, the average GCSE result was 81%. Stanborough School is a mixed ability school with a high international enrolment. Most pupils move on to university upon completion of Advanced Levels. International Stanborough School makes provision for students for who are learning to speak English as an additional language, it is separately registered with the Department for Education but shares the campus and facilities as the main school. Both are owned by the British Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists; the main purpose of the international school is to help students develop the necessary fluency and competency in English to transfer to the main school.

More than half of the current students come from Hong Kong or Korea and the rest from six other countries. The school shares all facilities with the main secondary school. A member of staff meets with parents when representing the international school during visits to Hong Kong. Stanborough School homepage Stanborough School – IB World School homepage Profile on the ISC website Secondary School – ISI Inspection Reports & Ofsted Boarding Inspection Reports Primary School Ofsted Inspection Reports List of Seventh-day Adventist secondary and elementary schools Seventh-day Adventist education Seventh-day Adventist Church Seventh-day Adventist theology History of the Seventh-day Adventist Church

William J. Hibbler

William J. Hibbler was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois. Born in Kennedy, Hibbler received a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1969 and a Juris Doctor from DePaul University College of Law in 1973, he was an assistant state's attorney of the Cook County State's Attorney Office from 1973 to 1977. He was in private practice in Chicago, Illinois from 1977 to 1981, returning to the Cook County State's Attorney Office from 1981 to 1986, he was an associate judge, Cook County Circuit Court from 1986 to 1999, while teaching as an adjunct professor in the Chicago–Kent College of Law from 1989 to 1999. On January 26, 1999, Hibbler was nominated by President Bill Clinton to a seat on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois vacated by James Henry Alesia. Hibbler was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 15, 1999, received his commission on April 22, 1999.

Hibbler died Monday March 2012 at age 65 after an unspecified illness. FJC Bio