The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding; the early half of the Gilded Age coincided with the middle portion of the Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France. Its beginning in the years after the American Civil War overlaps the Reconstruction Era, it was followed in the 1890s by the Progressive Era. The Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth in the North and West; as American wages were much higher than those in Europe for skilled workers, the period saw an influx of millions of European immigrants. The rapid expansion of industrialization led to real wage growth of 60% between 1860 and 1890, spread across the ever-increasing labor force; the average annual wage per industrial worker rose from $380 in 1880 to $564 in 1890, a gain of 48%.
However, the Gilded Age was an era of abject poverty and inequality as millions of immigrants—many from impoverished regions—poured into the United States, the high concentration of wealth became more visible and contentious. Railroads were the major growth industry, with the factory system and finance increasing in importance. Immigration from Europe and the eastern states led to the rapid growth of the West, based on farming and mining. Labor unions became important in the rapidly growing industrial cities. Two major nationwide depressions—the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893—interrupted growth and caused social and political upheavals; the South after the Civil War remained economically devastated. With the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877, African-American people in the South were stripped of political power and voting rights and were left economically disadvantaged; the political landscape was notable in that despite some corruption, turnout was high and national elections saw two evenly matched parties.
The dominant issues were economic. With the rapid growth of cities, political machines took control of urban politics. In business, powerful nationwide trusts formed in some industries. Unions crusaded for the abolition of child labor. Local governments across the North and West built public schools chiefly at the elementary level; the numerous religious denominations were growing in membership and wealth, with Catholicism becoming the largest denomination. They all expanded their missionary activity to the world arena. Catholics and Episcopalians set up religious schools and the larger denominations set up numerous colleges and charities. Many of the problems faced by society the poor, during the Gilded Age gave rise to attempted reforms in the subsequent Progressive Era; the term "Gilded Age" for the period of economic boom after the American Civil War up to the turn of the century was applied to the era by historians in the 1920s, who took the term from one of Mark Twain's lesser known novels, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today.
The book satirized the promised "golden age" after the Civil War, portrayed as an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic expansion. In the 1920s and 30s "Gilded Age" became a designated period in American history; the term was adopted by literary and cultural critics as well as historians, including Van Wyck Brooks, Lewis Mumford, Charles Austin Beard, Mary Ritter Beard, Vernon Louis Parrington and Matthew Josephson. For them, "Gilded Age" was a pejorative term used to describe a time of materialistic excesses combined with extreme poverty; the early half of the Gilded Age coincided with the middle portion of the Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France. With respect to eras of American history, historical views vary as to when the Gilded Age began, ranging from starting right after the American Civil War, or 1873, or as the Reconstruction Era ended in 1877; the point noted as the end of the Gilded Age varies. It is given as the beginning of the Progressive Era in the 1890s but falls in a range that includes the Spanish–American War in 1898, Theodore Roosevelt's accession to the presidency in 1901, the U.
S. entry into World War I. The Gilded Age was a period of economic growth as the United States jumped to the lead in industrialization ahead of Britain; the nation was expanding its economy into new areas heavy industry like factories and coal mining. In 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad opened up ranching regions. Travel from New York to San Francisco now took six days instead of six months. Railroad track mileage tripled between 1860 and 1880, doubled again by 1920; the new track linked isolated areas with larger markets and allowed for the rise of commercial farming and mining, creating a national marketplace. American steel production rose to surpass the combined totals of Britain and France. Investors in London and Paris poured money into the railroads through the American financial market centered in
Calomel is a mercury chloride mineral with formula Hg2Cl2. The name derives from Greek melos because it turns black on reaction with ammonia; this was known to alchemists. Calomel occurs as a secondary mineral, it occurs with native mercury, cinnabar, mercurian tetrahedrite, terlinguaite, kleinite, kadyrelite, chursinite, calcite and various clay minerals. The type locality is Alsenz-Obermoschel, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Calomel is used as the interface between metallic mercury and a chloride solution in a saturated calomel electrode, used in electrochemistry to measure pH and electrical potentials in solutions, In most electrochemical measurements, it is necessary to keep one of the electrodes in an electrochemical cell at a constant potential; this so-called reference electrode allows control of the potential of a working electrode. Calomel was a widespread and popular medicine for administration to infants as a purgative to treat intestinal worms and "clear out noxious matter" but was used indiscriminately for a great number of ailments.
It is tasteless and, mixed with a sweetener, was taken. Fumigation tents to supply calomel, heated on a metal plate, as a sublimate within children's lungs were a method of delivery; as the mercury it contained had the effect of softening the gums, it was made the principle constituent of teething powders, until the mid-twentieth century. The compound is a laxative and once was a common medicine on the American frontier, it fell out of use at the end of the 19th century due to its toxicity. One victim was Alvin Smith, the eldest brother of Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.. It was used by Charles Darwin to treat the severe gastrointestinal infection that began the inductive phase of his documented Crohn's disease
Helleborus niger called Christmas rose or black hellebore, is an evergreen perennial flowering plant in the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae. It is poisonous. Although the flowers resemble wild roses, Christmas rose; the black hellebore was described by Carl Linnaeus in volume one of his Species Plantarum in 1753. The Latin specific name niger may refer to the colour of the roots. There are two subspecies: H. niger macranthus, which has larger flowers. In the wild, H. niger niger is found in mountainous areas in Switzerland, southern Germany, Slovenia and northern Italy. Helleborus niger macranthus is found only in northern Italy and adjoining parts of Slovenia. Helleborus niger is an evergreen plant with dark leathery pedate leaves carried on stems 9–12 in tall; the large flat flowers, borne on short stems from midwinter to early spring, are white, but purple or pink. The tips of the petals may be flushed pink or green, there is a prominent central boss of yellow; the plant is a traditional cottage garden favourite.
Large-flowered cultivars are available, as are double-flowered selections. It has been awarded an Award of Garden Merit H4 by the Royal Horticultural Society, as has one of its hybrids, it can be difficult to grow well. Moist, humus-rich, alkaline soil in dappled shade is preferable. Leaf-mould can be dug in to improve heavy clay or light sandy soils. Since the 1950s,'Potter's Wheel' has been one of the most famous names associated with H. niger. It originated with a self-sown seedling given by Major G. H. Tristram of Dallington, Sussex, to Hilda Davenport-Jones who had a nursery at nearby Washfield, Kent; the seedling proved to be exceptionally large-flowered, but it was too slow-growing to be'bulked up' so she propagated it as a rigorously-selected uniform seed strain rather than as a vegetatively propagated cultivar.'Potter's Wheel"Marion"Praecox' Nurserymen have tried for many years to cross H. niger with oriental hellebores H. × hybridus to increase the colour range available. Possible hybrids have been announced in the past, only to be disproved, but two crosses have been confirmed in recent years.'Snow Queen', a white-flowered plant, arose spontaneously in Japan in the late 1990s, but does not look different from a good H. niger.
Raised in 2000 by plant breeder David Tristram, Helleborus'Walberton's Rosemary' is pink-flowered floriferous, seems to be intermediate between its parents in many other characteristics. Helleborus niger has proved easier to cross with other hellebore species. Crosses between it and H. argutifolius are called H. × nigercors. First made in 1931, the hybrid is a tough plant with white flowers flushed with green, it has been awarded an AGM H4. Double-flowered plants are available. Hybrids between H. niger and H. × sternii were called H. × nigristern, but this name has been changed in favour of H. × ericsmithii. At their best, the hybrids combine the hardiness of H. niger and H. argutifolius, the large flowers of H. niger, the leaf and flower colour of H. lividus. Cultivars such as'Bob's Best','HGC Silvermoon','Ruby Glow' and'Winter Moonbeam' are available. Helleborus niger has been crossed with H. lividus. Helleborus niger contains protoanemonin, or ranunculin, which has an acrid taste and can cause burning of the eyes and throat, oral ulceration and hematemesis.
Helleborus niger is called the Christmas rose, due to an old legend that it sprouted in the snow from the tears of a young girl who had no gift to give the Christ child in Bethlehem. One subspecies blooms at the abbey in England believed by some to have been established by St. Thomas. There is a source; this date had been Christmas Day under the old Julian calendar. So when Christmas Day under the new calendar came around and the flower did not bloom, it was such a frightful omen that England did not adopt the Gregorian calendar at that time in 1588. In the Middle Ages, people strewed the flowers on the floors of their homes to drive out evil influences, they used it to ward off the power of witches. These same people believed, that witches employed the herb in their spells and that sorcerers tossed the powdered herb into the air around them to make themselves invisible. In the early days of medicine, two kinds of hellebore were recognized: black hellebore, which included various species of Helleborus, white hellebore.
Black hellebore was used by the ancients to treat insanity, melancholy and epilepsy. It is toxic, causing tinnitus, stupor, thirst, a feeling of
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic and empiricism, rather than authority, revelation, or dogma. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a freethinker is'a person who forms their own ideas and opinions rather than accepting those of other people in religious teaching.' In some contemporary thought in particular, freethought is tied with rejection of traditional social or religious belief systems. The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking", practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers". Modern freethinkers consider freethought as a natural freedom of all negative and illusive thoughts acquired from the society; the term first came into use in the 17th century in order to indicate people who inquired into the basis of traditional religious beliefs. In practice, freethinking is most linked with secularism, agnosticism, anti-clericalism, religious critique; the Oxford English Dictionary defines freethinking as, "The free exercise of reason in matters of religious belief, unrestrained by deference to authority.
Freethinkers hold that knowledge should be grounded in facts, scientific inquiry, logic. The skeptical application of science implies freedom from the intellectually limiting effects of confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, or sectarianism. Atheist author Adam Lee defines freethought as thinking, independent of revelation, established belief, authority, considers it as a "broader umbrella" than atheism "that embraces a rainbow of unorthodoxy, religious dissent and unconventional thinking."The basic summarizing statement of the essay The Ethics of Belief by the 19th-century British mathematician and philosopher William Kingdon Clifford is: "It is wrong always and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence." The essay became a rallying cry for freethinkers when published in the 1870s, has been described as a point when freethinkers grabbed the moral high ground. Clifford was himself an organizer of freethought gatherings, the driving force behind the Congress of Liberal Thinkers held in 1878.
Regarding religion, freethinkers hold that there is insufficient evidence to support the existence of supernatural phenomena. According to the Freedom from Religion Foundation, "No one can be a freethinker who demands conformity to a bible, creed, or messiah. To the freethinker and faith are invalid, orthodoxy is no guarantee of truth." And "Freethinkers are convinced that religious claims have not withstood the tests of reason. Not only is there nothing to be gained by believing an untruth, but there is everything to lose when we sacrifice the indispensable tool of reason on the altar of superstition. Most freethinkers consider religion to be not only untrue, but harmful."However, philosopher Bertrand Russell wrote the following in his 1944 essay "The Value of Free Thought:" What makes a freethinker is not his beliefs but the way in which he holds them. If he holds them because his elders told him they were true when he was young, or if he holds them because if he did not he would be unhappy, his thought is not free.
The whole first paragraph of the essay makes it clear that a freethinker is not an atheist or an agnostic, as long as he or she satisfies this definition: The person, free in any respect is free from something. To be worthy of the name, he must be free of two things: the force of tradition, the tyranny of his own passions. No one is free from either, but in the measure of a man's emancipation he deserves to be called a free thinker. Fred Edwords, former executive of the American Humanist Association, suggests that by Russell's definition, liberal religionists who have challenged established orthodoxies can be considered freethinkers. On the other hand, according to Bertrand Russell, atheists and/or agnostics are not freethinkers; as an example, he mentions Stalin, whom he compares to a "pope": what I am concerned with is the doctrine of the modern Communistic Party, of the Russian Government to which it owes allegiance. According to this doctrine, the world develops on the lines of a Plan called Dialectical Materialism, first discovered by Karl Marx, embodied in the practice of a great state by Lenin, now expounded from day to day by a Church of which Stalin is the Pope.
Free discussion is to be prevented. In the 18th and 19th century, many thinkers regarded as freethinkers were deists, arguing that the nature of God can only be known from a study of nature rather than from religious revelation. In the 18th century, "deism" was as much of a'dirty word' as "atheism", deists were stigmatized as either atheists or at least as freethinkers by their Christian opponents. Deists today regard themselves as freethinkers, but are now arguably less prominent in the freethought movement than atheists. Among freethinkers, for a notion to be considered true it must be testable, verifiable and logical. Many freethinkers tend to be humanists, where they basing morality on human needs and would find meaning in human compassion, social progress, personal happiness and the furtherance of knowledge
A patent medicine known as a nostrum is a commercial product advertised as a purported over-the-counter medicine, without regard to its effectiveness. Patent medicines were one of the first major product categories that the advertising industry promoted. Patent medicine advertising marketed products as being medical panaceas and emphasized exotic ingredients and endorsements from purported experts or celebrities, which may or may have not been true. Patent medicines were constricted in the United States in the early 20th century as the Food and Drug Administration and Federal Trade Commission added ever-increasing regulations to prevent fraud, unintentional poisoning and deceptive advertising. Sellers of liniments, claimed to contain snake oil and falsely promoted as a cure-all, made the snake oil salesman a lasting symbol for a charlatan; the phrase "patent medicine" comes from the late 17th century marketing of medical elixirs, when those who found favour with royalty were issued letters patent authorising the use of the royal endorsement in advertising.
Few if any of the nostrums were patented. Furthermore, patenting one of these remedies would have meant publicly disclosing its ingredients, which most promoters sought to avoid. Advertisement kept these patent medications in the public eye and gave the belief that no disease was beyond the cure of patent medication. “The medicine man’s key task became not production but sales, the job of persuading ailing citizens to buy his particular brand from among the hundreds offered. Whether unscrupulous or self-deluded, nostrum makers set about this task with cleverness and zeal.”Instead, the compounders of such nostrums used a primitive version of branding to distinguish their products from the crowd of their competitors. Many extant brands from the era live on today in brands such as Luden's cough drops, Lydia E. Pinkham's vegetable compound for women, Fletcher's Castoria and Angostura bitters, once marketed as a stomachic. Though sold at high prices, many of these products were made from cheap ingredients.
Their composition was well known within the pharmacy trade, druggists manufactured and sold medicines of identical composition. To protect profits, the branded medicine advertisements emphasized brand names, urged the public to "accept no substitutes". With the rising popularity of patent medicine in advertising, The Kellogg Company of Canada adopted similar tactics, publishing a book named A New Way of Living that would show readers "how to achieve a new way of living, it touted the All-Bran cereal as the secret to leading "normal" lives free of constipation. At least in the earliest days, the history of patent medicines is coextensive with scientific medicine. Empirical medicine, the beginning of the application of the scientific method to medicine, began to yield a few orthodoxly acceptable herbal and mineral drugs for the physician's arsenal; these few remedies, on the other hand, were inadequate to cover the bewildering variety of diseases and symptoms. Beyond these patches of evidence-based application, people used other methods, such as occultism.
This led medical men to hope, at least, say, walnut shells might be good for skull fractures. Homeopathy, the notion that illness is binary and can be treated by ingredients that cause the same symptoms in healthy people, was another outgrowth of this early era of medicine. Given the state of the pharmacopoeia, patients' demands for something to take, physicians began making "blunderbuss" concoctions of various drugs and unproven; these concoctions were the ancestors of the several nostrums. Touting these nostrums was one of the first major projects of the advertising industry; the marketing of nostrums under implausible claims has a long history. In Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, allusion is made to the sale of medical compounds claimed to be universal panaceas: As to Squire Western, he was out of the sick-room, unless when he was engaged either in the field or over his bottle. Nay, he would sometimes retire hither to take his beer, it was not without difficulty that he was prevented from forcing Jones to take his beer too: for no quack held his nostrum to be a more general panacea than he did this.
Within the English-speaking world, patent medicines are as old as journalism. "Anderson's Pills" were first made in England in the 1630s. Daffy's Elixir was invented about 1647 and remained popular in Britain and the USA until the late 19th century; the use of "letters patent" to obtain exclusive marketing rights to certain labelled formulas and their marketing fueled the circulation of early newspapers. The use of invented names began early. In 1726 a patent was granted to the makers of Dr Bateman's Pectoral Drops; this was the enterprise of a Benjamin Okell and a group of promoters who owned a warehouse and a print shop
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem, it is considered one of the most elegant streets in the world. A narrower thoroughfare, much of Fifth Avenue south of Central Park was widened in 1908, sacrificing its wide sidewalks to accommodate the increasing traffic; the midtown blocks, now famously commercial, were a residential district until the start of the 20th century. The first commercial building on Fifth Avenue was erected by Benjamin Altman who bought the corner lot on the northeast corner of 34th Street in 1896, demolished the "Marble Palace" of his arch-rival, A. T. Stewart. In 1906 his department store, B. Altman and Company, occupied the whole of its block front; the result was the creation of a high-end shopping district that attracted fashionable women and the upscale stores that wished to serve them. Lord & Taylor's flagship store was once located on Fifth Avenue near the Empire State Building and the New York Public Library, but has since closed.
In the 1920s, traffic towers controlled important intersections from 14th to 59th Streets. Fifth Avenue originates at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village and runs northwards through the heart of Midtown, along the eastern side of Central Park, where it forms the boundary of the Upper East Side and through Harlem, where it terminates at the Harlem River at 142nd Street. Traffic crosses the river on the Madison Avenue Bridge. Fifth Avenue serves as the dividing line for house numbering and west-east streets in Manhattan, just as Jerome Avenue does in the Bronx, it separates, for example, East 59th Street from West 59th Street. From this zero point for street addresses, numbers increase in both directions as one moves away from Fifth Avenue, The building lot numbering system worked on the East Side as well, before Madison & Lexington Aves. were retrofitted into the street grid, confusing the building numbers. Confusingly, an address on a cross street cannot be predicted at the intersection of Madison Ave. or Lexington Ave. as these were added decades after the building numbers.
It's. The "most expensive street in the world" moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year. For several years starting in the mid-1990s, the shopping district between 49th and 57th Streets was ranked as having the world's most expensive retail spaces on a cost per square foot basis. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Fifth Avenue as being the most expensive street in the world; some of the most coveted real estate on Fifth Avenue are the penthouses perched atop the buildings. The American Planning Association compiled a list of "2012 Great Places in America" and declared Fifth Avenue to be one of the greatest streets to visit in America; this historic street has many world-renowned museums and stores, luxury apartments, historical landmarks that are reminiscent of its history and vision for the future. By 2018 portions of Fifth Avenue had large numbers of vacant store fronts for long periods, part of a citywide trend of vacant store fronts attributed to high rental costs.
Fifth Avenue from 142nd Street to 135th Street carries two-way traffic. Fifth Avenue carries one-way traffic southbound from 135th Street to Washington Square North; the changeover to one-way traffic south of 135th Street took place on January 14, 1966, at which time Madison Avenue was changed to one way uptown. From 124th Street to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, with southbound traffic diverted around the park via Mount Morris Park West. Fifth Avenue is the traditional route for many celebratory parades in New York City; the longest running parade is the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Parades held are distinct from the ticker-tape parades held on the "Canyon of Heroes" on lower Broadway, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade held on Broadway from the Upper West Side downtown to Herald Square. Fifth Avenue parades proceed from south to north, with the exception of the LGBT Pride March, which goes north to south to end in Greenwich Village; the Latino literary classic by New Yorker Giannina Braschi, entitled "Empire of Dreams," takes place on the Puerto Rican Day Parade on Fifth Avenue.
Bicycling on Fifth Avenue ranges from segregated with a bike lane south of 23rd Street, to scenic along Central Park, to dangerous through Midtown with heavy traffic during rush hours. There is no dedicated bike lane along Fifth Avenue. In July 1987 New York City Mayor Edward Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned; when the trial was started on Monday, August 24, 1987 for 90 days to ban bicyclists from these three avenues from 31st Street to 59th Street between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. on weekdays, mopeds would not be banned. On Monday, August 31, 1987, a state appeals court judge halted the ban for at least a week pending a ruling after opponents against the ban brought a lawsuit. Fifth Avenue is one of the few major streets in Manhattan along. Instead, Fifth Avenue Coach offered a service more to the taste of fashionable gentlefolk, at twice the fare. Double-decker buses were operated by the Fifth Avenue Coach Company until 1953, again by MTA Regional Bus Operations from 1976 to 1978.
Today, local bus service along Fifth Avenue is provided by the MTA's M1, M2, M3, M4 buses. The M5 and Q32 run on Fifth Avenue in Midtown, while the M55 runs on Fifth Avenue south of 44th Street