19th-century French literature
19th-century French literature concerns the developments in French literature during a dynamic period in French history that saw the rise of Democracy and the fitful end of Monarchy and Empire. The period covered spans the following political regimes: Napoleon Bonaparte's Consulate and Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X, the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe d'Orléans, the Second Republic, the Second Empire under Napoleon III, the first decades of the Third Republic. French literature enjoyed enormous international success in the 19th century; the first part of the century was dominated by Romanticism, until around the mid-century Realism emerged, at least as a reaction. In the last half of the century, "naturalism", "parnassian" poetry, "symbolism", among other styles, were competing tendencies at the same time; some writers did form into literary groups defined by a program or manifesto. In other cases, these expressions were pejorative terms given by critics to certain writers or have been used by modern literary historians to group writers of divergent projects or methods.
These labels can be useful in describing broad historical developments in the arts. French literature from the first half of the century was dominated by Romanticism, associated with such authors as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, père, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alphonse de Lamartine, Gérard de Nerval, Charles Nodier, Alfred de Musset, Théophile Gautier and Alfred de Vigny, their influence was felt in theatre, prose fiction. The effect of the romantic movement would continue to be felt in the latter half of the century in diverse literary developments, such as "realism", "symbolism", the so-called fin de siècle "decadent" movement. French romanticism used forms such as the historical novel, the romance, the "roman noir" or Gothic novel. Foreign influences played a big part in this those of Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, Byron and Friedrich Schiller. French Romanticism had ideals diametrically opposed to French classicism and the classical unities, but it could express a profound loss for aspects of the pre-revolutionary world in a society now dominated by money and fame, rather than honor.
Key ideas from early French Romanticism: "Le vague des passions": Chateaubriand maintained that while the imagination was rich, the world was cold and empty, civilization had only robbed men of their illusions. "Le mal du siècle": a sense of loss and aporia, typified by melancholy and lassitude. Romanticism in England and Germany predate French romanticism, although there was a kind of "pre-romanticism" in the works of Senancour and Jean-Jacques Rousseau at the end of the 18th century. French Romanticism took definite form in the works of François-René de Chateaubriand and Benjamin Constant and in Madame de Staël's interpretation of Germany as the land of romantic ideals, it found early expression in the sentimental poetry of Alphonse de Lamartine. The major battles of romanticism in France were in the theater; the early years of the century were marked by a revival of classicism and classical-inspired tragedies with themes of national sacrifice or patriotic heroism in keeping with the spirit of the Revolution, but the production of Victor Hugo's Hernani in 1830 marked the triumph of the romantic movement on the stage.
The dramatic unities of time and place were abolished and comic elements appeared together and metrical freedom was won. Marked by the plays of Friedrich Schiller, the romantics chose subjects from historic periods and doomed noble characters or misunderstood artists. Victor Hugo was the outstanding genius of its recognized leader, he was prolific alike in poetry and fiction. Other writers associated with the movement were the austere and pessimistic Alfred de Vigny, Théophile Gautier a devotee of beauty and creator of the "Art for art's sake" movement, Alfred de Musset, who best exemplifies romantic melancholy. All three wrote novels and short stories, Musset won a belated success with his plays. Alexandre Dumas, père wrote other romantic novels in an historical setting. Prosper Mérimée and Charles Nodier were masters of shorter fiction. Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, a literary critic, showed romantic expansiveness in his hospitality to all ideas and in his unfailing endeavour to understand and interpret authors rather than to judge them.
Romanticism is associated with a number of literary salons and groups: the Arsenal, the Cénacle, the salon of Louis Charles Delescluze, the salon of Antoine Deschamps, the salon of Madame de Staël. Romanticism in France defied political affiliation: one finds both "liberal", "conservative" and socialist strains; the expression "Realism", when being applied to literature of the 19th century, implies the attempt to depict cont
The Princess of Montpensier (novella)
The Princess of Montpensier is a short novel by Madame de La Fayette which came out anonymously in 1662 as her first published work. It is regarded not only as one of the first modern novels in French, but as both the prototype and a masterpiece of the historical novel. Set in France during the Wars of Religion, it tells the story of a young noblewoman, married without affection and loved platonically by her husband's best friend, who cannot refuse her former fiancé's impetuous brother and collapses under the emotional stress; some of the characters are historical and some made up for the story. The intelligent and good-looking Renée d'Anjou-Mézières is promised to the Duke of Mayenne, she loves his brother, the Duke of Guise, who loves her back. France becomes convulsed in the Wars of Religion and the leading families are forced to take sides. To the fury of Guise, her parents prefer an alliance with the powerful Montpensier family and she is married to the young Prince of Montpensier; as he has to go off to the wars, he leaves her at his castle in the care of the Count of Chabanes, his oldest and most trusted friend, to be her tutor.
Chabanes soon falls in love with the girl and, admits it to her. She says, her peaceful life in the country is disrupted when two great men are riding across the estate and see her in a boat on the river. One is her former suitor Guise, who has not stopped wanting her, the other is the heir to the throne, the Duke of Anjou. Determined to see more of her, Anjou invites himself and Guise to the castle, where Montpensier arrives as well to be their host. At the dinner table, Marie is surrounded by four men who desire her and, in the case of Montpensier and Guise, hate each other; when the Montpensiers are summoned to Paris, Guise tells Marie he still loves her while Anjou tries to win her favour. At a masked ball, Marie says how Anjou is pursuing her. In fact the man she whispered to was Anjou. Suspicious, Montpensier orders his wife back to their castle and she prevails on Chabanes, who everybody trusts, to carry messages to and from Guise; this becomes dangerous. Through Chabanes, Guise says he must see Marie face to face and, when she agrees, Chabanes smuggles him into her bedroom.
A noise wakes up Montpensier who, finding Marie's bedroom door locked, in fury starts breaking it down. When he bursts in, he finds Chabanes standing calmly and Marie fainting on the tiled floor. Chabanes says things are not what they seem and that Marie, in a state of nervous collapse, needs putting to bed, she never recovers from the shock. Chabanes is murdered by followers of Guise in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre and Guise swiftly makes an advantageous marriage; when Marie hears the news, she dies unable to overcome the grief of having lost the respect of her husband, the heart of her lover, the best friend there was. Love versus duty is the overriding theme of the book. An attractive and thoughtful young woman is torn between her desire for another man and her responsibilities as a wife. In this, she prefigures both the author's novel The Princess of Cleves and the tragic heroines in the plays of Jean Racine, her fate reflects the danger of uncontrolled emotion in a regulated society, where a woman's reputation is destroyed by perceived imprudence.
Compared with the floweriness and pomposity of much preceding French fiction, Madame de La Fayette writes in a pared-down prose which has the air of a dispassionate observer. Novellas by Jean Regnault de Segrais pioneered. Following Spanish models, he used a simple linear plot line and replaced artificial classical names with real French names, but he left locations vague, psychology inconsistent, external events prevailed over internal emotions. Madame de La Fayette's developments in her first work were unprecedented; the principal character is based on a real French woman in named places at a specific time in history, with her emotional trajectory described and analysed. Breaking away from the improbabilities of heroic and pastoral romances, believable characters live through the actual dramatic events of the period, recreated with accuracy, it is their internal conflicts which are the subject of the novel; the first edition, in octavo with 142 pages, was published anonymously by T. Jolly in Paris in 1662.
Handwritten copies of the work had been circulating for some time before, leading the author to complain that the novella'is racing all over the place, but not under my name'. Recent critical editions are: Cuénin, Micheline Histoire de la Princesse de Montpensier sous le règne de Charles IXe Roi de France et Histoire de la Comtesse de Tende, Droz, 1979. Esmein-Sarrazin, Camille Madame de Lafayette, Œuvres complètes, Gallimard in the collection Bibliothèque de La Pléiade, 2014. After over 350 years the book is still read in France, where for the 2017-18 academic year it was a set book in the baccalauréat littéraire, the first time in the history of the examination that a work by a woman author had been included. An adaptation for cinema was the 2010 film The Princess of Montpensier, directed by Bertrand Tavernier and scripted by him and Jean Cosmos from a treatment by François-Olivier Rousseau, which starred Mélanie Thierry as the conflicted heroine
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné was a French aristocrat, remembered for her letter-writing. Most of her letters, celebrated for their wit and vividness, were addressed to her daughter, she is revered in France as one of the great icons of French 17th-century literature. Marie de Rabutin-Chantal was born in the fashionable Place des Vosges, Paris, to an old and distinguished family from Burgundy, her father, Celse Bénigne de Rabutin, baron de Chantal, was the son of Saint Jane Frances de Chantal, a friend and disciple of Saint Francis de Sales. Her father was killed during the English attack on the Isle of Rhé in July 1627, his wife did not survive him by many years, Marie was left an orphan at the age of seven. She passed into the care of her maternal grandparents; when her grandfather, Philippe de Coulanges, died in 1636, her uncle, Christophe de Coulanges, abbé of Livry, became her guardian. She received a good education in his care and referred to him in her correspondence as "le Bien Bon".
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal married Henri, marquis de Sévigné, a nobleman from Brittany allied to the oldest houses of that province, but of no great estate. The marriage took place on 4 August 1644, the couple went immediately to the Sévigné manor house of Les Rochers, near Vitré, a place which she was to immortalize, she gave birth to a daughter, Françoise, on 10 October 1646, to a son, Charles, at Les Rochers on 12 March 1648. Henri was a serial philanderer who spent money recklessly, but through her uncle's careful financial oversight Marie was able to keep much of her fortune separate. On 4 February 1651, Henri de Sévigné was mortally wounded in a duel with the Chevalier d'Albret after a quarrel over his mistress, Mme de Gondran, died two days later. Though only twenty-four when her husband died, Mme de Sévigné never married again. Instead, she devoted herself to her children, she returned to Paris that November. Thereafter, she divided her time between the countryside. In Paris, she frequented salons that of Nicolas Fouquet, superintendent of finances to King Louis XIV.
Mme de Sévigné's most amusing correspondence before her daughter's marriage was addressed to her cousin and friend Roger de Bussy-Rabutin. However, in 1658, she quarrelled with him. On 29 January 1669, her daughter Françoise married François Adhémar de Monteil, comte de Grignan, a nobleman from Provence, married twice before; the couple intended to live in Paris, but Grignan was soon appointed as lieutenant governor of Provence, necessitating that they live there. Mme de Sévigné was close to her daughter, sent her the first of her famous letters on 6 February 1671, their correspondence lasted until Mme de Sévigné's death. By 1673, Mme de Sévigné's letters were being circulated. Therefore, she crafted them accordingly; the year 1676 saw several important events in Mme de Sévigné's life. For the first time she was ill and did not recover until she had visited Vichy; the letters depicting life at this 17th-century spa are among her best. The trial and execution of Madame de Brinvilliers took place that same year.
This event figures in the letters. The following year, in 1677, she moved into the Hôtel Carnavalet and welcomed the whole Grignan family to it, she returned to Provence in October 1678. On 17 March 1680, she had the grief of losing La Rochefoucauld, the most eminent and one of her closest friends; the proportion of letters that we have for the decade 1677-1687 is much smaller than that which represents the decade preceding it. In February 1684, her son Charles married Jeanne Marguerite de Mauron from Brittany. In the arrangements for this marriage, Mme de Sévigné divided all her fortune among her children and reserved for herself only part of the life interest. In 1688, the whole family was excited by the first campaign of the young marquis de Grignan, Mme de Grignan's only son, sent splendidly equipped to the siege of Philippsburg. In the same year, Mme de Sévigné attended the Saint-Cyr performance of Racine's Esther, some of her most amusing descriptions of court ceremonies and experiences date from this time.
In 1689, she wrote positively of the preacher Antoine Anselme. The year 1693 saw the loss of two of her oldest friends: her cousin Roger de Bussy-Rabutin and Madame de La Fayette. There was a family connection between these two great writers: in 1650, Mme de La Fayette's mother widowed, married Renaud de Sévigné, uncle of the great letter writer. Another friend as intimate, Mme de Lavardin, followed in 1694. During an illness of her daughter in 1696, Mme de Sévigné caught a "fever", died on 17 April at Grignan, was buried there, her daughter was not present during her illness. Mme de Sévigné corresponded with her daughter for nearly thirty years. A clandestine edition, containing twenty-eight letters or portions of letters, was published in 1725, followed by two others the next year. Pauline de Simiane, Mme de Sévigné's granddaughter, decided to publish her grandmother's correspondence. Working with the editor Denis-Marius Perrin of Aix-en-Provence, she published 614 letters in 1734-1737 772 letters in 1754.
The letters were selected according to Mme de Simiane's instructions: she rejected those that dealt too with family matters, or those that seemed poorly written. The remaining letters were rewritten in accordance with the style of the day; this raises a question of the letters' authentic
Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine, was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France, an important literary figure in the Western tradition. Racine was a tragedian, producing such "examples of neoclassical perfection" as Phèdre and Athalie, although he did write one comedy, Les Plaideurs, a muted tragedy, for the young. Racine's plays displayed his mastery of the dodecasyllabic alexandrine; the linguistic effects of Racine's poetry are considered to be untranslatable, although many eminent poets have attempted to do so, including Lowell, Richard Wilbur, Ted Hughes, Tony Harrison, Derek Mahon into English, Friedrich Schiller into German. The latest translations of Racine's plays into English have been by Alan Hollinghurst, by RADA director Edward Kemp, Neil Bartlett and earned a 2011 American Book Award for the poet Geoffrey Argent. Racine's dramaturgy is marked by his psychological insight, the prevailing passion of his characters, the nakedness of both plot and stage.
Racine was born on 22 December 1639 in La Ferté-Milon, in the province of Picardy in northern France. Orphaned by the age of four, he came into the care of his grandparents. At the death of his grandfather in 1649, his grandmother, Marie des Moulins, went to live in the convent of Port-Royal and took her grandson with her, he received a classical education at the Petites écoles de Port-Royal, a religious institution which would influence other contemporary figures including Blaise Pascal. Port-Royal was run by followers of Jansenism, a theology condemned as heretical by the French bishops and the Pope. Racine's interactions with the Jansenists in his years at this academy would have great influence over him for the rest of his life. At Port-Royal, he excelled in his studies of the Classics and the themes of Greek and Roman mythology would play large roles in his future works, he was expected to study law at the Collège d'Harcourt in Paris, but instead found himself drawn to a more artistic lifestyle.
Experimenting with poetry drew high praise from France's greatest literary critic, Nicolas Boileau, with whom Racine would become great friends. Racine took up residence in Paris where he became involved in theatrical circles, his first play, never reached the stage. On 20 June 1664, Racine's tragedy La Thébaïde ou les frères ennemis was produced by Molière's troupe at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal, in Paris; the following year, Molière put on Racine's second play, Alexandre le Grand. However, this play garnered such good feedback from the public that Racine secretly negotiated with a rival play company, the Hôtel de Bourgogne, to perform the play – since they had a better reputation for performing tragedies. Thus, Alexandre premiered for the second time, by a different acting troupe, eleven days after its first showing. Molière could never forgive Racine for this betrayal, Racine widened the rift between him and his former friend by seducing Molière's leading actress, Thérèse du Parc, into becoming his companion both professionally and personally.
From this point on the Hôtel de Bourgogne troupe performed all of Racine's secular plays. Though both La Thébaïde and its successor, had classical themes, Racine was entering into controversy and forced to field accusations that he was polluting the minds of his audiences, he broke all ties with Port-Royal, proceeded with Andromaque, which told the story of Andromache, widow of Hector, her fate following the Trojan War. Amongst his rivals were Pierre Corneille and his brother, Thomas Corneille. Tragedians competed with alternative versions of the same plot: for example, Michel le Clerc produced an Iphigénie in the same year as Racine, Jacques Pradon wrote a play about Phèdre; the success of Pradon's work was one of the events which caused Racine to renounce his work as a dramatist at that time though his career up to this point was so successful that he was the first French author to live entirely on the money he earned from his writings. Others, including the historian Warren Lewis, attribute his retirement from the theater to qualms of conscience.
However, one major incident which seems to have contributed to Racine's departure from public life was his implication in a court scandal of 1679. He got married at about this time to the pious Catherine de Romanet, his religious beliefs and devotion to the Jansenist sect were revived, he and his wife had two sons and five daughters. Around the time of his marriage and departure from the theater, Racine accepted a position as a royal historiographer in the court of King Louis XIV, alongside his friend Boileau, he kept this position in spite of the minor scandals he was involved in. In 1672, he was elected to the Académie française gaining much power over this organization. Two years he was bestowed the title of "treasurer of France", he was distinguished as an "ordinary gentleman of the king", as a secretary of the king; because of Racine's flourishing career in the court, Louis XIV provided for his widow and children after his death. When at last he returned to the theatre, it was at the request of Madame de Maintenon, morganatic second wife of King Louis
Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. The synoptic gospels recount. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. Baptism is called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants, it has given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations. The usual form of baptism among the earliest Christians involved the candidate's immersion, either or partially. John the Baptist's use of a deep river for his baptising suggests immersion: The fact that he chose a permanent and deep river suggests that more than a token quantity of water was needed, both the preposition'in' and the basic meaning of the verb'baptize' indicate immersion. In v. 16, Matthew will speak of Jesus'coming up out of the water'. Phillip and the Eunuch went down and came up out of water. Baptism is likened unto a burial in Romans 6:3. "Dip" is translated from baptō. The traditional depiction in Christian art of John the Baptist pouring water over Jesus' head may therefore be based on Christian practice.
Pictorial and archaeological evidence of Christian baptism from the 3rd century onward indicates that a normal form was to have the candidate stand in water while water was poured over the upper body. Other common forms of baptism now in use include pouring water three times on the forehead, a method called affusion. Martyrdom was identified early in Church history as "baptism by blood", enabling the salvation of martyrs who had not been baptized by water; the Catholic Church identified a baptism of desire, by which those preparing for baptism who die before receiving the sacrament are considered saved. As evidenced in the common Christian practice of infant baptism, Christians universally regarded baptism as in some sense necessary for salvation, until Huldrych Zwingli denied its necessity in the 16th century. Quakers and the Salvation Army do not practice baptism with water. Among denominations that practice baptism by water, differences occur in the manner and mode of baptizing and in the understanding of the significance of the rite.
Most Christians baptize "in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit", but some baptize in Jesus' name only. Much more than half of all Christians baptize infants; the term "baptism" has been used metaphorically to refer to any ceremony, trial, or experience by which a person is initiated, purified, or given a name. The English word baptism is derived indirectly through Latin from the neuter Greek concept noun baptisma, a neologism in the New Testament derived from the masculine Greek noun baptismos, a term for ritual washing in Greek language texts of Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period, such as the Septuagint. Both of these nouns are derived from the verb baptizō, used in Jewish texts for ritual washing, in the New Testament both for ritual washing and for the new rite of baptisma; the Greek verb baptō, "dip", from which the verb baptizo is derived, is in turn hypothetically traced to a reconstructed Indo-European root *gʷabh-, "dip". The Greek words are used in a great variety of meanings.
Baptism has similarities to Tvilah, a Jewish purification ritual of immersing in water, required for, among other things, conversion to Judaism, but which differs in being repeatable, while baptism is to be performed only once. John the Baptist, considered a forerunner to Christianity, used baptism as the central sacrament of his messianic movement; the apostle Paul distinguished between the baptism of John, baptism in the name of Jesus, it is questionable whether Christian baptism was in some way linked with that of John. Christians consider Jesus to have instituted the sacrament of baptism; the earliest Christian baptisms were normally by immersion, complete or partial. Though other modes may have been used. Though some form of immersion was the most common method of baptism, many of the writings from the ancient church appeared to view the mode of baptism as inconsequential; the Didache 7.1–3 allowed for affusion practices in situations where immersion was not practical. Tertullian allowed for varying approaches to baptism if those practices did not conform to biblical or traditional mandates.
Cyprian explicitly stated that the amount of water was inconsequential and defended immersion and aspersion practices. As a result, there was no uniform or consistent mode of baptism in the ancient church prior to the fourth century. By the third and fourth centuries, baptism involved catechetical instruction as well as chrismation, laying on of hands, recitation of a creed. In the early middle ages infant baptism became common and the rite was simplified. In Western Europe Affusion became the normal mode of baptism between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, though immersion was still practiced into the sixteenth. In the sixteenth century, Martin Luther retained baptism as a sacrament, but Swiss reformer Huldrych Zwingli considered baptism and the Lord's supper to be symbolic. Anabaptists denied the val
Not to be confused with his father Antoine Arnauld or his nephew Antoine Arnauld. Antoine Arnauld was a French Roman Catholic theologian and mathematician, he was one of the leading intellectuals of the Jansenist group of Port-Royal and had a thorough knowledge of patristics. Contemporaries called. Antoine Arnauld was born in Paris to the Arnauld family; the twentieth and youngest child of the original Antoine Arnauld, he was intended for the bar, but decided instead to study theology at the Sorbonne. Here he was brilliantly successful, his career was flourishing when he came under the influence of Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, the spiritual director and leader of the convent of Port-Royal, was drawn in the direction of Jansenism, his book, De la fréquente Communion, was an important step in making the aims and ideals of this movement intelligible to the general public. It attracted controversy by being against frequent communion. Furthermore, in the frame of the controversy around Jansenius' Augustinus, during which the Jesuits attacked the Jansenists claiming they were heretics similar to Calvinists, Arnauld wrote in defense the Théologie morale des Jésuites, which would put the base of most of the arguments used by Pascal in his Provincial Letters denouncing the "relaxed moral" of Jesuit casuistry.
Pascal was assisted in this task by Arnauld's nephew Antoine Le Maistre. The Jesuit Nicolas Caussin, former penitentiary to Louis XIII, was charged by his order of writing a defense against Arnauld's book, titled Réponse au libelle intitulé La Théologie morale des Jésuites. Other libels published against Arnauld's Moral Theology of Jesuits included the one written by the Jesuit polemist François Pinthereau, under the pseudonym of the abbé de Boisic, titled Les Impostures et les ignorances du libelle intitulé: La Théologie Morale des Jésuites, the author of a critical history of Jansenism titled La Naissance du Jansénisme découverte à Monsieur le Chancelier. During the formulary controversy which opposed Jesuits to Jansenists concerning the orthodoxy of Jansenius' propositions, Arnauld was forced to go into hiding. In 1655 two outspoken Lettres à un duc et pair on Jesuit methods in the confessional brought a motion of censorship voted against him in the Sorbonne, in quite an irregular manner.
This motion prompted Pascal to anonymously write the Provincial Letters. For more than twenty years Arnauld dared not appear publicly in Paris. Pascal, failed to save his friend, in February 1656 Arnauld was ceremonially degraded. Twelve years the so-called "peace" of Pope Clement IX put an end to his troubles, he now set to work with Pierre Nicole on a great work against the Calvinist Protestants: La perpétuité de la foi de l'Église catholique touchant l'eucharistie. Ten years however, persecution resumed. Arnauld was compelled to leave France for the Netherlands settling down at Brussels. Here the last sixteen years of his life were spent in incessant controversy with Jesuits and heretics of all kinds. Arnauld evolved away from the rigorous Augustinism professed by Port-Royal and closer to Thomism, which postulated the centrality of the "efficacious grace," under the influence of Nicole, his inexhaustible energy is best expressed by his famous reply to Nicole, who complained of feeling tired.
"Tired!" Echoed Arnauld, "when you have all eternity to rest in?" His energy was not exhausted by purely theological questions. He was one of the first to adopt the philosophy of René Descartes, though with certain orthodox reservations relating to Meditations on First Philosophy. On the whole, public opinion leant to Arnauld's side; when Malebranche complained that his adversary had misunderstood him, Boileau silenced him with the question: "My dear sir, whom do you expect to understand you, if M. Arnauld does not?" Next Arnauld was engaged in an extensive correspondence with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, regarding the latter's views detailed in his "Discourse on Metaphysics". Arnauld died, aged 82, in Brussels. Popular record for Arnauld's penetration was much increased in his L'Art de penser known as the Port-Royal Logic, which kept its place as an elementary text-book until the 20th century and is considered a paradigmatical work of term logic. Arnauld came to be regarded as important among the mathematicians of his time.
After his death, his reputation began to wane. Contemporaries admired him as a master of intricate reasoning. However, his eagerness to win every argument endeared him to no one. "In spite of myself," Arnauld once said regretfully, "my books are very short.". Despite Arnauld's achievements in various fields, his name is known because of Pascal's acclaimed writings, which were more fit for the general public than Arnauld's technical essays. Boileau wrote for him a famous epitaph, consecrating his memory as "Au pied de cet autel de structure grossière Gît sans pompe, enfermé dans une vile bière, Le plus savant mortel qui jamais ait écrit. Antoine Arnauld's complete works were published in Paris, 1775-1781. There is a study of his philosophy in Francisque Bouillie
Jean François Paul de Gondi
Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz was a French churchman, writer of memoirs, agitator in the Fronde. The Florentine banking family of the Gondi had been introduced into France by Catherine de' Medici; the Gondi acquired great estates in Brittany and became connected with the noblest houses of the kingdom. Jean-François de Gondi was born in the Brie region of northern France, he was the third son in his family, according to Tallemant des Réaux was made a knight of Malta on the day of his birth. The death of his second brother, destined him for a closer connection with the Church; the Retz side of his family had much church influence, though young Jean-François was not much attracted to the clergy, his family insisted that he join it. They said he lacked the appearance of a soldier, being short, near-sighted and awkward, he was educated at the Sorbonne. When he was eighteen, he wrote Conjuration de Fiesque, a little historical essay, influenced by the Italian of Agostino Mascardi, audaciously insinuating revolutionary principles.
The district of Retz or Rais is in southern Brittany, has been under the control of several different families. Retz always spelled the word "Rais." The barony of Retz first belonged to the House of Retz to the Chabot family and the Laval family. Gilles de Rais, a Laval and comrade in arms of Joan of Arc, was executed without an heir, so the barony passed successively to the families of Tournemine and Gondi. In 1581, it became a duchy, with Albert de Gondi its first duke, his brother Pierre de Gondi became bishop of Paris in 1570 and cardinal in 1587. Pierre was succeeded by his nephews Henri de Gondi and Jean-François de Gondi, for whom the episcopal see of Paris was erected into an archbishopric in 1622. Jean François was succeeded by Pierre's great-nephew Jean François Paul de Gondi. Retz received no preferment of importance during Cardinal Richelieu's life. After the minister's death, though he was presented to Louis XIII and well received, he found difficulty in attaining the co-adjutorship with reversion of the archbishopric of Paris.
But immediately after the king's death, Anne of Austria appointed him to the coveted post on All Saints Eve, 1643. Retz, who had, according to some accounts plotted against Richelieu, set himself to work to make the utmost political capital out of his position, his uncle had lived in great seclusion. This influence he turned against Cardinal Mazarin, which helped lead to the outbreak of the Fronde in October 1648. Of the two parties who joined the Fronde, Retz could only depend on the bourgeoisie of Paris, he had some speculative tendencies in favour of popular liberties, perhaps of republicanism, but represented no real political principle, which weakened his position. When the breakup of the Fronde came he was left in the lurch, having more than once been in no small danger from his own party. However, because of a misapprehension on the part of Pope Innocent X, he had been made cardinal. In 1652, he was arrested and imprisoned, first at Vincennes at Nantes, he went to Rome more than once, helped elect Pope Alexander VII.
In 1662, Louis XIV received him back into favor, asked him to formally serve as envoy to Rome several times. In order for this reconciliation to occur, he resigned his claims to the archbishopric of Paris, he was appointed abbot of St-Denis, restored to his other benefices with the payment of arrears. The last seventeen years of Retz's life were passed in his diplomatic duties in Paris at his estate of Cornmercy, but at St. Mihiel in Lorraine, his debts were enormous, in 1675 he made over to his creditors all his income except twenty thousand livres, and, as he said, to "live for" them. He did not succeed in living long, for he died at Paris on 24 August 1679. During these last years he corresponded with Madame de Sévigné, a relative by marriage. During the last ten years of his life, Retz wrote his Memoirs, which go up to the year 1655, they are addressed in the form of narrative to a lady, not known, though guesses have been made at her identity, some suggesting Madame de Sévigné herself. In the beginning there are some gaps.
They are known for the verbal portraits of their characters. Alexandre Dumas, père drew on the Memoirs for Vingt ans après. Besides these memoirs and the youthful essay of the Conjuration de Fiesque, Retz has left diplomatic papers, sermons and correspondence. Retz and François de La Rochefoucauld, the greatest of the Frondeurs in literary genius, were personal and political enemies, each left a portrait of the other. De la Rochefoucauld wrote of Retz: "Il a suscité les plus grands désordres dans l'état sans avoir un dessein formé de s'en prévaloir.". The Memoirs of the cardinal de Retz were first published in a imperfect condition in 1717; the first satisfactory edition appeared in the twenty-fourth volume of the collection of Joseph François Michaud and Jean Joseph François Poujoulat. In 1870 a complete edition of the works of Retz was begun by Alphonse Feille