Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is a French department in the south of France, it was formerly part of the province of Provence. Its inhabitants are called the Bas-Alpins or Bas-Alpines referring to the department of Basses-Alpes which was the name of the department until 13 April 1970. Bounded in the east by Italy, the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is surrounded by the departments of Alpes-Maritimes, Vaucluse, Drôme, in the Haute-Ubaye, the mountain peaks exceed 3000 m above sea level and all the passes are close to or above 2000 m in altitude. The relief of the land compartmentalises the region, the valleys are difficult to access so dividing the country into as many local areas which communicate very little with the outside. In 1877,55 communes only had access to trails or mule paths, the seismic hazard is moderate to medium with different faults such as the Durance located in the department. The main river is the Durance which runs in the west of the department and it is in the Durance valley that the most important traffic routes are found, the A51 highway and the railway main line.
Almost all of the department is in the watershed of the Durance except for the extreme south-east which are drained by the Var. The main tributaries of the Durance in the department are the Ubaye, the Bléone, the Asse, the Verdon on the bank, the Buëch, the Jabron. The Durance and its tributaries have a character, with a transition between the snow regime of the high valleys and the mediterranean rainfall regime in the lower mountains. The summer low water levels are severe and violent floods occur when heavy rains fall which is often in autumn. The Durance, Verdon, Bléone, and Buëch have had the construction of several dams, the climate of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is a Mediterranean climate degrading by altitude and latitude. In between, the two influences mingle in the area of the Lower Alps, Haute-Provence is therefore very interesting for European astronomers looking for a partly cloudy night sky and untouched by light pollution. Many amateur observatories have been built and the Observatoire de Haute-Provence is one of the largest observatories in continental Europe and it is an active astronomy research centre.
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is subdivided into 4 arrondissements,15 cantons and 199 communes, the population was once fairly evenly distributed in the territory, including in the mountainous areas where mountain agriculture was well developed. From the middle of the 19th century, however, it began to due to a strong rural exodus. There were more than 150,000 inhabitants in 1850 but it fell to less than 100,000 after the First World War. It was not until 1960 that the trend changed upwards quite strongly from less than 90,000 in 1954 to nearly 140,000 in 1999 and 153,000 in 2005. However, if this figure is close to the number of inhabitants had department 150 years earlier, the population is now concentrated in the valley of the Durance and the South West of the department, and agriculture employs less than ever before
The Cottian Alps, are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps. They form the border between France and Italy, the Fréjus Road Tunnel and Fréjus Rail Tunnel between Modane and Susa are important transportation arteries between France and Italy. The name Cottian comes from Marcus Julius Cottius, a king of the tribes inhabiting that region in the 1st century BC. These tribes had opposed but made peace with Julius Caesar. Cottius was succeeded by his son, named Marcus Julius Cottius, on his death, Nero annexed his kingdom as the province of Alpes Cottiae. The Dauphins held, in addition to the slopes of the range. The Alpine territory of Dauphiné, known as Escartons, used to have a limited autonomy, after the treaty annexing Nice and Savoy to France, signed in Turin in March 1860, the north-western slopes of the range became part of the French republic. Administratively the range is divided between the Italian provinces of Cuneo and Turin and the French departments of Savoie, Hautes-Alpes, and Alpes-de-Haute-Provence.
The Cottian Alps are drained by the rivers Durance and Arc and their tributaries on the French side, and by the Dora Riparia and other tributaries of the Po on the Italian side
The Tanaro, known as Tanarus in ancient times and Tane or Tani in piedmontese language, is a 276-kilometre long river in northwestern Italy. The river begins in the Ligurian Alps, near the border with France, and is the most significant right-side tributary to the Po in terms of length, size of drainage basin, and discharge. The Tanaro proper begins in Liguria at the confluence of two streams, the sources of which are in Piedmont, the Tanarello and the Negrone. The main source of the Tanarello is on the slopes of Monte Saccarello above Monesi, the sources of the Negrone are some 10 kilometres to the north, south of Punta Marguareis and very close to the French border. The Tanaro flows past the towns Ceva, Asti, at its confluence with Po, it is longer by about 50 kilometres than the upper Po, a case similar to the famous Missouri tributary being longer than Mississippi in the United States. The main tributaries to the Tanaro are the Stura di Demonte and the Borbore from the left and the Bormida, the flow is subject to a great deal of seasonal variation.
Furthermore, the Alpine zone forms only a part of the basin drained by the Tanaro, the river is highly prone to flooding. The left bank of the Tanaro River near Asti is the scene of the Battle of Pollentia on April 6,402, chapter 49, Flooding Vulnerability of a Town in the Tanaro Basin, The Case of Ceva. In V. R. Thorndycraft, G. Benito, M. Barriendos, Historical Floods and Climatic Variability, Applications in Flood Risk Assessment. “The flood and landslide event of November 4–6,1994 in Piedmont Region, causes, XXII General Assembly dell’European Geophysical Society, Vienna. Elsevier Science Ltd, Vol.24, N.2, p. 123-129
Province of Cuneo
Cuneo or Coni is a province in the southwest of the Piedmont region of Italy. To the west it borders on the French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, to the north it borders on the province of Turin. To the east it borders on the province of Asti, to the south it borders on the Ligurian provinces of Savona and Imperia. It is known as the Provincia Granda, the big province, because it is the third largest province in Italy, briga Marittima and Tenda were part of this province before cession to France in 1947. Its capital is the city of Cuneo, communes of the province of Cuneo Piemonte Bole, David. Innovative policies for Alpine towns, Alpine space small local urban centres innovative pack, losing Paradise, The Water Crisis in the Mediterranean. Earth Repair, A Transatlantic History of Environmental Restoration, the Aging Population and the Competitiveness of Cities, Benefits to the Urban Economy
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
A mountain pass is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass, the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas on the border between India and China. Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle or col, a topographic saddle is analogous to the mathematical concept of a saddle surface, with a saddle point marking the highest point between two valleys and the lowest point along a ridge. On a topographic map, passes are characterized by lines with an hourglass shape. Passes are often found just above the source of a river, a pass may be very short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or may be a valley many kilometres long, whose highest point might only be identifiable by surveying. Roads have long been built – and more recently railways – through passes, some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath to allow faster traffic flow throughout the year. The top of a pass is frequently the only ground in the area.
If a national border follows a mountain range, a pass over the mountains is typically on the border, and there may be a control or customs station. For instance Argentina and Chile share the worlds third-longest international border,5,300 kilometres long, the border runs north-south along the Andes mountains, with a total of 42 mountain passes. On a road over a pass, it is customary to have a roadside sign giving the name of the pass. As well as offering relatively easy travel between valleys, passes provide a route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent. As a result, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass, passes traditionally were places for trade routes, cultural exchange, military expeditions etc. A typical example is the Brenner pass in the Alps, some mountain passes above the tree line have problems with snow drift in the winter. This might be alleviated by building the road a few meters above the ground, there are many words for pass in the English-speaking world. In the United States, pass is very common in the West, the gap is common in the southern Appalachians, notch in parts of New England.
Scotland has the Gaelic term bealach, while Wales has the similar bwlch, the roads at Mana Pass at 5,610 metres and Marsimik La at 5,582 metres, on and near the China-India border respectively, appear to be worlds two highest motorable passes. Media related to Mountain passes at Wikimedia Commons
Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy
Amadeus VI, nicknamed the Green Count was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383. He was the eldest son of Aymon, Count of Savoy, though he started under a regency, he showed himself to be a forceful leader, continuing Savoys emergence as a power in Europe politically and militarily. He participated in a crusade against the Turks who were moving into Europe, when his father died in 1343, Amadeus inherited the County of Savoy. Since he was nine years old, his fathers will left two cousins as co-regents, Amadeus III of Geneva and Louis II of Vaud. The two agreed to a document limiting their power as regents, neither could make any significant decision without the other, and the decisions of both were subject to review by the resident council of nobles representing all bailis in the county. Though she died the year, in her will she left the county to Philip. In 1345, he negotiated a settlement to the one Joan reached with Aymon. Amadeus was educated both physically and mentally and he enjoyed learning to fight and ride.
His education included classic works such as De Re Militari and more modern texts including De Regimine Principum and he showed religious devotion, requesting a portable altar and the right for his chaplain to say mass for him every morning wherever he may be. He took vows to fast more often than was healthy for him, the pope agreed, asking him instead to feed twelve of the poor weekly. When the young Angevin queen Joanna I of Naples took the throne, several in northern Italy sought to take advantage of her inexperience, John II, Marquess of Montferrat led the first attacks, while James of Piedmont, a cousin and vassal of Amadeus, backed the queen. After her first army was defeated in 1345, the attackers moved next into the territory ruled by James, in 1347, James asked Amadeus for help, and Amadeus sent an army. That army swept the attackers back through July of that year, John recruited the help of Humbert II, Dauphin of Viennois, an old enemy of the Savoyards, and Thomas II, Marquess of Saluzzo.
Together, they conquered the Angevin lands, Pope Clement VI spent 1348 negotiating a truce to end the fighting, which none of the combatants were satisfied with. From 1348 through 1351, the Black Death ravaged the lands of Savoy, in 1348, many of the peasants thought that it was caused by Jews poisoning wells and fountains. Though the castellans in some places tried to protect them, quite a few were killed, in Chambéry, the Jews were locked in the castle for their protection, but a mob broke in and killed several. Court officers were pressured into finding the remainder guilty of poisoning, executing eleven. In 1349, Amadeus agreed to a treaty between himself, Amadeus of Geneva, James of Piedmont, and the House of Visconti, rulers of Milan and this treaty included provisions for Galeazzo II Visconti to marry Bianca of Savoy, sister of the count
Barcelonnette is a commune of France and a subprefecture in the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region. It is located in the southern French Alps, at the crossroads between Provence and the Dauphiné, and is the largest town in the Ubaye Valley, the towns inhabitants are known as Barcelonnettes. Barcelonnette was founded and named in 1231, by Ramon Berenguer IV, in Valéian, it is called Barcilouna de Prouvença or Barcilounéta. The inhabitants of the town are called Barcelonnettes, or Vilandroises in Valéian, polybius described the Vesubians as belligerent but nonetheless civilised and mercantile, and Julius Caesar praised their bravery. The work History of the Gauls places the Vesubians in the Ubaye Valley, following the Roman conquest of Provence, Barcelonnette was included in a small province with modern Embrun as its capital and governed by Albanus Bassalus. This was integrated soon afterwards into Gallia Narbonensis, in 36 AD, Emperor Nero transferred Barcelonnette to the province of the Cottian Alps.
The town was known as Rigomagensium under the Roman Empire and was the capital of a civitas, the town of Barcelonnette was founded in 1231 by Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence. According to Charles Rostaing, this act of foundation, according certain privileges to the town, was a means of regenerating the destroyed town of Barcilona. The town was afforded a consulat in 1240, control of the area in the Middle Ages swung between the Counts of Savoy and of Provence. During Charles Vs invasion of Provence in 1536, Francis I of France sent the Count of Fürstenbergs 6000 Landsknechte to ravage the area in a scorched earth policy and the Ubaye Valley remained under French sovereignty until the second Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis on 3 April 1559. In 1588 the troops of François, Duke of Lesdiguières entered the town and set fire to the church and convent during their campaign against the Duke of Savoy. The town was retaken by the Duke of Savoy in 1630, between 1614 and 1713, Barcelonnette was the seat of one of the four prefectures under the jurisdiction of the Senate of Nice.
At this time, the community of Barcelonnette successfully purchased the seigneurie of the town as it was put to auction by the Duke of Savoy, in 1646, a college was founded in Barcelonnette. A significant part of the inhabitants had, by the 16th century, converted to Protestantism. The viguerie of Barcelonnette was reattached to France in 1713 as part of an exchange with the Duchy of Savoy during the Treaties of Utrecht. The town remained the site of a viguerie until the French Revolution, a decree of the council of state on 25 December 1714 reunited Barcelonnete with the general government of Provence. In March 1789, riots took place as a result of a crisis in wheat production, in July, the Great Fear of aristocratic reprisal against the ongoing French Revolution struck France, arriving in the Barcelonnette area on 31 July 1789 before spreading towards Digne. This agitation continued in the Ubaye Valley, a new revolt broke out on 14 June, the patriotic society of the commune was one of the first 21 created in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in spring 1792, by the envoys of the departmental administration
House of Savoy
The House of Savoy is one of the oldest royal families in the world, being founded in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to the attainment of the rank of king in 1713, the Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, the name derives from the historical region of Savoy in the Alpine region between what is now France and Italy. Over time, the House of Savoy expanded its territory and influence through judicious marriages, from rule of a small region on the French/Italian border, the dynastys realm included nearly all of the Italian Peninsula by the time of its deposition. The house descended from Humbert I, Count of Sabaudia, Humberts family are thought to have originated from near Magdeburg in Saxony, with the earliest recording of the family being two 10th century brothers and Humbert.
Though Sabaudia was originally a county, counts were diplomatically skilled. Two of Humberts sons were bishops at the Abbey of Saint Maurice on the River Rhone east of Lake Geneva and this diplomatic skill caused the great powers such as France and Spain to take the counts opinions into account. Piedmont was joined with Sabaudia, and the name evolved into Savoy, the people of Savoy were descended from the Celts and Romans. In 1494, Charles VIII of France passed through Savoy on his way to Italy and Naples, during the outbreak of the Italian war of 1521-1526, Emperor Charles V stationed imperial troops in Savoy. In 1536, Francis I of France invaded Savoy and Piedmont taking Turin by April of that year, Charles III, Duke of Savoy, fled to Vercelli. He served Philip II as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559, in this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a victory at St. Quentin in 1557. He took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to slowly regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin and he moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin.
The 17th century brought economic development to the Turin area. Charles Emmanuel II developed the port of Nice and built a road through the Alps towards France, and through skillful political manoeuvres territorial expansion continued. Savoy rule over Sicily lasted only seven years, the crown of Sicily, the prestige of being kings at last, and the wealth of Palermo helped strengthen the House of Savoy further. In 1720 they were forced to exchange Sicily for Sardinia as a result of the War of the Quadruple Alliance, on the mainland, the dynasty continued its expansionist policies as well. In 1798, Joubert occupied Turin and forced Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate, eventually, in 1814 the kingdom was restored and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa by the Congress of Vienna. In the meantime, nationalist figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini were influencing popular opinion, the Kingdom of Italy was the first Italian state to include the Italian Peninsula since the fall of the Roman Empire