Madeira is a fortified wine made on the Portuguese Madeira Islands, off the coast of Africa. Madeira is produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry wines which can be consumed on their own as an aperitif to sweet wines consumed with dessert. Cheaper cooking versions are flavoured with salt and pepper for use in cooking, but these are not fit for consumption as a beverage; the islands of Madeira have a long winemaking history, dating back to the Age of Exploration when Madeira was a standard port of call for ships heading to the New World or East Indies. To prevent the wine from spoiling, neutral grape spirits were added. On the long sea voyages, the wines would be exposed to excessive heat and movement which transformed the flavour of the wine; this was discovered by the wine producers of Madeira when an unsold shipment of wine returned to the islands after a round trip. Today, Madeira is noted for its unique winemaking process which involves oxidizing the wine through heat and aging; the younger blends are produced with artificial methods that heat and accelerate the aging process and the older blends and frasqueiras are produced by the canteiro method.
Because of these methods of production these wines are long lived and those produced by the canteiro method will survive for decades and centuries after being opened. Wines that have been in barrels for many decades are removed and stored in demijohns where they may remain unharmed indefinitely; some wines produced in small quantities in Crimea and Texas are referred to as "Madeira" or "Madera". The roots of Madeira's wine industry date back to the Age of Exploration, when Madeira was a regular port of call for ships travelling to the East Indies. By the 16th century, records indicate that a well-established wine industry on the island supplied these ships with wine for the long voyages across the sea; the earliest examples of Madeira had the habit of spoiling at sea. However, following the example of Port, a small amount of distilled alcohol made from cane sugar was added to stabilize the wine by boosting the alcohol content; the Dutch East India Company became a regular customer, picking up large casks of wine known as "pipes" for their voyages to India.
The intense heat in the holds of the ships had a transforming effect on the wine, as discovered by Madeira producers when one shipment was returned to the island after a long trip. The customer was found to prefer the taste of this style of wine, Madeira labeled as vinho da roda became popular. Madeira producers found that aging the wine on long sea voyages was costly, so began to develop methods on the island to produce the same aged and heated style, they began storing the wines on trestles at the winery or in special rooms known as estufas, where the heat of island sun would age the wine. The 18th century was the "golden age" for Madeira; the wine's popularity extended from the American colonies and Brazil in the New World to Great Britain and Northern Africa. The American colonies, in particular, were enthusiastic customers, consuming as much as 95% of all wine produced on the island each year. Madeira was an important wine in the history of the United States of America. No wine-quality grapes were grown among the thirteen colonies, so imports were needed, with a great focus on Madeira.
One of the major events on the road to the American revolution in which Madeira played a key role was the British seizure of John Hancock's sloop Liberty on May 9, 1768. Hancock's boat was seized after he had unloaded a cargo of 25 pipes of Madeira, a dispute arose over import duties; the seizure of Liberty caused riots to erupt among the people of Boston. Madeira was a favorite of Thomas Jefferson, it was used to toast the Declaration of Independence. George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin and John Adams are said to have appreciated the qualities of Madeira; the wine was mentioned in Benjamin Franklin's autobiography. On one occasion, Adams wrote to his wife, Abigail, of the great quantities of Madeira he consumed while a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress. A bottle of Madeira was used by visiting Captain James Server to christen USS Constitution in 1797. Chief Justice John Marshall was known to appreciate Madeira, as were his cohorts on the early U. S. Supreme Court.
The mid-19th century ushered an end to the industry's prosperity. First came the 1851 discovery of powdery mildew, which reduced production over the next three years. Just as the industry was recovering through the use of the copper-based Bordeaux mixture fungicide, the phylloxera epidemic that had plagued France and other European wine regions reached the island. By the end of the 19th century, most of the island's vineyards had been uprooted, many were converted to sugar cane production; the majority of the vineyards that did replant chose to use American vine varieties, such as Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris or hybrid grape varieties rather than replant with the Vitis vinifera varieties that were grown. By the turn of the 20th century, sales started to return to normal, until the industry was rocked again by the Russian Civil War and American Prohibition, which closed off two of Madeira's biggest markets. After the repeal of Prohibition, during a time in which shipping technology had improved, the ships no longer needed
Leonard "Tim" Hector was a leftist Antiguan political leader and cricket administrator known for his opposition to the rule of the Bird family. Born in St John's, named Leonard Churchill Hector, he was called "Tim" by his grandfather as a term of endearment stemming from the Russian General Semyon Timoshenko, in years was better known as Tim Hector. After attending the Antigua Grammar School and teaching there, Hector went on to Acadia University and McGill University, he broke off graduate studies in Philosophy at McGill to return home, where he felt his contribution was needed. Hector was a founder of the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement in 1968; the party supported socialism, the Cuban Revolution, a pan-Caribbean vision. He published the newspaper The Outlet and the online column "Fan the Flame", his name has become associated with a leading human rights case, referred to as Hector v. Attorney-General of Antigua & others 2 AC 312, 2 All ER 103, 2 WLR 606, TLR 23.1.90 and The Independent.
The case was heard and decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which sits as the final court of appeal for certain countries in the British Commonwealth. This was a major constitutional case dealing with freedom of speech and of the press. There were commentaries in The Times, by Geoffrey Bindman, in The Guardian by James Michael; the words of Lord Bridge of Harwich in his judgment are those most cited: "In a free democratic society it is too obvious to need stating that those who hold office in government and who are responsible for public administration must always be open to criticism. Any attempt to stifle or fetter such criticism amounts to political censorship of the most insidious and objectionable kind. At the same time it is no less obvious that the purpose of criticism levelled at those who have the conduct of public affairs by their political opponents is to undermine public confidence in their stewardship and to persuade the electorate that the opponents would make a better job of it than those presently holding office.
In the light of these considerations their Lordships cannot help viewing a statutory provision which criminalises statements to undermine public confidence in the conduct of public affairs with the utmost suspicion."The case has been cited in cases subsequently. For instance, Inter-American Court of Human Rights Case No. 12.441 "Luisiana Ríos", it was cited in a case concerning Venezuela in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, other references spread from Australia, South Africa to Canada and many other places. One interesting, if little known fact about the case was that the solicitor for the Appellant, Richard Hallmark, in preparing the case for the appeal hearing, placed before the court a series of extracts of the legislation of most of the eastern European states which had, as communist states, created offences in similar terms to those sought to be justified by the government of Antigua & Barbuda but which had in some cases in only a matter of days and weeks before the hearing in the Privy Council, been repealed.
The relevance of those developments was clear but not argued upon in the hearing. Given a different uncertainty about the role of the Privy Council at that time, indeed whether it had a role in such appeal cases, this case may be interpreted as significant in the history of that Court as an institution too. Hector died at the age of 59 on 12 November 2002, he was given a state funeral in Antigua
Nangloi Railway station is a station on the Green Line of the Delhi Metro and is located in the West Delhi district of Delhi. It is an elevated station and was inaugurated on 2 April 2010; the station is connected to the Nangloi Railway station of the Delhi division of the Northern Railway zone of Indian Railways. List of available ATM at Nangloi Railway Station metro station are: List of Delhi Metro stations Transport in Delhi Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Delhi Suburban Railway List of rapid transit systems in India Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. Delhi Metro Annual Reports "Station Information". Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. UrbanRail. Net – descriptions of all metro systems in the world, each with a schematic map showing all stations
River Roads Mall known as River Roads Shopping Center, was an enclosed shopping mall located in the city of Jennings, a suburb of St. Louis, United States. Opened in 1962 as one of the nation's first shopping malls, it featured J. C. Penney, F. W. Woolworth Company and Stix, Baer & Fuller as its anchor stores; the mall was expanded in 1972 with a new location of J. C. Penney, but began losing major stores in the early 1980s. J. C. Penney closed in 1983, but was soon reopened as an outlet store, while Stix, Baer & Fuller was sold to Dillard's in 1984 and closed only two years later. Tenancy continued to decline throughout the 1990s, culminating in the closure of the J. C. Penney outlet and mall proper in 1995, although the abandoned structure was not demolished until 2006. Opened in 1962, the mall featured J. C. Penney and St. Louis-based Stix, Baer & Fuller as its main anchor stores, as well as a Kroger supermarket and a Woolworth dime store. Other major tenants included Walgreens, Lane Bryant, Thom McAn, Bakers Shoes, Bond Clothing Stores, a branch of local jewelry store Hess and Culbertson.
In 1972, J. C. Penney replaced its location at the mall with a newer store built behind the existing one, converted to a new row of mall shops; this new store was their largest location in Missouri at the time of its construction. Once this expansion was completed, the mall was increased from 620,000 square feet to 835,000 square feet of mall space and a total of 60 stores. Among the new stores were several local boutiques, a fabric store, Foxmoor Casuals, Waldenbooks; the mall's parking lot was expanded and re-landscaped, while many mall tenants such as Stix, Baer & Fuller, Woolworth and Lane Bryant underwent storewide renovations as well. The mall underwent a series of store closings including most of the anchor tenants. J. C. Penney closed in mid-1983 due to declining sales; this was one of two large retail closings in Jennings that year, the other being a Kmart across the street from the mall. At the time of the closing announcement, the mall's then-owners had proposed reducing the size of the store in order to sustain profitability, but the company had decided to follow through with closing the location due to the presence of other J. C. Penney stores in nearby areas.
Despite this decision, J. C. Penney reopened a part of the store in 1984 as an outlet store, featuring overstocked merchandise from other locations. Dillard's bought the Stix, Baer & Fuller chain in 1984, converting all Stix, Baer & Fuller stores to the Dillard's name; the mall's Stix, Baer & Fuller store was not considered for conversion to Dillard's due to declining sales, but then-company chairman William Dillard decided to allow the store to operate under the Dillard's name until its original lease expired, to determine if the name change would increase profitability. While the store's profits did increase as Dillard's, the increases were not considered sufficient by the chain, so the store was closed in late 1986. By 1986, the former Kroger in the mall, vacated in 1983, had been replaced by another supermarket called Food for Less. By 1992, Woolworth had closed as well. Then-owners Benderson Corp. had proposed converting River Roads to an outlet mall, but these plans were canceled due to concerns over the nation's economy and a surplus of retail space in the St. Louis market at the time.
Despite this, Benderson announced in 1992 that other retailers had taken interest in the locations vacated by Woolworth and Dillard's. J. C. Penney closed the outlet store in 1994. Following this closure, the interior mall was abandoned in 1995, except for Food for Less and some tenants that had exterior entrances; the mall building fell into a state of disrepair, including overgrown greenery and built-up trash, so a local group of churches known as Churches United for Community Action worked with the city of Jennings to clean up the property. Benderson had sold the mall property in 1997. River Roads served as a MetroBus transfer point until 2006. Demolition of the vacant structure began in 2006; when the demolition of the mall was completed in September 2007 the only buildings that remained were the Food For Less grocery store which had once been a mall anchor and, at the time, was still in business, the Firestone Auto and Tire, an outparcel near the intersection of Halls Ferry Road and Jennings Station Road.
Food For Less was demolished in 2011 leaving Firestone Auto and Tire as the last remnant of River Roads Mall
Events in the year 1966 in Portugal. President: Américo Tomás Prime Minister: António de Oliveira Salazar Portugal participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 1966, with Madalena Iglésias and the song "Ele e ela". In association football, for the first-tier league seasons, see 1965–66 Primeira Divisão and 1966–67 Primeira Divisão. 22 May - Taça de Portugal Final 6 June - Establishment of U. D. Leiria Establishment of the Portuguese Handball Second Division Establishment of C. D. Fátima and Rebordosa AC 26 February – Delfim Santos, philosopher, educationist and book and movie reviewer
Shade balls are small plastic spheres floated on top of a reservoir for environmental reasons, including to slow evaporation and prevent sunlight from causing reactions among chemical compounds present in the water. Known as bird balls, they were developed to prevent birds from landing on bodies of water. Shade balls were known as bird balls, as they were developed to prevent birds from landing on toxic tailing ponds produced by mining operations, they have been used by airports to prevent birds from being attracted to nearby drainage ponds thus reducing collisions with planes. Starting in mid-2008, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power put about 400,000 balls in the Ivanhoe reservoir with the main objective of preventing the formation of a carcinogenic chemical, which forms when occurring bromine reacts with chlorine in sunlight. In the original release by the LADWP, there is no mention of water conservation as an objective and the project was planned for a five-year life span, until a Griffith Park project was completed.
The reduction in evaporation led to an estimated savings of about 1.1 billion liters of water in one year. In 2014 and 2015, the LADWP put 96 million shade balls onto its largest reservoir in response to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's surface water treatment rule, which requires large reservoirs of treated water to be covered; the LADWP says that in addition to reducing evaporation, they reduce UV radiation by-products and algae growth. The balls saved 1.7 million cubic metres of water from evaporating during their deployment from August 2015 to March 2017. However, they required 2.9 million cubic metres of water in their manufacture. The balls have a lifespan of ten years, the plastic may be reused after that; the shade balls used in the Los Angeles project are made of high-density polyethylene with carbon black additive to protect the plastic from ultraviolet radiation. Adding carbon black prevents the formation of bromate, a suspected human carcinogen, they are about 4 inches in diameter, are filled with water to avoid being blown by wind.
HDPE plastic is used for food and beverage containers as well as water distribution pipes. Video of 2014 Shade Ball Deployment on YouTube Video "Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?" on YouTube