Upper Peninsula of Michigan
The Upper Peninsula known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. The peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the southeast by Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. Geographically, the Upper Peninsula has a land boundary with Wisconsin, over-water boundaries with Minnesota and Ontario. Upper Peninsula counties include nearby islands such as Grand, Drummond and Bois Blanc, more distant Isle Royale; the Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the land area of Michigan but just 3% of its total population. Residents are called Yoopers and have a strong regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish and Italian immigrants came to the Upper Peninsula the Keweenaw Peninsula, to work in the area's mines and lumber industry; the peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. The peninsula's largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste.
Marie, Menominee and Iron Mountain. The forested land and long, harsh winters make it poorly suited for agriculture; the economy is based on logging and tourism. The first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages, they arrived around A. D. subsisted chiefly from fishing. Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki. Étienne Brûlé of France was the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions and fur trading posts such as Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace. Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan and the site of Native American settlements for centuries. American Indian tribes allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies.
Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples. In 1763, tribes united in Pontiac's Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. American Indians captured Fort Michilimackinac, at present-day Mackinaw City, Michigan the principal fort of the British in the Michilimackinac region, as well as others and killed hundreds of British. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace and changes in objectionable British policies. Although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty; as an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade. John Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808; when the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula.
In 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of what became Wisconsin, part of Minnesota. When Michigan applied for statehood in the 1830s, the proposal corresponded to the original territorial boundaries. However, there was an armed conflict known as the Toledo War with the state of Ohio over the location of their mutual border. Meanwhile, the people of Michigan approved a constitution in May 1835 and elected state officials in late autumn 1835. Although the state government was not yet recognized by the United States Congress, the territorial government ceased to exist. President Andrew Jackson's government offered the remainder of the Upper Peninsula to Michigan, if it would cede the Toledo Strip to Ohio. A constitutional convention of the state legislature refused, but a second convention, hastily convened by Governor Stevens Thomson Mason, consisting of his supporters, agreed in December 1836 to the deal. In January 1837, the U. S. Congress admitted Michigan as a state of the Union.
At the time, Michigan was considered the losing party in the compromise. The land in the Upper Peninsula was described in a federal report as a "sterile region on the shores of Lake Superior destined by soil and climate to remain forever a wilderness." This belief changed. The Upper Peninsula's mines produced more mineral wealth than the California Gold Rush after shipping was improved by the opening of the Soo Locks in 1855, docks in Marquette in 1859; the Upper Peninsula supplied 90% of America's copper by the 1860s. It was the largest supplier of iron ore by the 1890s, production continued to a peak in the 1920s, but declined shortly afterward; the last copper mine closed in 1995. Some iron mining continues near Marquette; the Eagle Mine, a nickel-copper mine, opened in 2014. Thousands of Americans and immigrants moved to the area during the mining boom, prompting the federal government to create Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor to maintain order; the first wave were the Cornish from England, with centuries of mining experience.
During the 1890s, Finnish immigrants began settling there in large numbers, forming the population plurality in the n
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
St. Charles County, Missouri
St. Charles County is in the central eastern part of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 360,485, its county seat is St. Charles; the county was named for Saint Charles Borromeo, an Italian cardinal. The county executive is Steve Ehlmann, since January 2007. St. Charles County is part of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area and contains many of the city's northwestern suburbs; the wealthiest county in Missouri, St. Charles County is one of the nation's fastest-growing counties; the county is recognized as conservative, ranking in the top 100 nationally. St. Charles County includes an area of vineyards and wineries whose distinction has been nationally recognized. On its rural outer edge along the south-facing bluffs above the Missouri River is an area of numerous wineries, so that Missouri Route 94 is sometimes called the Missouri Weinstrasse; the area includes the Augusta AVA, designated in 1980 as the first American Viticultural Area by the federal government.
The County of St. Charles was called the District of St. Charles and had no definite limits until 1816 to 1818 when neighboring counties were formed; the borders of St. Charles are the same today as they were in 1818. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 593 square miles, of which 560 square miles is land and 32 square miles is water; the highest elevation is 901 feet northwest of Augusta near Femme Osage Creek headwaters. Lincoln County Calhoun County, Illinois Jersey County, Illinois Madison County, Illinois St. Louis County Franklin County Warren County I-64 – Major freeway in the western portion of the county. U. S. Route 40, the highway was upgraded to Interstate standards in the late 2000s; the highway was re-signed as Interstate 64 from the Daniel Boone Bridge to Interstate 70 in Wentzville in 2009. I-70 – The major east-west thoroughfare in the county, it is a six-lane freeway in the county, but there are sections in St. Charles and St. Peters where the Interstate widens to 11 lanes of traffic.
US-40 US-61 US-67 Rte-79 Rte-94 Rte-364 – A freeway in the southern and central portions of the county that begins at Interstate 270 in western St. Louis County and ends at Interstate 64 in Lake St. Louis. Rte-370 – A six-lane freeway that connects Interstate 70 in St. Charles County and Interstate 270 in St. Louis County. Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge As of 2010, there were 360,485 people, 132,906 households, 77,060 families residing in the county; the population density was 643 people per square mile. There were 142,766 housing units at an average density of 73 persons/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 91.3% White, 4.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino made up 2.5% of the population. There were 101,663 households out of which 40.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.20% were married couples living together, 9.20% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, 24.20% were non-families.
19.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.00% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.60% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 8.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $71,458, the median income for a family was $64,415. Males had a median income of $44,528 versus $29,405 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,592. 4.00% of the population and 2.80% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 4.90% are under the age of 18 and 5.10% are 65 or older. St. Charles County, with an estimated population of 373,495, has been one of the fastest-growing counties in the country for decades, with 55% growth in the 1970s, 48% in the 1980s, 33% in the 1990s, another 27% in the 2000s.
The county features a cross-section of industry, as well as some agriculture. With the Missouri River on the south and east and the Mississippi River on the north, the county is bisected east to west by Interstate 70. St. Charles County has one small airport St. Charles County Smartt Airport and two ferries that cross the Mississippi River. Fort Zumwalt R-II School District – O'Fallon Francis Howell R-III School District – St. Peters Orchard Farm R-V School District – St. Charles St. Charles R-VI School District – St. Charles Wentzville R-IV School District – Wentzville Boonslick State School – St. Peters – Special Education Fort Zumwalt Hope High School – O'Fallon – Other/Alternative School – Francis Howell Union High School – St. Charles – Other/Alternative School – Heritage Landing – St. Peters – Other/Alternative School – Lewis & Clark Career Center – St. Charles – Vocational/Technical School – Quest Day Treatment Center – St. Charles – Other/Alternative School – Lindenwood University – St. Charles St. Charles Community College – Cottleville St. Charles City-County Library District St. Charles County is governed by a county executive and a county council.
The county council
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, is a coeducational, public doctoral/professional university in Edwardsville, United States about 20 miles northeast of St. Louis, Missouri. SIUE was established in 1957 as an extension of Southern Illinois University Carbondale, it is the younger of the two major institutions of Southern Illinois University system, and, as of 2018, has the larger enrollment. The University offers graduate programs through its Graduate School. Fielding athletic teams known as the SIU Edwardsville Cougars, the university participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division I level as a member of Ohio Valley Conference; the majority of SIUE's students are from Illinois, with out-of-state and international students accounting for 18% of enrollment. As of 2018, for nearly all of its academic programs, SIUE does not charge out-of-state tuition and fee rates, such that the standard rates are the same for all U. S. residents. The university offers numerous extracurricular activities to its students, including athletics, honor societies, student clubs and organizations, as well as fraternities and sororities.
The university has an alumni base of more than 101,000. During the Post–World War II economic expansion, a lack of public higher education was noticeable in the growing Metro-East area. Organizations from across the area took it upon themselves to relieve this lack. Southern Illinois University, over 100 miles to the region's south, opened a residence center in Belleville in 1949. In 1955, the Edwardsville Chamber of Commerce founded the Southwestern Illinois Council for Higher Education, tasked with creating a more permanent solution to the problem. SWICHE and the SIU Board of Trustees met and stated their agreement in goals in 1956, that same year, an Executive Committee from the Board of Education in Alton invited Dr. Alonzo Myers, Chairman of the Department of Higher Education for Higher Education at New York University, to perform a study of the need for higher education in the Metro-East. Dr. Myers's 1957 report, The Extent and the Nature of Needs for Higher Education in Madison and St. Clair Counties, outlined the precise need: the 1950 census showed that students in the region in question were only half as as those in other regions of the country to finish a four-year college degree program.
Businesses in the area were in need of college-trained employees, but were forced to hire outside of the area in the fields of business administration, nursing and industrial technology. Myers concluded that, rather than more residence centers, private schools, or junior colleges, a branch of a four-year public university would best serve the needs of the area, he recommended the closest large public university, as the best candidate. Acting on the report, in 1957, SIU purchased both a former building of East St. Louis High School and the campus of Shurtleff College in Alton as temporary facilities. With all of the research and planning that had gone before, the true need had been underestimated; when the new campuses opened, officials planned on having about 800 students. The dual campus solution was temporary because both facilities were in urban areas with little room for expansion at the time of purchase. Land for the permanent campus was purchased in 1960—2,660-acre of farmland. Money for the purchase came from A) contributions from individuals, industries, labor unions, civic organizations, PTAs.
The location, west of Edwardsville, was chosen due to its accessibility via highways, its usability as an educational campus, its proximity to the major urban areas of the Metro-East. In 1960, a bond issue was voted upon by the residents of Illinois. A conference entitled Environmental Planning-Edwardsville Campus took place in 1961, highlighting the architectural and spatial design of the future campus; the campus was designed by architects Hellmuth and Kassabaum. Ground was broken in 1963 and, with the first two buildings completed, classes were first held on the Edwardsville campus in fall 1965. A series of dedication ceremonies from 1966 to 1969 highlighted the ongoing growth of the campus. Prior to the development of the Edwardsville campus, six "Divisions of Academic Programs" were established for the SIU Residential Centers in Alton and East St. Louis on March 4, 1960; when the move was made to the new campus in 1965, the "Divisions" became the Schools of Business, Fine Arts, Humanities and Technology, Social Sciences.
The nursing program, to become the School of Nursing when the new campus opened, was established in March 29, 1964. On April 18, 1969, the Board of Trustees voted to establish the School of Dental Medicine, which opened in 1972; the School of Engineering originated as the Engineering Department of the School of Science and Technology and was elevated to School status in 1982. Between September 9, 1993 and July 1, 1995 the Schools of Fine Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences and the University College merged to become the College of Arts and Sciences; the newest of SIUE's schools, the School of Pharmacy, began classes in 2005. In 2014, the School of Education was renamed to School of Education and Human Behavior to better represent the
Illinois's 15th congressional district
The 15th Congressional District of Illinois is located in eastern and southeastern Illinois. Republican John Shimkus represents the district; the congressional district covers parts of Bond, Champaign and Madison counties, all of Clark, Clinton, Crawford, Douglas, Edwards, Fayette, Hamilton, Jasper, Lawrence, Massac, Pope, Saline, Vermilion, Washington and White counties. All or parts of Centralia, Danville, Effingham, Glen Carbon and Rantoul will be included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. Republican John Shimkus representing the 19th district, was on the 2012 ballot for the 15th congressional district. Angela Michael, a retired nurse and pro-life activist, ran on a single-issue pro-life Democratic ticket. Shimkus won reelection again, after facing a primary challenge from Illinois State Senator Kyle McCarter with Tea Party backing and funding from the Club for Growth. Shimkus continues to loom large in the 15th, but faces credible Democratic opposition from a local teacher and former Obama campaign worker.
The district included the cities of Charleston, Urbana and Champaign, all or parts of Livingston, Ford, McLean, DeWitt, Vermillion, Piatt, Edgar, Coles, Clark, Lawrence, Edwards, White and Gallatin counties. District created March 4, 1873 As of May 2015, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 15th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Tim Lee Hall on November 12, 2008. The most serving representative to die was Edward Rell Madigan on December 7, 1994. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2002 Census of Agriculture - 15th Congressional District Profile District map Congressional district profiles Washington Post page on the 15th District of Illinois U.
S. Census Bureau - 15th District Fact Sheet