Natchez Trace Parkway
The Natchez Trace Parkway is a National Parkway in the southeastern United States that commemorates the historic Old Natchez Trace and preserves sections of the original trail. Its central feature is a two-lane parkway road that extends 444 miles from Natchez, Mississippi, to Nashville, Tennessee. Access to the parkway is limited, with more than fifty access points in the states of Mississippi and Tennessee; the southern end of the route is in Natchez at an intersection with Liberty Road, the northern end is northeast of Fairview, Tennessee, in the suburban community of Pasquo, Tennessee, at an intersection with Tennessee State Route 100. In addition to Natchez and Nashville, the larger cities along the route include Jackson and Tupelo and Florence, Alabama; the All-American Road is maintained by the National Park Service, to commemorate the original route of the Natchez Trace. The road has been designated an All-American Road. Commercial traffic is prohibited along the entire route, the speed limit is 50 miles per hour, except north of Leiper's Fork and Ridgeland, where the speed limit is reduced to 40 miles per hour.
The total area of the Parkway is 51,746.50 acres, of which 51,680.64 acres are federal, 65.86 acres are non-federal. The Parkway is headquartered in Tupelo and has nine district offices: Leipers Fork, Meriwether Lewis, Tupelo, Kosciusko, Port Gibson, Natchez; the Parkway manages two battlefields: Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site and Tupelo National Battlefield. The gentle sloping and curving alignment of the current route follows the original foot passage, its design harkens back to the way the original interweaving trails aligned as an ancient salt-lick-to-grazing-pasture migratory route of the American bison and other game that moved between grazing the pastures of central and western Mississippi and the salt and other mineral surface deposits of the Cumberland Plateau. The route traverses the tops of the low hills and ridges of the watershed divides from northeast to southwest. Native Americans, following the "traces" of bison and other game, further improved this "walking trail" for foot-borne commerce between major villages located in central Mississippi and middle Tennessee.
The route is locally circuitous. Avoided was the danger to a herd of being caught en-masse at the bottom of a hollow or valley if attacked by predators; the nature of the route, to this day, affords good all-around visibility for those. At all times the road is on the high ground of the ridge dividing the watersheds and provides a view to either see or catch the scent of danger, from a distance great enough to afford the time to flee to safety, if necessary. By the time of European exploration and settlement, the route had become well known and established as the fastest means of communication between the Cumberland Plateau, the Mississippi River, the Gulf of Mexico settlements of Pensacola and New Orleans. In the early post-American Revolutionary War period of America's westward expansion, the Trace was the return route for American flat-boat commerce between the territories of the upper and lower Ohio and Cumberland River valleys; the Americans constructed flat-boats, loaded their commerce therein, drifted upon those rivers, one-way south-southwestward to New Orleans, Louisiana.
They would sell their goods, return home via the Trace, to as far away as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Improved communications and the development of ports along the rivers named above made the route obsolete as a means of passenger and freight commerce; as a result, no major population centers were born or developed along the Trace, because of its alignment, between its termini Nashville and Natchez. The two cities of note, near or on the Trace's alignment, developed only as a result of their alignment along axes of communication different from the Trace, thus the Trace and its alignment are today entirely undeveloped and unspoiled along its whole route. Many sections of the original footpath are visible today for observing and hiking the Parkway's right-of-way. Construction of the Parkway was begun by the federal government in the 1930s; the development of the modern roadway was one of the many projects of the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression. The road was the proposal of U.
S. Congressman T. Jeff Busby of Mississippi, who proposed it as a way to give tribute to the original Natchez Trace. Inspired by the proposal, the Daughters of the American Revolution began planting markers and monuments along the Trace. In 1934, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration ordered a survey. President Roosevelt signed the legislation to create the parkway on May 18, 1938. Construction on the Parkway began in 1939, the route was to be overseen by the National Park Service, its length includes more than 45,000 acres and the towering Natchez Trace Parkway Bridge in Williamson County, completed in 1994 and one of only two post-tensioned, segmental concrete arch bridges in the world. The Emergency Appropriations Act of June 19, 1934, allocated initia
Mississippi Highway 22
Mississippi Highway 22 is a state highway in Mississippi, United States. It runs from east to west for 43 miles, serving only two counties: Madison and Hinds. From East to West Canton Flora Edwards List of state highways in Mississippi Magnolia Meanderings Google Earth Media related to Mississippi Highway 22 at Wikimedia Commons
Pearl River (Mississippi–Louisiana)
The Pearl River is a river in the U. S. states of Louisiana. It forms in Neshoba County, Mississippi from the confluence of Nanih Waiya and Tallahaga creeks. and has a meander length of 444 miles. The lower part of the river forms part of the boundary between Louisiana; the river contains large areas of bottomland hardwood swamp and cypress swamp, providing habitat for many species of wildlife including sturgeon and black bears. As as 2008, endangered Ivory-billed woodpeckers were sighted here; the mouth of the river provides important marsh habitat along salinity gradients. It is considered to be one of the most critical areas of natural habitat remaining in Louisiana; the Mississippi state capital, Jackson, is located on the river. The Yockanookany and Strong rivers are tributaries on the upper section and the Bogue Chitto is a tributary on the lower section. In 1924 the Tuscolameta Creek received a 24-mile channelization and Yockanookany River received a 36-mile canal, completed in 1928; the Bogue Chitto's mean low-water discharge is nearly six times the mean low-water discharge of the Pearl River at Jackson, according to a 1936 government report of the Mississippi Planning Commission.
Northeast of Jackson, the Ross Barnett Reservoir is formed by a 1962 dam. Average annual rainfall is about 52 inches in the upper third of the basin, below Jackson the basin rainfall increases to 64 inches or more; the Yockanookany River along with the Lobutcha and Pelahatchie Creeks are major tributaries to the river north of Jackson. West of Picayune, about 50 miles above the mouth, the river forks; the East Pearl River empties into Lake Borgne, where the dredged Pearl River Channel meets the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The discharge flows eastward past Grand Island into the Mississippi Sound; the West Pearl River flows into The Rigolets, thence into Lake Borgne. Both discharges reach the Gulf of Mexico; the Pearl River serves as the 115-mile boundary between Mississippi and Louisiana in its lower reach near the Gulf of Mexico. Pearl River provides the receiving waters for the Savanna Street Sewage Treatment Plant in Jackson, Mississippi. Which lies about 180 miles from the mouth of the river.
The Pearl passes near or through the following towns: Philadelphia, Mississippi Pearl River, Mississippi - Named after the river. Carthage, Mississippi Jackson, Mississippi Flowood, Mississippi Pearl, Mississippi - Named after the river. Georgetown, Mississippi Rockport, Mississippi Monticello, Mississippi Columbia, Mississippi Bogalusa, Louisiana Picayune, Mississippi Pearlington, Mississippi - named after the river. Pearl River, Louisiana - named after the river. For the year 1827 the enrolled and licensed tonnage for Pearl River shipping was 750 tons; the customhouse at Pearl River, ten miles inland at the small town of Pearlington, Mississippi was changed, but in 1904 the district reported a total of 358 vessels and 19,869 tons. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has undertaken three significant navigation projects in the Pearl River Basin. In 1880, Congress authorized a 5-foot navigation channel on the West Pearl River from Jackson to the Rigolets; that project was discontinued in 1922. Beginning in 1910, a channel was dredged from the mouth of the East Pearl River into Lake Borgne, a project, maintained on an irregular basis.
In 1935, the West Pearl River Navigation Project was authorized. It provided for a navigation channel from Bogalusa to the mouth of the West Pearl River; the project includes a canal with three locks. The Corps of Engineers placed the project in "caretaker" status in the 1970s because of a decline in commercial traffic. Maintenance dredging resumed in December 1988. In the 1950s, underwater concrete sills were constructed to help maintain water levels in the navigation channel; this has prevented Gulf sturgeon and other migratory species from accessing upstream areas. A rock ramp constructed in 2003 helps fish navigate over one of the sills, but environmental groups propose further work to mitigate the effects of the navigation project. Building dams, canals and water control structures is known to have negative effects on wetlands and the ecological services they provide; these artificial structures are being removed to allow natural river activities to resume. The Pascagoula River is one of the few remaining southern rivers with natural water regimes, is a potential model for restoring the Pearl River floodplain.
At the Bogalusa, Louisiana gauge the river was recorded in 1983 and 1987 as delivering nearly 3.5 million metric tons and 2.5 million metric tons of sediment respectively. Hurricanes are a natural form of disturbance that shapes rivers and watersheds on the Gulf Coast, has done so for thousands of years; as one recent example, Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 caused further natural changes in the Pearl River. Bottom sediments and marsh vegetation—including uprooted cypress and oak trees—blocked the mouth of the West Pearl and other parts of the channel; the Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries and other agencies removed 27,000 cubic meters of debris. However, the accumulation of this woody debris is a natural part of floodplain ecosystems in general, wetlands in particular, provides vital habitat for species including fish and turtles. Hence, this use of state funds to remove debris was an expenditure on an activity, known to have negative impacts upon watersheds and wild species. List of rivers of Louisiana List of rivers of Mississippi 1979 Easter flood South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region U.
S. Geological Sur
Jackson the City of Jackson, is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Mississippi. It is one of two county seats of Hinds County, along with Mississippi; the city of Jackson includes around 3,000 acres comprising Jackson-Medgar Evers International Airport in Rankin County and a small portion of Madison County. The city's population was estimated to be 165,072 in 2017, a decline from 173,514 in 2010; the city sits on the Pearl River and is located in the greater Jackson Prairie region of Mississippi. Founded in 1821 as the site for a new state capital, the city is named after General Andrew Jackson, honored for his role in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 and would serve as U. S. president. Following the nearby Battle of Vicksburg in 1863 during the American Civil War, Union forces under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman began the Siege of Jackson and the city was subsequently burned. During the 1920s, Jackson surpassed Meridian to become the most populous city in the state following a speculative natural gas boom in the region.
The current slogan for the city is "The City with Soul". It has had numerous musicians prominent in blues, gospel and jazz. Jackson is the anchor for Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the state's largest metropolitan area with a 2016 population of 579,332, about one-fifth of Mississippi's population. The region, now the city of Jackson was part of the large territory occupied by the Choctaw Nation, the historic culture of the Muskogean-speaking indigenous peoples who had inhabited the area for thousands of years before European colonization; the Choctaw name for the locale was Chisha Foka. The area now called Jackson was obtained by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, by which The United States acquired the land owned by the Choctaw Native Americans. After the treaty was ratified, American settlers moved into the area, encroaching on remaining Choctaw communal lands. One of the original Choctaw members, in 1849, described what he and his people experienced during this turbulent time when the Europeans had come to take their land.
"We have had our habitations torn down and burned" as well as their "fences burned" while they themselves faced personal abuse and have been "scoured and fettered". Under pressure from the U. S. government, the Choctaw Native Americans agreed to removal after 1830 from all of their lands east of the Mississippi River under the terms of several treaties. Although most of the Choctaw moved to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma, along with the other of the Five Civilized Tribes, a significant number chose to stay in their homeland, citing Article XIV of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, they became state and United States citizens at the time. Today, most Choctaw in Mississippi have reorganized and are part of the federally recognized Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, they live in several majority-Indian communities located throughout the state. The largest community is located in Choctaw 100 miles northeast of Jackson. Located on the historic Natchez Trace trade route, created by Native Americans and used by European-American settlers, on the Pearl River, the city's first European-American settler was Louis LeFleur, a French-Canadian trader.
The village became known as LeFleur's Bluff. During the late 18th century and early 19th century, this site had a trading post, it was connected to markets in Tennessee. Soldiers returning to Tennessee from the military campaigns near New Orleans in 1815 built a public road that connected Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana to this district. A United States treaty with the Choctaw, the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, formally opened the area for non-Native American settlers. LeFleur's Bluff was developed; the Mississippi General Assembly decided in 1821. They commissioned Thomas Hinds, James Patton, William Lattimore to look for a suitable site; the absolute center of the state was a swamp, so the group had to widen their search. After surveying areas north and east of Jackson, they proceeded southwest along the Pearl River until they reached LeFleur's Bluff in today's Hinds County, their report to the General Assembly stated that this location had beautiful and healthful surroundings, good water, abundant timber, navigable waters, proximity to the Natchez Trace.
The Assembly passed an act on November 28, 1821, authorizing the site as the permanent seat of the government of the state of Mississippi. On the same day, it passed a resolution to instruct the Washington delegation to press Congress for a donation of public lands on the river for the purpose of improved navigation to the Gulf of Mexico. One Whig politician lamented the new capital as a "serious violation of principle" because it was not at the absolute center of the state; the capital was named for General Andrew Jackson, to honor his victory at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. He was elected as the seventh president of the United States; the city of Jackson was planned, in April 1822, by Peter Aaron Van Dorn in a "checkerboard" pattern advocated by Thomas Jefferson. City blocks alternated with other open spaces. Over time, many of the park squares have been developed rather than maintained as green space; the state legislature first met in Jackson on December 23, 1822. In 1839, the Mississippi Legislature passed the first state law in the U.
S. to permit married women to administer their own property. Jackson was connected by public road to Vicksburg and
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Rankin County, Mississippi
Rankin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. The western border of the county is formed by the Pearl River; as of the 2010 census, the population was 141,617, making it the fourth-most populous county in Mississippi. The county seat is Brandon; the county is named in honor of Christopher Rankin, a Mississippi Congressman who served from 1819 to 1826. Rankin County is part of the Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 806 square miles, of which 775 square miles is land and 31 square miles is water. Madison County Scott County Smith County Simpson County Hinds County As of the census of 2000, there were 115,327 people, 42,089 households, 31,145 families residing in the county; the population density was 149 people per square mile. There were 45,070 housing units at an average density of 58 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.03% White, 17.12% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races.
1.32% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Rankin County were English 52.8%, Scots-Irish 15%, African 17.12%, Irish 5.1% and Scottish 3.2%. There were 42,089 households out of which 36.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 12.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.00% were non-families. 21.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 9.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,946, the median income for a family was $51,707.
Males had a median income of $36,097 versus $26,096 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,412. About 7.30% of families and 9.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.20% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. Rankin County has the second highest per capita income in the state of Mississippi. Interstate 20 U. S. Highway 80 U. S. Highway 49 Mississippi Highway 13 Mississippi Highway 18 Mississippi Highway 25 Mississippi Highway 43 Mississippi Highway 471 Interstate 55 Jackson Evers International Airport is located in unincorporated Rankin County; the Mississippi Department of Corrections operates the Central Mississippi Correctional Facility, located in unincorporated Rankin County. CMCF houses the state's female death row inmates. MDOC operates the Brandon Probation and Parole Office in Brandon. In 2007 the Mississippi Highway Patrol opened a driver's license facility across the highway from the prison; the Mississippi State Hospital of the Mississippi Department of Mental Health is in Whitfield in unincorporated Rankin County.
It occupies the former Rankin Farm prison grounds. In 1935, the Mississippi State Insane Asylum moved from a complex of 19th-century buildings in northern Jackson, the capital, to its current location; the Mississippi Department of Public Safety operates the Mississippi Law Enforcement Officers' Training Academy on a 243-acre property in Rankin County, near CMCF and the MSH, 10 miles from Jackson. The Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality operates the Central Regional Office and the MDEQ Laboratory in unincorporated Rankin County. Brandon Flowood Jackson Pearl Richland Florence Pelahatchie Puckett Cleary Robin Hood Cato Comeby Crossgates Farm Dobson Robinhood/Shady Lakes Value National Register of Historic Places listings in Rankin County, Mississippi The Rankin Chamber of Commerce Rankin County Genealogy and Historical Page Rankin County Website
Attala County, Mississippi
Attala County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,564, its county seat is Kosciusko. Attala County is named for Atala, a fictional Native American heroine from an early-19th-century novel of the same name by François-René de Chateaubriand. Myrtis Methvin was elected in 1932 as the second woman mayor in Louisiana and took office in Castor in Bienville Parish, serving from 1933 to 1945, she was born in Attala County in 1895. John D. Winters, an historian of the American Civil War, was born in Attala County in 1917. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 737 square miles, of which 735 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. Mississippi Highway 12 Mississippi Highway 14 Mississippi Highway 19 Mississippi Highway 35 Mississippi Highway 43 Natchez Trace Parkway Montgomery County Choctaw County Winston County Leake County Madison County Holmes County Carroll County Natchez Trace Parkway As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,564 people residing in the county, down from its peak in 1940.
56.2% were White, 42.0% Black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.7% of some other race and 0.6% of two or more races. 1.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 19,661 people, 7,567 households, 5,380 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 8,639 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 58.34% White, 40.00% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.65% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 1.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,567 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.30% were married couples living together, 16.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.07.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 17.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,794, the median income for a family was $30,796. Males had a median income of $26,180 versus $17,394 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,782. About 18.30% of families and 21.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.60% of those under age 18 and 21.40% of those age 65 or over. Kosciusko Ethel McCool Sallis Hesterville McAdams Williamsville Zama Sand Hill Valena Dry county National Register of Historic Places listings in Attala County, Mississippi Attala County Courthouse Pictures Attala County GenWeb