Pasadena /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/ is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. As of 2013, the population of Pasadena was 139,731. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County, Pasadena was incorporated on June 19,1886, becoming one of the first cities be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, the only one being incorporated earlier being its namesake. It is one of the cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game, the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They spoke the Tongva language and had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years, Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges and they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, and other small animals.
They traded for fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island, the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon. When the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people Gabrielino Indians, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area. The Rancho comprised the lands of todays communities of Pasadena, before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area, Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton, much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians, owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles and he was the grandfather of WWII General George S.
Patton, Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. Berry was an asthmatic and claimed that he had his best three nights sleep at Rancho San Pascual, to keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area Muscat after the grape that Wilson grew. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it. The newcomers were able to purchase a portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31,1874. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, at the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue
The Solly Madonna by the Italian renaissance artist Raphael was painted somewhere between 1500 and 1504. An early work, it shows the influence of Raphaels teacher Perugino. Two motifs in this work would recur in Madonnas by Raphael, the virgin Mary is reading a book, as in the Madonna and Child in the Norton Simon Museum, the Connestabile Madonna, the Madonna Colonna and the Madonna del cardellino. As in that last painting a small bird, a goldfinch, is part of the scene, the painting is located in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. It is called the Solly Madonna because it was owned by the British banker and art collector Edward Solly
Madonna del cardellino
The Madonna del cardellino or Madonna of the Goldfinch is a painting by the Italian renaissance artist Raphael, from c. A 10-year restoration process was completed in 2008, after which the painting was returned to its home at the Uffizi in Florence, during the restoration, an antique copy replaced the painting in the gallery. Raphael is considered to be a “master” of the High Renaissance and he was born in 1483 and died in 1520, living a mere thirty-seven years. Despite his relatively short lifespan, he was influential throughout his time on earth. He produced a vast quantity of work in a variety of media and he was active in architecture, printmaking and drawing. During the first half of his career, he spent years traveling across Northern Italy and was influenced by the Florentine styles he saw there, after which, in 1508, he moved to Rome where he continued to work. Many of his commissions came from the Vatican, including the Apostolic Palace, due to his relationship with the church, he and Michelangelo were fierce rivals throughout both of their careers, and often competed for the same commissions.
During his Florentine period, this work, The Madonna Del Cardellino, was painted during this period, along several other well-known Madonnas, The Madonna of the Meadow. In this painting, as in most of the Madonnas of his Florentine period, though the positions of the three bodies are natural, together they form an almost regular triangle. The Madonna is shown young and beautiful, as with Raphael’s various other Madonnas and she is clothed in red and blue, for red signifies the passion of Christ and blue was used to signify the church. Christ and John are still young, only babies. John holds a goldfinch in his hand, and Christ is reaching out to touch it, the background is one typical of Raphael. The natural setting is diverse and yet all calmly frames the central subject taking place, the Madonna was a wedding gift from Raphael to his friend Lorenzo Nasi. On November 17,1548 Nasis house was destroyed by an earthquake and it was immediately taken to be salvaged, and was hastily put back together, though the seams were quite visible.
In 2002, George Bonsanti of the Precious Stones organization gave the task of restoration to Patrizia Riitano. During the six-year process that followed, her team worked to remove the years of grime that had degraded the paintings color, and to fix the damage done by the earthquake long ago. Before beginning the project, they studied the work as closely as possible, utilizing resources such as X-rays, CAT scans, reflective infra-red photography, Riitano closely studied the past quick fix layers that had been applied and removed them until the original by Raphael finally shone through. The restoration was completed in 2008, and the painting was put on display in Uffizi, in Madonna Del Cardellino, the goldfinch represents Christ’s crucifixion
The Deposition (Raphael)
The Entombment, known as the Pala Baglione, Borghese Entombment or The Entombment, is an oil painting by the Italian High Renaissance painter Raphael. Signed and dated Raphael Urbinas MDVII, the painting is in the Galleria Borghese in Rome and it is the central panel of a larger altarpiece commissioned by Atalanta Baglioni of Perugia in honor of her slain son, Grifonetto Baglioni. Like many works, it shares elements of the subjects of the Deposition of Christ, the Lamentation of Christ. The painting is on panel and measures 184 x 176 cm. In the early part of the 16th Century, violence among factions, mostly in the form of combat, was relatively common in Perugia and other parts of Italy. The Baglioni family were the lords of Perugia and surrounding areas, Atalanta changed her mind and rushed after her son, but arrived only in time to see her son being killed by Gian Paolo and his men. A few years later, Atalanta commissioned the young Raphael to paint an altarpiece to commemorate Grifonetto in the chapel in San Francesco al Prato.
Raphael took the commission very seriously, over the course of two working on and developing his design through two phases and numerous preparatory drawings. This was the last of major commissions by the young Raphael for Perugia. He had already painted for the church the Oddi Altarpiece for the Baglionis great rival family. The new commission marked an important stage in his development as an artist, the painting remained in its location until in 1608, it was forcibly removed by a gang working for Cardinal Scipione Borghese, nephew of Pope Paul V. In order to pacify the city of Perugia, the Pope commissioned two copies of the painting from Giovanni Lanfranco and the Cavaliere d’Arpino, and that by Arpino is still in Perugia, Raphael made numerous preparatory sketches or drafts as his idea for the composition evolved. He started with the subject of a Lamentation over the dead Christ, the two design phases may broadly be labeled ‘Perugian’ and ‘Florentine’. Giorgio Vasari, the biographer of Italian artists, understood Raphael’s piece as a narrative painting.
Vasari takes a reverential tone in describing The Entombment, taking care to discuss not only the important figures in the painting. Looking at it formally, the scene depicted is neither the Deposition nor the Entombment. We can determine this through the background, on the right is Mount Calvary, the location of the Crucifixion and Deposition, and on the left is the cave where the Entombment will take place. And so two men, lacking halos, use a piece of linen to carry the dead Christ, the two men and Christ form very strong diagonals in the shape of a V
Portrait of Perugino (Raphael)
The Portrait of Perugino is a portrait of the Italian Renaissance artist Perugino attributed to his pupil Raphael or to Lorenzo di Credi. It was produced around 1504 and is now in the Uffizi gallery, the painting is known to have been in the Florentine Galleries since as early as 1704, when it was identified as a portrait of Martin Luther and was attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger. In an 1825 comment to Giorgio Vasaris Vite, it was listed as a Portrait of Verrocchio by Lorenzo di Credi, adolfo Venturi in 1922 attributed it to Perugino himself, while the attribution to Raphael appeared in the 1930s. The identification with Perugino is today ascertained thanks to the evident similarities with the self-portrait in the Collegio del Cambio, copies of the painting exist in Vienna, Bergamo, Rome and in the Gallerie dellAccademia in Venice
The Ansidei Madonna is a 1505–1507 painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, painted during his Florentine period. It shows the Blessed Virgin Mary sitting on a wooden throne, on her right John the Baptist stands, on her left Saint Nicholas is reading. At the time the painting was commissioned, there were paintings that made up the grouping for the altarpiece. Of the predellas, the only that remains is Saint John the Baptist Preaching, both the main painting, Ansidei Madonna, and the predella Saint John the Baptist Preaching, are located at the National Gallery in London. The Virgin sits formally on a throne, with an adult Saint John the Baptist on the left. Painted for effect rather than realism, the throne has no arms and the steps are steep, but beautifully set off the arches above. The Ansidei Madonna was greatly influenced by the expression of divinity of the Umbrian School within his Florentine Period. Above the Madonnas throne is inscribed Hail, Mother of Christ and this compares to the more natural poses and interaction found in Madonna, the Christ Child and infant John the Baptist in paintings of his Roman period.
Per Ruskin of the National Gallery, the painting is considered one of the greatest paintings in history, the execution was near perfect and well-weathered the test of centuries of time. The gold within the painting looks real, but was painted by affect. Secondly, another test of a painting, the characters look serene. Third, the painting attracts attention to the spirit or soul of a character, rather than their appearance, last, you see joy, contentment or beauty in the face of the subject, not negative connotations, such as pain or vileness. The three balls at Bishop Nicholas feet may symbolize the trinity, or the three bags of gold he is said to have thrown into the window of a poor mans home for his daughters welfare. Raphael achieved excellence in Ansidei Madonna through execution of every minute detail, a master at the young age of twenty-three, Raphael brought new life to well-represented subjects, through careful, methodic performance. Care is represented by what one does – and what one does not do, or more clearly, consider the landscape behind our subjects, it is clean and serene, not overdone with unnecessary detail.
When color is used, it is used decidedly and for effect, such as the jeweled robe, the Virgin Mary, Saint John and Bishop Nicholas are isolated from one another, without interchange, a style common in the Umbrian school, and particularly Perugino. Two paintings formed the predella for Raphaels altarpiece the Ansidei Madonna, the first, Saint John the Baptist Preaching, was placed beneath the image of Saint John in the main altarpiece, and is now owned by the National Gallery. The panels that depicted her betrothal, positioned below the Virgin and Child, There is some question about the date, or dates, of the painting
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running a large workshop and, despite his death at 37. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings and he was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region and his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the very court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture, growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but frequently visited, Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a humanistic education however, it is unclear how easily he read Latin. His mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1,1494 by his father, Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother. He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master and he had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been a great help to his father.
A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity and his fathers workshop continued and, probably together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a very early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello, previously the court painter, and Luca Signorelli, according to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice despite the tears of his mother. The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, an alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters, the Perugino workshop was active in both Perugia and Florence, perhaps maintaining two permanent branches. Raphael is described as a master, that is to say fully trained and his first documented work was the Baronci altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino in Città di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and Urbino.
Evangelista da Pian di Meleto, who had worked for his father, was named in the commission
Portrait of Emilia Pia da Montefeltro
The painting was perhaps part of the ducal collection of Urbino, brought to Florence in 1625 as a part of Vittoria della Roveres dowry. Later it was in Vienna, in Erlenbach, near Zurich, the identification with the subject is confirmed by a medal attributed to Adriano Fiorentino. However, the attribution to Raphael remains disputed, in a similar way than the Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga of the Uffizi, emilia Pia was in fact a confident of Elisabetta Gonzaga, and perhaps her portrait was executed to emulate the formers
Disputation of the Holy Sacrament
The Disputation of the Sacrament, or Disputa, is a painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. At the time, this room was known as the Stanza della Segnatura, in the painting, Raphael has created a scene spanning both heaven and earth. Above, Christ is surrounded by a halo, with the Blessed Virgin Mary, John the Baptist at his right, other various biblical figures such as Adam and Moses are to the sides. God the Father sits above Jesus, depicted reigning over the light of heaven. On opposite sides of the Holy Spirit are the four gospels, below, on the altar sits the monstrance. The altar is flanked by theologians who are depicted debating Transubstantiation, pope Sixtus IV is the gold dressed pope in the bottom of the painting. Directly behind Sixtus is Dante, wearing red and sporting a laurel wreath, the bald figure reading a book and leaning over a railing in the left hand corner is Raphaels mentor and Renaissance architect Bramante
Young Woman with Unicorn
Portrait of Young Woman with Unicorn is a painting by Raphael, which art historians date to 1505 or 1506. It is in the Galleria Borghese in Rome, the painting was originally oil on panel, and was transferred to canvas during conservation work in 1934. The work was of uncertain attribution until recent times, in the 1760 inventory of the Gallery, the subject of the painting was identified as Saint Catherine of Alexandria and attributed to Perugino. Later restoration work on the painting in 1959 revealed through radiography the image of a small dog and this alteration is believed to have been made by Raphael, it is not known why the alteration was made. Giulia Farnese Barchiesi and Marina # Minozzi, The Galleria Borghese, The Masterpieces, Galleria Borghese, thoenes, Raphael 1483-1520, The Invention of the High Renaissance, Taschen,2012