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Madrid

Madrid is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the second-largest city in the European Union, surpassed only by Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the second-largest in the EU, smaller only than Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid region, of which it is the capital; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is José Luis Martínez-Almeida from the People's Party; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the major financial centre and the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.

It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the UN's World Tourism Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city. There are three established theories regarding the origin of the toponym "Madrid", namely: A Celtic origin.

From the Arabic maǧrà. A Mozarabic variant of the Latin matrix, matricis. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives. After the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo. With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, it was integrated into the kingdom of Castile as a property of the Crown.

Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, whose administrative district extended from the Jarama in the east to the river Guadarrama in the west; the government of the town was vested to the neighbouring of Madrid since 1346, when king Alfonso XI of Castile implements the regiment, for which only the local oligarchy was taking sides in city decisions. Since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile. In 1309, the Courts of Castile were joined in Madrid for the first time under Ferdinand IV of Castile, in 1329, 1339, 1391, 1393, 1419 and twice in 1435. Since the unification of the kingdoms of Spain under a common Crown, the Courts were convened in Madrid more often. During the revolt of the Comuneros, led by Juan de Padilla, Madrid joined the revolt against Emperor Charles V of Germany and I of Spain, but after defeat at the Battle of Villalar, Madrid was besieged and occupied by the royal troops.

However, Charles I gave it the titles of Coronada and Imperial. When Francis I of France was captured at the battle of Pavia, he was imprisoned in Madrid, and in the village is dated the Treaty of Madrid of 1526. Is seen in the foreground the banks of the Manzanare

Acanthobdella peledina

Acanthobdella peledina is a species of leech in the infraclass Acanthobdellidea. It feeds on the skin and blood of freshwater fishes in the boreal regions of northern Europe and North America. Leaches in this infraclass are primitive, some authors place them in a separate subclass to the Hirudinea. However, the World Register of Marine Species places them within the Hirudinea, as a sister group to Euhirudinea, the true leeches. Acanthobdella peledina was first described by the German zoologist Adolph Eduard Grube in 1851. For a long time, it was believed to be the only species in the infraclass, but in 1966, another species in the genus, A. livanowi, was described from the vicinity of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia. A. peledina differs from other fish leeches in not having a sucker at its anterior end. It is in fact unique among leeches in having chaetae at all, in having a coelom divided by septa into a discontinuous channel. Other ways in which it differs from other leeches are that the body is divided into 29 segments, it lacks a prostomium and a peristomium, the nephridia do not have funnels.

It has a sucker at the posterior end, moves in a typical leech fashion by alternately extending its anterior end forward clinging on with its hooked chaetae while it brings its posterior sucker close to its front end. The leeches are olive green and about 23 mm in length; the species has a boreal distribution and is known from freshwater locations in northern Europe and Asia, from Alaska. One of the fish in Alaska parasitized by A. peledina is the sardine cisco. The leeches were found just behind the pelvic fins with their anterior ends embedded in the skin and muscle tissue below

Independence Commemorative Decoration

The Independence Commemorative Decoration was a Rhodesian civil decoration awarded to persons who had rendered valuable service to Rhodesia. The award was instituted in 1970 by the first awards being made the same year. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters ICD; the medal was a circular bronze medal worn on the breast. The obverse bore the shield from Rhodesia's coat of arms and the legend COMMEMORATION OF INDEPENDENCE RHODESIA, while the reverse was blank; the medal was impressed in small capitals with the recipient's name on the rim, was awarded with a case of issue, miniature medal for wear, an illuminated certificate. The ribbon consisted of five equal stripes, white, white, identical to the Independence Decoration. Over 150 awards of the Independence Commemorative Decoration were made between 1970 and 1978. Most recipients were political supporters or allies of the Rhodesian Front government of Ian Douglas Smith. Recipients included the ZUPO leader Jeremiah Chirau, the Rhodesian High Commissioner in London, Andrew Skeen.

The last recipient of the Independence Commemorative Decoration was the sanctions-buster Jack Malloch, owner of air transport company Affretair, in 1978. The Decoration fell into abeyance following Zimbabwe Rhodesia's adoption of majority rule in 1979, the country's transformation into Zimbabwe a year later. Saffery, D. 2006. The Rhodesia Medal Roll, Jeppestown Press, United Kingdom. ISBN 0-9553936-0-4 Orders and Decorations of Zimbabwe Independence Commemorative Decoration entry in World Medals Index