click links in text for more info


A madrigal is a secular vocal music composition of the Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Traditionally, polyphonic madrigals are unaccompanied, it is quite distinct from the Italian Trecento madrigal of the late 13th and 14th centuries, with which it shares only the name. Madrigals originated in Italy during the 1520s. Unlike many strophic forms of the time, most madrigals were through-composed. In the madrigal, the composer attempted to express the emotion contained in each line, sometimes individual words, of a celebrated poem; the madrigal originated in part from the frottola, in part from the resurgence in interest in vernacular Italian poetry, from the influence of the French chanson and polyphonic style of the motet as written by the Franco-Flemish composers who had naturalized in Italy during the period. A frottola would consist of music set to stanzas of text, while madrigals were through-composed. However, some of the same poems were used for madrigals; the poetry of Petrarch in particular appears in a wide variety of genres.

In Italy, the madrigal was the most important secular form of music of its time. The madrigal reached its historical zenith by the second half of the 16th century. English and German composers, took up the madrigal in its heyday. After the 1630s, the madrigal began to merge with the dialogue. With the rise of opera in the early 17th century, the aria displaced the madrigal. In the early 16th century, several humanistic trends converged. First, there was a reawakened interest in use of Italian as a vernacular language. Poet and literary theorist Pietro Bembo edited an edition of Petrarch, the great 14th-century poet, in 1501, published his theories on how contemporary poets could attain excellence by imitating Petrarch, by being attentive to the exact sounds of words, as well as their positioning within lines; the poetic form of the madrigal, which consisted of an irregular number of lines of 7 or 11 syllables, without repetition, on a serious topic, came into being as a result of Bembo's influence.

Second, Italy had long been a destination for the oltremontani, superbly-trained composers of the Franco-Flemish school, who were attracted by the culture as well as the employment opportunities at the aristocratic courts and ecclesiastical institutions – Italy was, after all, the center of the Roman Catholic Church, the single most important cultural institution in Europe. These composers had mastered a serious polyphonic style suitable for setting sacred music, were familiar with the secular music of their homelands, music such as the chanson, which differed from the lighter Italian secular styles of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Third, printed secular music had become available in Italy due to the recent invention of moveable type and the printing press; the music being written and sung, principally the frottola but the ballata and mascherata, was light, used verses of low literary quality. These popular music styles used repetition and soprano-dominated chordal textures, styles more simple than those used by most of the resident composers of the Franco-Flemish school.

Literary tastes were changing, the more serious verse of Bembo and his school needed a means of musical expression more flexible and open than was available in the frottola and its related forms. The first madrigals were written in Florence, either by native Florentines or by Franco-Flemish musicians in the employment of the Medici family; the madrigal did not replace the frottola right away. The earliest madrigals were those by Bernardo Pisano, in his 1520 Musica di messer Bernardo Pisano sopra le canzone del Petrarcha, the first secular music collection printed containing only the works of a single composer. While none of the pieces in the collection use the name "madrigal", some of the compositions are settings of Petrarch, the music observes word placement and accent, contains word-painting, a feature, to become characteristic of the madrigal; the first book of madrigals labeled as such was the Madrigali de diversi musici: libro primo de la Serena of Philippe Verdelot, published in 1530 in Rome.

Verdelot, a French composer, had written the pieces in the late 1520s. He included music by both Sebastiano and Costanzo Festa, as well as Maistre Jhan of Ferrara, in addition to his own music. In 1533 and 1534 he published two books of four voice madrigals in Venice, they sold so well that Adrian Willaert made arrangements of some of these works for single voice and lute in 1536. Verdelot published madrigals for five and six voices as well, with the collection for six voices appearing in 1541. Popular was the first collection of madrigals by Jacques Arcadelt. Published in Venice, in 1539, it was reprinted throughout Europe for many years after, becoming the most reprinted madrigal book of the entire era. Stylistically, the music in both Arcadelt's and Verdelot's books was more akin to the French chanson than either the Italian frottola or the sacred music of the time, such as the motet; this may be unsurprising considering that the native language of both Arcadelt and Verdelot was French

Leon Feiner

Leon Feiner was a Polish-Jewish lawyer, an activist of the General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland and between November 1944 and January 1945 the director and vice-chairman of the Council to Aid Jews "Żegota". After the outbreak of World War II with the German invasion of Poland, the Soviet Union invaded on September 17, as part of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and Soviet Union. Feiner was caught in the Soviet part of occupied Poland, was arrested by the NKVD and spent several months in a Soviet prison in Lida, near Wilno. Despite the fact that before the war on several occasions he had defended Polish Communists in court as an attorney, that he had belonged to a socialist organization, the Soviets authorities charged him with being a "fascist" and a "counter revolutionary" After the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union Feiner managed to escape after the Soviets fled Lida in 1941, made his way to Nazi occupied Warsaw. During the Nazi occupation of Poland Feiner though he lived in the "Aryan" side of Warsaw under the assumed name "Berezowski", was one of the central personalities of the Jewish underground in the city.

He was the author of most of the communiques of the Bund from Poland to the Western allies, in which he described Nazi terror and brutality. Feiner served as a guide for the Polish courier Jan Karski inside the Warsaw Ghetto. Karski asked Feiner what British Jews should do. "Tell the Jewish leaders," Feiner said, "that... they must find the strength and courage to make sacrifices no other statesmen have had to make, sacrifices as painful as the fate of my dying people, as unique." Karski took Feiner's report to the Polish-Jewish political leaders Szmul Zygielbojm and Ignacy Schwarzbart, who were serving on the Polish National Council of the Polish Government-in-Exile in London. The report described the deportation and murder of Jews in Poland, including a detailed report on Chełmno extermination camp, gave the estimated number dead, as of May 1942, at 700,000. Feiner's instructions to Zygielbojm were to cease mere protests and organize retaliatory bombing and execution of Germans captured by the Allies, in response to the Nazi Holocaust.

The description of the condition of Jews in German occupied Poland and Feiner's instructions threw Zygielbojm into depression since he knew that the Allies would be unwilling to help. After the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the liquidation of the Ghetto by the Germans, Feiner tried to help those who were sent to slave labor camps. Leon Feiner survived the Nazi occupation, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the Warsaw Uprising, was rescued in Lublin in January 1945. However, due to terminal illness he died soon afterward, on February 22. While in the hospital he maintained relationships with his friends and fellow political activists and participated in discussions of the future of the Bund in Poland, he is buried in the main row of the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery in Warsaw

Harmony, Maine

Harmony is a town in Somerset County, United States. The population was 939 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 40.32 square miles, of which, 38.67 square miles of it is land and 1.65 square miles is water. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Harmony has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 939 people, 399 households, 273 families living in the town. The population density was 24.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 608 housing units at an average density of 15.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.5% White, 0.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 399 households of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.6% were non-families.

25.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age in the town was 49.4 years. 19.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 954 people, 388 households, 301 families living in the town; the population density was 24.6 people per square mile. There were 522 housing units at an average density of 13.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.59% White, 0.94% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. There were 388 households out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.3% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.4% were non-families. 17.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.70. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 29.1% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $23,843, the median income for a family was $26,131. Males had a median income of $23,036 versus $18,056 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,360. About 16.1% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over. Location filming for the 1990 movie Graveyard Shift, based on the short story by Stephen King, took place in Harmony. Helen Marr Hurd, poet Freeman Knowles, U. S. congressman from South Dakota Clyde Smith, U. S. congressman and husband of Margaret Chase Smith Bartlett Tripp, Chief Justice of the Dakota Territory Supreme Court 1885-9, diplomat The Patriarch's Club sponsors a Labor Day Fair

Benjamin Stebbings

Benjamin Robert William Stebbings is an English cricketer. Stebbings is a right-handed batsman, he was born in Oxfordshire. While studying for his degree at Oxford Brookes, Stebbings made his first-class debut for Oxford MCCU against Northamptonshire in 2010, he made three further first-class appearance for the team, the last of which came against Nottinghamshire in 2011. In four matches, he scored 90 runs at an average of 6.00, with a high score of 29. Prior to his studies, Stebbings had made his debut in Minor counties cricket for Herefordshire against Shropshire in the 2007 MCCA Knockout Trophy, he continues to play for Herefordshire. Benjamin Stebbings at ESPNcricinfo Benjamin Stebbings at CricketArchive

Sigismund's Column

Sigismund's Column erected in 1644, is located in Castle Square, Poland and is one of Warsaw's most famous landmarks as well as the first secular monument in the form of a column in modern history. The column and statue commemorate King Sigismund III Vasa, who in 1596 had moved Poland's capital from Kraków to Warsaw. On the Corinthian column, 8.5 m high, a sculpture of the King, 2.75-metres high, in archaistic armour is placed. Sigismund's Column is adorned by four eagles; the king wields a sword in the other. 17th century Erected between 1643 and 1644, the column was constructed on the orders of Sigismund's son and successor, King Władysław IV Vasa. It was designed by the Italian-born architect Constantino Tencalla and the sculptor Clemente Molli, cast by Daniel Tym; the Zygmunt's Column was modelled on the Italian columns in front of Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, the Column of Phocas in Rome. In 1681 the monument was surrounded with a wooden fence, replaced with a permanent iron fence. 18th and 19th centuriesThe marble column itself was renovated several times in the next few centuries, most notably in 1743, 1810, 1821 and 1828.

In 1854 the monument was surrounded with a fountain featuring marble tritons sculpted by the German, August Kiss. In 1863 the column was renovated somewhat again, but still needed work, between 1885 and 1887 it was replaced with a new column of granite. Between 1927 and 1930, the monument was again renovated, was restored to its original appearance when the fountain and the fence around it were removed. 20th centuryOn 1 September 1944, during the Warsaw Uprising, the monument's column was demolished by the Germans, its bronze statue was badly damaged. After the war the statue was repaired, in 1949 it was set up on a new column, made of granite from the Strzegom mine, a couple of metres from the original site; the original broken pieces of the column can still be seen lying next to the Royal Castle. On the side of the pedestal facing the Krakowskie Przedmieście is a plaque bearing the words in finest lettering reads: HONORI·ET·PIETATISACRAM·STATVAM·HANC·SIGISMVNDO·III·VLADISLAVS·IV NATURA·AMORE·GENIO·FILIVS ELECTIONE·SERIE·FELICITATE·SVCCESSOR VOTO·ANIMO·CVLTV·GRATVS PATRI·PATRIAE·PARENTI·OPT: MER: ANNO·DNI·MDCXLIII PONI·IVSSIT·CVI·IAM GLORIA·TROPHEVM·POSTERITAS·GRATITVDINEM AETERNITAS·MONVMENTVM·POSVIT·AVT·DEBET The inscription on the bronze plate of the column: "King Sigismund III, by virtue of free election King of Poland, by virtue of inheritance and law - King of Sweden, in love of peace and fame the first among kings, in war and victories not inferior to anyone, took prisoners of Tsar and Moscow chiefs, he conquered the capital and lands, defeated the Russian army, regained Smolensk, broke the power of Turkey near Khotyn, ruled for forty-four years, in the forty-fourth king" Warsaw Old Town Royal Castle, Warsaw Kolumna Zygmunta

St. Francisville, Illinois

St. Francisville is a city in Lawrence County, United States; the population was 697 at the 2010 census. St. Francisville is located in southeastern Lawrence County at 38°35′34″N 87°38′56″W, in the southeast corner of Denison Township, it is on the west bank of the Wabash River. The city is 12 miles south of the county seat; the Wabash Cannon Ball Bridge, 1.5 miles northeast of St. Francisville, is a former railroad bridge, now a one-lane toll bridge over the Wabash River which provides the most direct route to Vincennes, Indiana, 9 miles to the northeast. According to the 2010 census, St. Francisville has a total area of 0.784 square miles, of which 0.75 square miles is land and 0.034 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 759 people, 317 households, 221 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,017.3 people per square mile. There were 348 housing units at an average density of 466.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.21% White, 0.13% African American, 0.66% from two or more races.

There were 317 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,543, the median income for a family was $29,688. Males had a median income of $30,417 versus $15,938 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,955. About 19.7% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.4% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over.

As of the census of 2010 the population of St. Francisville was 697. St. Francisville is noted for a locally grown variety of popcorn, trademarked as "Black Jewell" for the color of the corn kernels; the popcorn packer attributes the varietal snack food to development work in the "mid 1960's." William Phipps, retired actor and film producer, moved with his mother and brother to St. Francisville where he was six, grew up there