The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty; the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates; the empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, Niccolò Da Conti, the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's wealth; the empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of, the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.
This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu temples' construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation; the empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. Karnata Rajya was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions and literary works of the Vijayanagara times including the Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu. Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, scientific developments and architectural innovations. Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai had been raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, by 1336 these upper Deccan region had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate. Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE.
He created the Kampili kingdom. Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, it ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE. Eight years from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara. By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north; the original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka.
It was moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands. With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella; the next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was the most capable of the Sangama Dynasty rulers, he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Quilon in the south. He became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual trib
Khusro Khan was a medieval Indian military leader, ruler of Delhi as Sultan Nasiruddin Khusrau Shah for a short period of time. Hasan Khusrau Khan, his uterine brother Husamuddin were born into a Hindu Kshatriya community called the Baradu, according to Amir Khusrau's Tughluq Nama, they were captured during the conquest of Malwa. After being taken to Delhi as slaves, they were brought up by Malik Shadi, the naib-i khas-i hajib to Alauddin Khalji. Both brothers assumed the role of passive homosexual concubines, to maintain their status and position. Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah had sex with both brothers, he preferred Hasan as a partner but turned to Husamuddin whenever Hasan was not available. Their relationship was not a secret, Mubarak and Hasan used to exchange hugs and kisses in public. Mubarak gave Hasan the title Khusrau Khan, several iqtas, command of the army of the deceased Malik Kafur, made him a wizarat; the conquest of the Deccan by the Delhi Sultanate began in 1296 when Alauddin Khalji raided and plunder Devagiri.
In that year, Alauddin subsequently murdered his uncle, the reigning sultan and took his place as head of the sultanate. Among Alauddin's subsequent actions, in 1309 he forced the Kakatiya dynasty of Telangana and Coastal Andhra to become subordinate to him. In 1318, Prataparudra II, the Kakatiya ruler, defied his masters in Delhi by refusing to send the annual tribute expected of him. Alauddin's son Mubarak Shah responded by sending Khusrau Khan, one of his generals, to the Kakatiya capital at what is now Warangal. Khan's force bristled with technology unknown in the area, including trebuchet-like machines, Prataparudra had to submit once more to the sultanate; the amount of his annual tribute was changed, becoming 13,000 horses. After Alauddin's death in 1316, Khusrau Khan managed to kill Alauddin's son and successor as sultan, Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, ending the Khalji dynasty in 1320. Khusro assumed the throne, he married Deval Devi. He reconverted back to Hinduism. Khusro in turn was captured by the governor of Dipalpur, Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, after being defeated in the battle of Hauz e Alaai and beheaded in Sept. 1320.
Nayaks of Gingee
The Nayaks of Gingee were rulers of the Gingee principality of Tamil Nadu between 16th to 18th century CE. They were subordinates of the imperial Vijayanagara emperors, were appointed as provincial governors by the Vijayanagar Emperor who divided the Tamil country into three Nayakships viz. Madurai and Gingee. After the fall of the Vijayanagara's Tuluva dynasty, the Gingee rulers declared independence. While they ruled independently, they were sometimes at war with the Tanjore neighbors and the Vijayanagara overlords based in Vellore and Chandragiri; the Gingee Nayak line was established by Tubaki Krishnappa Nayaka, the son of Koneri Nayaka and grandnephew of Achyutappa Nayaka. Sanjay Subrahmanyam and Brennig provide the following details on Achyutappa Nayak: "... Achyutappa, it is believed, belonged to the Balija Chetti mercantile community of Telugu extraction, but settled in the Tamil region as a part of the extensive migratory movement from the Andhra to the Tamil regions that began c.1350 and continued into our period.
The family tree of Achyutappa – to the extent we are aware of it – was as follows: Siblings of Achyutappa: Achyutappa—Chinnana—Kesava—Brother--Sister. Children of Kesava': Laksmana. Children of Achyutappa's Unknown Brother: Koneri—father of Krishnappa.. Some of the Nayakas in the Gingee line were: Krishnappa Nayaka Chennappa Nayaka Gangama Nayaka Venkata Krishnappa Nayaka Venkata Rama Bhupaala Nayaka Thriyambamka Krishnappa Nayaka Varadappa Nayaka Ramalinga Nayani vaaru Venkata Perumal Naidu Periya Ramabhadra Naidu Ramakrishnappa Naidu Srinivasachari takes chronicles mentioned in copper plate grants into account and mentions the following nayakas in the Gingee line, noting governorship of Gingee began in Saka era 1386 / CE 1464: 1490 - Vaiyappa Nayak 1490-1520 - Tubaki Krishnappa Nayaka. 1520-1540 - Achyuta Vijaya Ramachandra Nayak 1540-1550 - Muthialu Nayak 1570-1600 - Venkatappa Nayak 1600-1620 - Varadappa Nayak Appa Nayak - up to Muslim conquest. The Gingee Nayak kingdom when established covered most of Northern Tamil Nadu including the present day Chennai and vast areas of Nellore, Chittoor and Chandragiri.
Its Southern boundary extended up to Kollidam River which marked the boundary between the Tanjavur and Madurai kingdoms. During mid 16th centuries, the Gingee Nayaks lost control of the Vellore Fort and its Northern provinces when their erstwhile Vijayanagara overlords under Aravidu Dynasty took possession of these places and re-established their Kingdom. Two inscriptions from Thirupparankunram in Madurai giving a list of nayaks in Gingee state they migrated from Maninagapura in northern India to Vijayanagara and subsequently settled in Gingee under Vaiyappa Nayak. An inscription of Surappa Nayak of the Gingee line mentions him with the title of'lord of Maninagapura'. Maninagapura is Manikhpur with the immigration supposed to have taken place in 1370 AD. However, neither the cause of migration could be established nor any other evidence exists to prove they came from Maninagapura. Circumstances leading to the foundation of the Gingee governorship are not ascertainable; as per legends in the Karnataka Rajakkal Savistara Charitam and Vaishnara Guruparampara, the line was established around the time when Vedanta Desikan requested Gopanarya to restore the idol of Govindaraja Perumal, thrown out of the Chidambaram shrine.
At that time the nayaks were deputies of Saluva Narasinga. As per MacKenzie manuscripts Krishnadevaraya had around this time marched into Carnatic with his chief nayaks, who were Vaiyappa Nayaka, Tubbaki Krishnappa Nayaka and others; the Jesuit traveler, Father Pimenta met Tubaki Krishnappa Nayaka when he was carrying out restoration works at the Chidambaram temple. In 1509, under the orders of Krishnadeva Raya, Vaiyappa Nayak led the Vijayanagar forces against the local chieftains of the Gingee area. Thereafter, Krishnadevaraya consolidated this area under one of Tubakki Krishnappa Nayaka. Sanjay Subrahmanya and Brennig note that Krishnappa was the son of Koneri who in turn was the son of an unnamed brother of Achyutappa Chetti. However, Burton Stein notes that Tubaki Krishnappa was the son of Vaiyappa Nayak, the Army General of Krishnadeva Raya. We can therefore surmise that either Koneri and Vaiyappa are the same person or that Vaiyappa was in some form related to the unnamed brother of Achyutappa Chetty.
Krishnappa Nayaka established a heredity line of Nayak rulers who ruled Gingee from 1509 to 1648 AD. Krishnappa Nayaka reign lasted from 1507 to 1521. ` Krishnappa Nayak is said to be the founder of Gingee city. The earlier name of Gingee was Krishnapura. Krishnappa Nayak built the Singavaram Venkataramana and Venugopalaswami temples and other structures inside the Gingee Fort. Krishnappa was said be a native of Conjivaram and kept a flower-garden dedicated to the God, Varadaraj Perumal; the granaries of the Gingee Fort, the Kalyana Mahal and the thick walls enclosing the three hills of Gingee are attributed to Krishnappa Nayaka. Although Gingee had been a fortified centre as early as 1240 CE, it was during the rule of Krishnappa that the present layout of the Garh Mahal was established. Krishnappa is said to be the first Nayaka who converted a fort into an outstanding example of military architecture. Krishnappa Nayaka's rule was fraught with wars against the Muslims. Raghunatha Nayaka of Tanjore is said to have secured
Sources of ancient Tamil history
There are literary, archaeological and numismatic sources of ancient Tamil history. The foremost among these sources is the Sangam literature dated to 5th century BCE to 3rd century CE; the poems in Sangam literature contain vivid descriptions of the different aspects of life and society in Tamilakam during this age. Greek and Roman literature, around the dawn of the Christian era, give details of the maritime trade between Tamilakam and the Roman empire, including the names and locations of many ports on both coasts of the Tamil country. Archaeological excavations of several sites in Tamil Nadu and Kerala have yielded remnants from the Sangam era, such as different kinds of pottery, pottery with inscriptions, imported ceramic ware, industrial objects, brick structures and spinning whorls. Techniques such as stratigraphy and paleography have helped establish the date of these items to the Sangam era; the excavated artifacts have provided evidence for existence of different economic activities mentioned in Sangam literature such as agriculture, smithy, gem cutting, building construction, pearl fishing and painting.
Inscriptions found on caves and pottery are another source for studying the history of Tamilakam. Writings in Tamil-Brahmi script have been found in many locations in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka and in Egypt and Thailand. Recording grants made by the chieftains. References are made to other aspects of the Sangam society. Coins issued by the Tamil kings of this age have been recovered from river beds and urban centers of their kingdoms. Most of the coins carry the emblem of the corresponding dynasty on their reverse, such as the bow and arrow of the Cheras. By far, the most important source of ancient Tamil history is the corpus of Tamil poems, referred to as Sangam literature dated from the last centuries of the pre-Christian era to the early centuries of the Christian era, it consists of 2,381 known poems, with a total of over 50,000 lines, written by 473 poets. Each poem belongs to one of two types: Puram; the akam poems deal with inner human emotions such as love and the puram poems deal with outer experiences such as society and warfare.
They contain descriptions of various aspects of life in the ancient Tamil country. The Maduraikkanci by Mankudi Maruthanaar contains a full-length description of Madurai and the Pandyan country under the rule of Nedunj Cheliyan III; the Netunalvatai by Nakkirar contains a description of the king’s palace. The Purananuru and Akanaṉūṟu collections contain poems sung in praise of various kings and poems that were composed by the kings themselves; the Sangam age anthology Pathirruppaththu provides the genealogy of two collateral lines for three or four generations of the Cheras, along with describing the Chera country, in general. The poems in Ainkurnuru, written by numerous authors, were compiled by Kudalur Kizhar at the instance of Chera King Yanaikkatcey Mantaran Ceral Irumporai; the Chera kings are mentioned in other works such as Akanaṉūṟu, Natṟiṇai and Purananuru. The Pattinappaalai describes the Chola port city of Kaveripumpattinam in great detail, it mentions Eelattu-unavu – food from Eelam – arriving at the port.
One of the prominent Sangam Tamil poets is known as Eelattu Poothanthevanar meaning Poothan-thevan hailing from Eelam mentioned in Akanaṉūṟu: 88, 231, 307. The historical value of the Sangam poems has been critically analysed by scholars in the 19th and 20th centuries. Sivaraja Pillay, a 20th-century historian, while constructing the genealogy of ancient Tamil kings from Sangam literature, insists that the Sangam poems show no similarities with ancient Puranic literature and medieval Tamil literature, both of which contain, according to him, fanciful myths and impossible legends, he feels that the Sangam literature is, for the most part, a plain unvarnished tale of the happenings of a by-gone age. Scholars like Dr. Venkata Subramanian, Dr. N. Subrahmanian, Dr. Sundararajan and J. K. Pillay concur with this view. Noted historian K. A. N. Sastri dates the presently available Sangam corpus to the early centuries of the Christian Era, he asserts that the picture drawn by the poets is in obedience to literary tradition and must have been based on solid foundation in the facts of contemporary life.
Kanakalatha Mukund, while describing the mercantile history of Tamilakam, points out that the heroic poetry in Sangam literature described an ideal world rather than reality, but the basic facts are reliable and an important source of Tamil history. Her reasoning is that they have been supported by archaeological and numismatic evidence and the fact that similar vivid descriptions are found in works by different poets. Dr. Husaini relies on Sangam literature to describe the early Pandyan society and justifies his source by saying that some of the poetical works contain trustworthy accounts of early Pandyan kings and present facts as they occurred, though they never throw much light about the chronology of their rule. Among the critics of using Sangam literature for historical studies is Herman Tieken, who maintains that the Sangam poems were composed in the 8th or 9th century and that they attempt to describe a period much earlier than when they were written. Tieken's methodology of dating Sangam works has been criticized by Hart, Ferro-Luzzi, Monius.
Robert Caldwell, a 19th-century linguist, dates the Sangam works to a period that he calls the Jai
Wootz steel is a crucible steel characterized by a pattern of bands. These bands are formed by sheets of microscopic carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix in higher carbon steel, or by ferrite and pearlite banding in lower carbon steels, it was a pioneering steel alloy developed in Southern India in the 6th century BC and exported globally. It was known in the ancient world by many different names including Ukku, Hindvi Steel, Hinduwani Steel, Teling Steel and Seric Iron. Wootz steel originated in Tamilakam present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala. There are several ancient Tamil, Greek and Roman literary references to high carbon Tamil steel; the crucible steel production process started in the 6th century BC, at production sites of Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu, Golconda in Telangana and Sri Lanka and exported globally. The steel was exported as cakes of steely iron that came to be known as "Wootz". Wootz steel in India had high amount of carbon in it; the Tamilakam method was to heat black magnetite ore in the presence of carbon in a sealed clay crucible inside a charcoal furnace to remove slag.
An alternative was to smelt the ore first to give wrought iron heat and hammer it to remove slag. The carbon source was bamboo and leaves from plants such as Avārai; the Chinese and locals in Sri Lanka adopted the production methods of creating wootz steel from the Chera Tamils by the 5th century BC. In Sri Lanka, this early steel-making method employed a unique wind furnace, driven by the monsoon winds. Production sites from antiquity have emerged, in places such as Anuradhapura and Samanalawewa, as well as imported artifacts of ancient iron and steel from Kodumanal. A 200 BC Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, in the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period; the Arabs introduced the South Indian/Sri Lankan wootz steel to Damascus, where an industry developed for making weapons of this steel. The 12th century Arab traveler Edrisi mentioned the "Hinduwani" or Indian steel as the best in the world.
Arab accounts point to the fame of ‘Teling’ steel, which can be taken to refer to the region of Telengana. Golconda region of Telangana being nodal centre for the export of wootz steel to West AsiaAnother sign of its reputation is seen in a Persian phrase – to give an "Indian answer", meaning "a cut with an Indian sword". Wootz steel was exported and traded throughout ancient Europe and the Arab world, became famous in the Middle East. From the 17th century onwards, several European travelers observed the steel manufacturing in South India, at Mysore and Golconda; the word "wootz" appears to have originated as a mistranscription of wook, The Tamil language root word for the alloy is urukku. Another theory says that the word is a variation of ucha. According to one theory, the word ukku is based on the meaning "melt, dissolve". Ukku, the word for steel in the Kannada and Telugu languages; when Benjamin Heyne inspected the Indian steel in Ceded Districts and other Kannada-speaking areas, he was informed that the steel was ucha kabbina known as ukku tundu in Mysore.
Legends of wootz steel and Damascus swords aroused the curiosity of the European scientific community from the 17th to the 19th century. The use of high-carbon alloys was not known in Europe and thus the research into wootz steel played an important role in the development of modern English and Russian metallurgy. In 1790, samples of wootz steel were received by Sir Joseph Banks, president of the British Royal Society, sent by Helenus Scott; these samples were subjected to scientific analysis by several experts. Specimens of daggers and other weapons were sent by the Rajahs of India to the Great Exhibition in London in 1851 and 1862 International Exhibition. Though the arms of the swords were beautifully decorated and jeweled, they were most prized for the quality of their steel; the swords of the Sikhs were said to bear bending and crumpling, yet be fine and sharp. Wootz is characterized by a pattern caused by bands of clustered Fe3C particles made by microsegregation of low levels of carbide-forming elements.
The presence of cementite nanowires, carbon nanotubes has been identified by Peter Paufler of TU Dresden in the microstructure of wootz steel. There is a possibility of an abundance of ultrahard metallic carbides in the steel matrix precipitating out in bands. Wootz swords Damascus blades, were renowned for their sharpness and toughness. Steel manufactured in Kutch enjoyed a widespread reputation, similar to those manufactured at Glasgow and Sheffield; the techniques for its making died out around 1700. According to Sir Richard Burton, the British prohibited the trade in 1866. About a pound weight of malleable iron, made from magnetic ore, is placed, minutely broken and moistened, in a crucible of refractory clay, together with finely chopped pieces of wood Cassia auriculata, it is packed without flux. The open pots are covered with the green leaves of the Asclepias gigantea or the Convolvulus lanifolius, the tops are coated over with wet clay, sun-dried to hardness. Charcoal will not do as a substitute for the green twigs.
Some two dozen of these cupels or crucibles are disposed archways at the bottom of a furnace, whose blast is managed with bellows of bullock's hide. The fuel is composed of charcoal and of sun-dried brattis or cow-chips
Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. He was the Turko-Indian founder of the Tughluq dynasty, he was born in New Delhi. His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. Ghiyas-ud-din sent the young Muhammad to the Deccan to campaign against king Prataparudra of the Kakatiya dynasty whose capital was at Warangal in 1321 and 1323. Muhammad ascended to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325, he was interested in medicine and was skilled in several languages — Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit. Ibn Battuta, the famous traveler and jurist from Morocco, was a guest at his court and wrote about his suzerainty in his book. From his accession to the throne in 1325 until his death in 1351, Muhammad contended with 22 rebellions, pursuing his policies and ruthlessly. Muhammad bin Tughluq was born to Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, in turn the son of a Turkic slave father and a Hindu Indian concubine mother, was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty after taking control of the Delhi Sultanate.
His mother was known by the title Makhduma-i-Jahan, known for being a philanthropist, having founded many hospitals. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq came to throne after death of his father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. While he had good intentions of inviting learned men to his court and implementing new policies, he remained unsuccessful and failed in most of his enterprises, he had been a man of controversies and crisis. He faced attacks of Mongols, dissension within his own support group, rebellions from a large and diverse population. In an effort to adapt to his growing empire, he attempted to shift his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, supposed to be a more central location, but it was a disastrous decision and was costly. After the death of his father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ascended the throne of Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi in February, 1325 A. D. Unlike the Khaljis who did not annex stable kingdoms, Tughluq would annex kingdoms around his sultanate. In his reign, he conquered Warangal Malabar and Madurai, areas up to the modern day southern tip of the Indian state of Karnataka.
In the conquered territories, Tughluq created a new set of revenue officials to assess the financial aspects of the area. Their accounts helped the audit in the office of the wazir. In 1327, Tughluq passed an order to move his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in the Deccan region of India. Tughluq said that it would help him to establish control over the fertile land of the Deccan plateau and to create a more accessible capital since his empire had grown more in the south, he felt that it would make him safe from the Mongol invasions which were aimed at Delhi and regions in north India. It was not always possible to operate an army from Delhi for the occupation of Southern states. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq himself had spent a number of years as a prince on campaign in the southern states during the reign of his father. Daulatabad was situated at a central place so the administration of both the north and the south could be possible. All facilities were provided for those, it is believed that the general public of Delhi was not in favour of shifting the base to Daulatabad.
This seems to have annoyed Tughluq, for he ordered all people of Delhi to proceed to Daulatabad with their belongings. Ibn Batuta cites. Ziauddin Barani observes: "Without consultation or weighting the pros and cons, he brought ruin on Delhi which for 170 to 180 years had grown in prosperity and rivaled Baghdad and Cairo; the city with its Sarais and suburbs and villages spread over four or five leagues, all was destroyed. Not a cat or a dog was left."A broad road was constructed for convenience. Shady trees were planted on both sides of the road. Provisions for food and water were made available at the stations. Tughluq established a khanqah at each of the station. A regular postal service was established between Daulatabad. In 1329, his mother went to Daulatabad, accompanied by the nobles. By around the same year, Tughluq summoned all the slaves, servants, sufis to the new capital; the new capital was divided into wards called mohalla with separate quarters for different people like soldiers, judges, nobles.
Grants were given by Tughluq to the immigrants. Though the citizens migrated, they showed dissent. In the process, many died on the road due to exhaustion. Moreover, coins minted in Daulatabad around 1333, showed that Daulatabad was "the second capital". However, in 1334 there was a rebellion in Mabar. While on his way to suppress the rebellion, there was an outbreak of bubonic plague at Bidar due to which Tughluq himself became ill, many of his soldiers died. While he retreated back to Daulatabad and Dwarsamudra broke away from Tughluq control; this was followed by a revolt in Bengal. Fearing that the sultanate's northern borders were exposed to attacks, in 1335, he decided to shift the capital back to Delhi, allowing the citizens to return to their previous city. Impact of the Change of Capital While most of the Medieval historians, including Barani and Ibn Battuta, tend to have implied that Delhi was emptied, it is believed that this is just an exaggeration; such exaggerated accounts imply that Delhi suffered a downfall in its stature and trade.
Besides, it is believed that onl
Indian Ocean trade
Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history. Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples and civilizations stretching from Java in the East to Zanzibar and Mombasa in the West. Cities and states on the Indian Ocean rim focused on the land. There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations as early as the middle Harappan Phase, with much commerce being handled by "middlemen merchants from Dilmun"; such long-distance sea trade became feasible with the development of plank-built watercraft, equipped with a single central mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth. Several coastal settlements like Sotkagen-dor, Sokhta Koh, Balakot in Pakistan along with Lothal in western India, testify to their role as Harappan trading outposts. Shallow harbours located at the estuaries of rivers opening into the sea allowed brisk maritime trade with Mesopotamian cities.
Prior to Roman expansion, the various peoples of the subcontinent had established strong maritime trade with other countries. The dramatic increase in South Asian ports, did not occur until the opening of the Red Sea by the Greeks and the Romans and the attainment of geographical knowledge concerning the region’s seasonal monsoons. In fact, the first two centuries of the Common Era indicate this increase in trade between present-day western India and Rome; this expansion of trade was due to the comparative peace established by the Roman Empire during the time of Augustus, which allowed for new explorations. The replacement of Greece by the Roman empire as the administrator of the Mediterranean basin led to the strengthening of direct maritime trade with the east and the elimination of the taxes extracted by the middlemen of various land-based trading routes. Strabo's mention of the vast increase in trade following the Roman annexation of Egypt indicates that monsoon was known and manipulated for trade in his time.
The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing, according to Strabo, writing some 150 years later: At any rate, when Gallus was prefect of Egypt, I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Kingdom of Aksum, I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos to the subcontinent, whereas under the Ptolemies, only a few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise. By the time of Augustus up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India. So much gold was used for this trade, recycled by the Kushan Empire for their own coinage, that Pliny the Elder complained about the drain of specie to India: The three main Roman ports involved with eastern trade were Arsinoe and Myos Hormos. Arsinoe was one of the early trading centers but was soon overshadowed by the more accessible Myos Hormos and Berenice; the Ptolemaic dynasty exploited the strategic position of Alexandria to secure trade with the subcontinent.
The course of trade with the east seems to have been first through the harbor of Arsinoe, the present day Suez. The goods from the East African trade were landed at one of the three main Roman ports, Berenice or Myos Hormos; the Romans repaired and cleared out the silted up canal from the Nile to harbor center of Arsinoe on the Red Sea. This was one of the many efforts the Roman administration had to undertake to divert as much of the trade to the maritime routes as possible. Arsinoe was overshadowed by the rising prominence of Myos Hormos; the navigation to the northern ports, such as Arsinoe-Clysma, became difficult in comparison to Myos Hormos due to the northern winds in the Gulf of Suez. Venturing to these northern ports presented additional difficulties such as shoals and treacherous currents. Myos Hormos and Berenice appear to have been important ancient trading ports used by the Pharaonic traders of ancient Egypt and the Ptolemaic dynasty before falling into Roman control; the site of Berenice, since its discovery by Belzoni, has been equated with the ruins near Ras Banas in Southern Egypt.
However, the precise location of Myos Hormos is disputed with the latitude and longitude given in Ptolemy's Geography favoring Abu Sha'ar and the accounts given in classical literature and satellite images indicating a probable identification with Quseir el-Quadim at the end of a fortified road from Koptos on the Nile. The Quseir el-Quadim site has further been associated with Myos Hormos following the excavations at el-Zerqa, halfway along the route, which have revealed ostraca leading to the conclusion that the port at the end of this road may have been Myos Hormos; the regional ports of Barbaricum, Sounagoura Barygaza, Muziris in Kerala, Korkai and Arikamedu on the southern tip of present-day India were the main centers of this trade, along with Kodumanal, an inland city. The Periplus Maris Erythraei describes Greco-Roman merchants selling in Barbaricum "thin clothing, figured linens, coral, frankincense, vessels of glass and gold plate, a little wine" in exchange for "costus, lycium, turquoise, lapis lazuli, Seric skins, cotton cloth, silk yarn, indigo".
In Barygaza, they would buy wheat, sesame oil and cloth. Trade with Barigaza, under the control of the Indo-Scythian Western Satrap Nahapana, was flourishing: T