click links in text for more info

Maelgwn Gwynedd

Maelgwn Gwynedd was king of Gwynedd during the early 6th century. Surviving records suggest he held a pre-eminent position among the Brythonic kings in Wales and their allies in the "Old North" along the Scottish coast. Maelgwn was a generous supporter of Christianity, funding the foundation of churches throughout Wales and far beyond the bounds of his own kingdom. Nonetheless, his principal legacy today is the scathing account of his behavior recorded in De excidio et conquestu Britanniae by Gildas, who considered Maelgwn a usurper and reprobate; the son of Cadwallon Lawhir and great grandson of Cunedda, Maelgwn was buried on Ynys Seiriol, off the eastern tip of Anglesey, having died of the "yellow plague". Maelgwn in Welsh means "Princely Hound" and is composed of the elements mael "prince" and cwn, the old oblique case form of ci "hound, dog"; as "hound" was sometimes used as a kenning for a warrior in early Welsh poetry, the name may be translated as "Princely Warrior". After the collapse of Roman authority in Britain, north Wales was invaded and colonized by Gaelic tribes from Ireland.

The kingdom of Gwynedd began with the reconquest of the coast by northern Britons under the command of Maelgwn's great-grandfather Cunedda Wledig. Generations Maelgwn's father Cadwallon Long-Hand completed the process by destroying the last Irish settlements on Anglesey. Maelgwn was the first king to enjoy the fruits of his family's conquest and he is considered the founder of the medieval kingdom's royal family, he is thus most referenced by appending the name of the kingdom to his own: Maelgwn Gwynedd. By tradition, his llys was located in the Creuddyn peninsula of Rhos. Tradition holds that he died at nearby Llanrhos, was buried there. Other traditions say. There are no historical records to deny these traditions. Historical records of this early era are scant. Maelgwn appears in the royal genealogies of the Harleian genealogies, Jesus College MS. 20, Hengwrt MS. 202. His death in a "great mortality" of 547 is noted in the Annales Cambriae. Tradition holds that he died of the'Yellow Plague' of Rhos, but this is based on one of the Triads, written much later.

The record says only that it was a "great mortality", which followed the outbreak of the great Plague of Justinian in Constantinople by a few years. Maelgwn was a generous contributor to the cause of Christianity throughout Wales, he made donations to support Saint Brynach in Dyfed, Saint Cadoc in Gwynllwg, Saint Cybi in Anglesey, Saint Padarn in Ceredigion, Saint Tydecho in Powys. He is associated with the foundation of Bangor, but hard evidence of this is lacking. In his 1723 Mona Antiqua Restaurata, Henry Rowlands asserts that Bangor was raised to an episcopal see by Maelgwn in 550, but he provides no source for the assertion; the only contemporary information about the person is provided by Gildas, who includes Maelgwn among the five British kings whom he condemns in allegorical terms in his De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae. He says Maelgwn held a regional pre-eminence among the other four kings, going on to say that he overthrew his paternal uncle to gain the throne; the evidence suggests that Maelgwn held a pre-eminent position over the regions ruled by the descendants of Cunedda in the sense of a regional high king.

There is nothing to suggest. Gildas says as much in his condemnation, saying he held a pre-eminence over the other four kings condemned, describing him as the "dragon of the island", where the Isle of Anglesey is the ancient stronghold of the kings of Gwynedd; the fact that Maelgwn's donations to religious foundations are not restricted to the Kingdom of Gwynedd but are spread throughout northern and southern Wales in the regions where the descendants of Cunedda held sway implies that Maelgwn had a responsibility to those regions beyond the responsibilities of a king to his own kingdom. While the context is not definitive, Taliesin implies it, in his Marwnad Rhun that laments the death of Maelgwn's son Rhun, where he says that Rhun's death is "the fall of the court and girdle of Cunedda". In his work On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain written c. 540, Gildas makes an allegorical condemnation of five British kings by likening them to the beasts of the Book of Revelation, 13-2: the lion, leopard and dragon, with the dragon supreme among them.

He says that Maelgwn is the "dragon of the island", goes on with a litany of moral accusations, in the process describing him as a regional high king over the other kings. The Isle of Anglesey was the base of power of the kings of Gwynedd, so describing Maelgwn as the "dragon of the island" is appropriate. Gildas restricts his attention to the kings of Gwynedd, Penllyn, Damnonia/Alt Clud, the unknown region associated with Caninus; the Welsh kingdoms are all associated with the conquest of the Gaels by Cunedda, while Alt Clud had a long and ongoing relationshi

Ray Hankin

Raymond Hankin is an English former footballer. Hankin, a centre forward, played in the Football League for Burnley, Leeds United, Peterborough United and Wolverhampton Wanderers, he spent three seasons with the Vancouver Whitecaps of the NASL, had brief spells with Arsenal and Shamrock Rovers, finished his playing career in English non-league football. Internationally, he was a member of the England youth team that won the 1973 European Under-18 Championship, was capped three times for England at under-23 level. Hankin was born in County Durham, where he played football for Wallsend Boys Club. Hankin began his club career in 1970 as an apprentice with Burnley, he turned professional in February 1973, made his Football League debut on 24 April 1973, at the age of 17 years and 2 months, as an 83rd-minute substitute in a 3–0 win at home to Luton Town that left Burnley needing one point from the final match of the season to win the Second Division title. Hankin was selected in England's squad for the 1973 European Under-18 Championship in Italy in June.

He scored the only goal of the semifinal against Italy, started in the final, in which England beat East Germany 3–2 after extra time to win the tournament. He made his First Division debut on 5 September 1973 away to Tottenham Hotspur, standing in for Paul Fletcher, he forced a brilliant save from Pat Jennings before, with 13 minutes left and Tottenham 2–1 ahead, being fouled for a disputed penalty from which Burnley equalised, four minutes his team scored a winner. In the reverse fixture a week he set up a goal for Geoff Nulty and "caused considerable trouble in the air" in a match that finished 2–2. After Frank Casper was injured during that match, Hankin played regularly, he scored his first goal on his third appearance, with a glancing header to secure a draw at home to Derby County on 15 September, finished the season with 8 goals from 34 league appearances. In the 1974–75 season, Hankin missed only five matches in the First Division, scored 14 goals. A match against Leeds United in September 1974 was eventful.

With the scores tied, Hankin was fouled while jumping to head a crossed ball and Leighton James converted the resulting penalty for what proved to be the winning goal. Hankin himself did not see out the win, he and Leeds defender Gordon McQueen had both been booked when Hankin took hold of his opponent's shirt "like a page boy clutching a bride's train". Hankin's football was not restricted to his club. In October, while still only 18, he was included in the England under-23 squad for a European Championship qualifier against Czechoslovakia. England won 3–0, Hankin made his debut as a substitute, he made two more appearances for the under-23s that season, both in friendlies. He was a member of Don Revie's All Stars XI that played a charity match against a West Midlands XI managed by Joe Mercer in aid of those affected by the Birmingham pub bombings. Third in the table in January 1975, Burnley finished the season in mid-table, despite Hankin's 13 goals, were relegated back to the Second Division in at the end of the 1975–76 campaign.

Hankin was available for transfer. In September 1976, the injury-hit West Ham United agreed a fee of £200,000 for the player. A move to Leeds United – 1973–74 Football League champions and 1975 European Cup Finalists – was agreed, but the medical revealed knee problems that required further investigation and possible surgery. Amid reported interest from Middlesbrough, Leeds were convinced that the injury "would have no long-term complications", the move went ahead, for a fee of £172,000; the injury delayed Hankin's debut for Leeds until 6 November, when he started in a 2–0 win over Everton at Goodison Park. He made three more appearances without scoring. Towards the end of the season he underwent surgery, regained fitness in time to join in pre-season training, he scored five goals in his first five matches, two weeks against Manchester United, produced "a display of aerial ability throughout that must put him along the game's great headers of a ball". The Guardian's reporter still had concerns that he and Joe Jordan needed to establish as close a relationship as existed between Mick Jones and Allan Clarke in Leeds' title-winning days.

Hankin himself relished playing alongside Jordan, but lost him to Manchester United halfway through the season. The total of 20 still made him Leeds' top scorer by some distance. Hankin was selected for the England under-21 squad for the 1978 European Championship quarter-final second leg match against Italy in April, but had to withdraw through injury. Playing alongside new signing John Hawley, Hankin contributed 9 goals from 30 league appearances in 1978–79 to help Leeds finish fifth and qualify for the UEFA Cup. In March 1979, he was suspended for two weeks by manager Jimmy Adamson for an unspecified breach of club discipline. Early in the new season, Hawley was sold and Hankin submitted a transfer request, turned down by Leeds' board: Adamson said he was too valuable a player to lose. In hopes of a move abroad, Hankin declared himself an admirer of "Continental methods and their style" before submitting a second request in October – rejected – before being made available for transfer some six weeks later.

His form had


The Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra or Bodhicaryāvatāra, sometimes translated into English as A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, is a Mahāyāna Buddhist text written c. 700 AD in Sanskrit verse by Shantideva, a Buddhist monk at Nālandā Monastic University in India. It has ten chapters dedicated to the development of bodhicitta through the practice of the six perfections; the text begins with a chapter describing the benefits of the wish to reach enlightenment. The sixth chapter, on the perfection of patient endurance criticizes anger and has been the subject of recent commentaries by Robert Thurman and the fourteenth Dalai Lama. Tibetan scholars consider the ninth chapter, "Wisdom", to be one of the most succinct expositions of the Madhyamaka view; the tenth chapter is used as one of the most popular Mahāyāna prayers. The benefits of bodhicitta Purifying bad deeds Adopting the spirit of enlightenment Using conscientiousness Guarding awareness The practice of patience The practice of joyous effort The practice of meditative concentration The perfection of wisdom Dedication Many Tibetan scholars, such as Ju Mipham, have written commentaries on this text.

Brassard, The Concept of Bodhicitta in Santideva's Bodhicaryavatara, History of religions, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-4575-5 Dalai Lama, XIV. S, ISBN 0-86171-182-3 Pema Chödrön, No Time to Lose: A Timely Guide to the Way of the Bodhisattva, commentary on Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Boston: Shambhala, ISBN 1-59030-135-8 Geshe Yeshe Topden, The Way of Awakening: A Commentary on Shantideva's Bodhicharyavatara, Wisdom Publications,U. S, ISBN 0-86171-494-6 Gyatso, Meaningful to Behold: View and action in Mahayana Buddhism: an oral commentary to Shantideva's A guide to the Bodhisattva's way of life, Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-003-7 Khenchen Kunzang Pelden.


Templeglantine Templeglentan, is a village in West County Limerick, Ireland between Newcastle West and Abbeyfeale on the N21 national primary route – the main road from Limerick to Tralee. The village is 55 kilometres southwest Limerick City and 45 kilometres east of Tralee. Templeglantine is simply referred to as'Glantine' by natives and other West Limerick locals; the Irish for Templeglantine is "Teampall an Ghleanntáin", which means "the church of the little glen". Templeglantine is known locally as'Inse Bán' or "Inchabaun", when translated, means'the White River meadow'. Templeglantine is a chapel village, having grown up around the church, built in 1829. A community centre was opened in 1977 by Bishop Jeremiah Newman. In the same year, the village received the Glór na nGael trophy from the President of Ireland, Patrick Hillery; this is an award for the place in Ireland that does the most to promote the use of the Irish language throughout the previous year. The O'Macasa family ruled the area until the twelfth century when the Norman invasion brought the Fitzgerald family to rule over the area.

The Fitzgeralds held the more auspicious title of'The Earls of Desmond'. After the defeat of the Desmonds in 1583, the area came under the control of Sir William Courtenay who planted most of West Limerick; the de Lacy family were landlords in the area. In 1985 a cist grave was discovered on the lands of James Leahy in the townland of Rathcahill West; these graves are box-like slab structures. They are believed to date from between 2000 BC to 500 BC; the village has a church, a school, a shop and post office, a pub, a community hall named Halla Inse Bán, the Devon Inn Hotel and a small housing estate called Ascaill Inse Bán. There are two playing pitches in the parish. C.'s pitch is located opposite the Devon Hotel. Templeglantine GAA's playing pitch is located just outside the village, at an area known locally as'Dores Cross'. Templeglantine GAA Club is a Hurling club which competes at Junior A level in Limerick GAA, it plays in the West Limerick Junior A Hurling Championship. The club played as'Templeglantine Owen Roes' or'Eoin Ruas' at various times in the past.

The club colours are Gold hoops. The crest features the parish church, from which the village grew, the scenic Tullig Wood in the western end of the parish and the famous Barnagh Tunnel in the eastern side of the parish; the club's facilities include a playing pitch, clubhouse/dressing rooms, viewing stand and viewing bank and a team gymnasium. The playing pitch is due to be upgraded in 2016; the club does not field any Gaelic Football teams. The club has been amalgamated at Minor and U21 level with neighbours Tournafulla GAA as Allaughan Gaels. Allaughan Gaels won 3 West Limerick Minor titles in a row from 2009 to 2011, adding a County Minor B Hurling title in 2009, they won West U21 A Hurling titles in 2009, 2011 and 2013. Templeglantine GAA have won County Limerick Junior Hurling titles in 1937, 1993, 2007 and 2013; the club reached the Munster Junior B Hurling Championship Final in February 2014, drawing with Holycross/Ballycahill of Tipperary in the final played at'The Bog Garden' in Rathkeale.

Holycross/Ballycahill subsequently defeated Templeglantine in the All-Ireland Junior B Hurling Final Replay at Raheenagh in March 2014. The local soccer club is called Glantine F. C. whose club colours are Red & Yellow. Former professional Footballer John McGrath played his underage football with the club; the club was formed in 1982. It competes in the Limerick Desmond League Division 1. There is a rich tradition of Irish culture Irish Traditional Music in Templeglantine; the parish is part of the Sliabh Luachra area of traditional music around the border areas of Kerry and Limerick. The local Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann branch is called CCÉ Teampall an Ghleanntáin, they teach traditional music to the surrounding area. They have competed at Limerick and All-Ireland Fleadhanna and have won several All-Ireland titles in céilidhs and Grúpaí Ceoil; the branch compete in wrenboy competitions. The Templeglantine Céilí Band is well known and perform at céilidh and concerts in the Sliabh Luachra area. Céilithe are frequently held at the Devon hotel in the village.

John Buckley, contemporary classical composer David Neligan'The Spy in the Castle', a key man in Michael Collins' Intelligence War against the British Administration in Ireland during the War of Independence. Subsequently, one of the founding members of the Gardaí in Ireland. Michael Hartnett the Irish poet, who grew up in nearby Newcastle West resided in Templeglantine from 1974 to 1984 List of towns and villages in Ireland

Corned beef

Corned beef is salt-cured brisket of beef. The term comes from the treatment of the meat with large-grained rock salt called "corns" of salt. Sometimes and spices are added to corned beef recipes. Corned beef is featured as an ingredient in many cuisines. Most recipes include nitrates or nitrites, which convert the natural myoglobin in steak to nitrosomyoglobin, giving it a pink color. Nitrates and nitrites reduce the risk of dangerous botulism during curing by inhibiting the growth of Clostridium botulinum bacteria spores, but have been shown to be linked to increased cancer risk. Beef cured without nitrates or nitrites has a gray color, is sometimes called "New England corned beef". Corned beef was popular during both World Wars, it remains popular in Canada and the U. S. as an ingredient in a variety of deli-type dishes, as a modern field rations of various armed forces across the world. Although the exact beginnings of corned beef are unknown, it most came about when people began preserving meat through salt-curing.

Evidence of its legacy is apparent in numerous cultures, including ancient Europe and the Middle East. The word corn is used to describe any small, hard particles or grains. In the case of corned beef, the word may refer to the granular salts used to cure the beef; the word "corned" may refer to the corns of potassium nitrate known as saltpeter, which were used to preserve the meat. Although the practice of curing beef was found locally in many cultures, the industrial production of corned beef started in the British Industrial Revolution. Irish corned beef was used and traded extensively from the 17th century to the mid-19th century for British civilian consumption and as provisions for the British naval fleets and North American armies due to its nonperishable nature; the product was traded to the French for use in Caribbean sugar plantations as sustenance for the colonists and the slave laborers. The 17th-century British industrial processes for corned beef did not distinguish between different cuts of beef beyond the tough and undesirable parts such as the beef necks and shanks.

Rather, the grading was done by the weight of the cattle into "small beef", "cargo beef", "best mess beef", the former being the worst and the latter the best. Much of the undesirable portions and lower grades were traded to the French, while better parts were saved for British consumption or shipped to British colonies. Ireland produced a significant amount of the corned beef in the Atlantic trade from local cattle and salt imported from the Iberian Peninsula and southwestern France. Coastal cities, such as Dublin and Cork, created vast beef curing and packing industries, with Cork producing half of Ireland's annual beef exports in 1668. Although the production and trade of corned beef as a commodity was a source of great wealth for the colonial nations of Britain and France, in the colonies themselves, the product was looked upon with disdain due to its association with poverty and slavery. Increasing corned beef production to satisfy the rising populations of the industrialised areas of Great Britain and Atlantic trade worsened the effects of the Irish Famine and the Great Potato Famine: The Celtic grazing lands of... Ireland had been used to pasture cows for centuries.

The British colonized... the Irish, transforming much of their countryside into an extended grazing land to raise cattle for a hungry consumer market at home... The British taste for beef had a devastating impact on the impoverished and disenfranchised people of... Ireland. Pushed off the best pasture land and forced to farm smaller plots of marginal land, the Irish turned to the potato, a crop that could be grown abundantly in less favorable soil. Cows took over much of Ireland, leaving the native population dependent on the potato for survival. Despite being a major producer of beef, most of the people of Ireland during this period consumed little of the meat produced, in either fresh or salted form, due to its prohibitive cost; this was because most of the farms and its produce were owned by wealthy Anglo-Irish who were absentee landlords and that most of the population were from families of poor tenant farmers, that most of the corned beef was exported. The lack of beef or corned beef in the Irish diet is true in the north of Ireland and areas away from the major centres for corned beef production.

However, individuals living in these production centres such as Cork did consume the product to a certain extent. The majority of Irish who resided in Ireland at the time consumed dairy products and meats such as pork or salt pork and cabbage being a notable example of a traditional Irish snack. Corned beef became a less important commodity in 19th-century Atlantic trade, due in part to the abolition of slavery, but corned beef production and its canned form remained an important food source during the Second World War. Much of the canned corned beef came from Fray Bentos in Uruguay, with over 16 million cans exported in 1943. Now, significant amounts of the global canned corned beef supply comes from South America. Today, around 80% of the global canned corned beef supply originates from Brazil. In North America, corned beef dishes are associated with traditional Irish cuisine. However, considerable debate remains about the association of corned beef with Ireland. Mark Kurlansky, in his book Salt, states that the Irish produced a salted beef around the Middle Ages, the "forerunner of what today is known as Irish corned beef" and in the 17th century, the English named the Irish salted beef "corned beef".

Some say until the wave of 19th-century Irish immigration to the

Atomhenge 76

Atomhenge 76 is a 2000 live album release of part of a 1976 concert by Hawkwind. Part of this set was issued in North America on a single CD as Thrilling Hawkwind Adventures. CD1"Intro" – 1:18 "Reefer Madness" – 6:05 "Paradox" – 4:23 "Chronoglide Skyway" – 5:56 "Hassan-i-Sabah" – 5:56 "Brainstorm" – 8:53 "Wind of Change" – 4:09CD2"Instrumental" – 1:15 "Steppenwolf" – 11:14 "Uncle Sam's on Mars" – 7:36 "Time For Sale" – 10:38 "Back on the Streets" – 5:16 "Sonic Attack" – 6:27 "Kerb Crawler" – 5:34Thrilling Hawkwind Adventures version "Brainstorm" – 9:23 "Wind of Change" – 4:31 "Steppenwolf" – 11:17 "Uncle Sam's on Mars" – 6:56 "Time for Sale" – 10:13 "Back on the Streets" – 4:40 "Sonic Attack" – 6:01 Robert Calvertvocals Dave Brockguitar, vocals Nik Turnersaxophone, vocals Paul Rudolphbass guitar, guitar Simon Houseviolin, keyboards Simon Kingdrums Alan Powell – drums