New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
The Rigolets is a 12.9 kilometer long strait in Louisiana. "Rigolets" comes from the word rigole, French for "trench" or "gutter." The name is now locally pronounced "RIG-uh-leez." It begins at 30°10′40″N 89°44′40″W and follows a eastward course to Lake Borgne, a lagoon in the Gulf of Mexico, to the Gulf of Mexico, where it ends at 30°09′16″N 89°37′31″W. Along with nearby Chef Menteur Pass, the Rigolets connects Lake Pontchartrain and Lake St. Catherine to Lake Borgne, to the Gulf of Mexico, it forms the boundary between St. Tammany Parish; as a deepwater tidal pass, the Rigolets helps supply salt water from the Gulf to Lake Pontchartrain. Tidal scouring has produced a deep pit in the lake at the western mouth of the strait. Since the Rigolets is a channel through which Gulf storm surges can approach the New Orleans area, there are proposals to construct floodgates; the United States constructed Fort Pike following the War of 1812 to protect passage on the Rigolets. The fort was abandoned in 1890.
The Rigolets is spanned by two bridges. The western terminus of the U. S. Route 90 Rigolets Bridge is located north of Fort Pike, it was damaged by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Farther south, the CSX Railroad crosses the Rigolets on a 1,388-meter railroad bridge. Hurricane damage there included shifted spans and the loss of timber decking
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
Robert Sidney Maestri was mayor of New Orleans from 1936 to 1946 and a key ally of Huey P. Long, Jr. and Earl Kemp Long. Robert Maestri was born in New Orleans on December 11, 1899, the son of two Italians, Francesco Maestri and Angele Maestri, he inherited his father's furniture store at an early age, built it up into one of the city's largest. After investing in real estate, Maestri was able to amass a considerable fortune, he had political ambition, after allying himself with governor Huey Long, he was appointed to head the state's Conservation Commission, which allowed him to control production quotas in the state's oil industry. He served as conservation commissioner from 1929 to 1936, was a powerful member of Long's inner circle. In his autobiography, Huey Long recalls how Maestri volunteered to raise money to fight Long's impeachment by the Louisiana House of Representatives. Maestri's association with the Longite political faction brought him to greater prominence after Huey Long's death.
Long had been involved in a lengthy and destructive feud with New Orleans Mayor T. Semmes Walmsley, after his death, both sides were interested in ceasing hostilities. In 1936, an agreement was reached between Longite governor Richard Leche and Walmsley's Regular Democratic Organization, whereby Walmsley would resign as mayor before his term ended and Maestri would take his place as both mayor and as head of the powerful Old Regular political machine. In July 1936, Maestri was nominated as the Democratic candidate for mayor without opposition. After the Republican candidate withdrew in the face of certain defeat at the hands of a unified Longite-Old Regular machine, Maestri was acclaimed as mayor of New Orleans on August 17, 1936, without having to face election. A subsequent constitutional amendment was passed by the Longite state legislature cancelling the 1938 municipal election and extending Maestri's term to 1942. Maestri graduated from Soule Business College. Maestri was a shrewd politician.
He began the reintegration of New Orleans into the state's political structure by reorganizing the city's fiscal structure, ending the costly practice of borrowing money against anticipated tax revenue and streamlining purchasing and expenditures. He developed a popular personal governing style, going on daily tours of the city to pinpoint problems, holding daily open sessions in which citizens could come to his office to explain their problems or request help, he used his connections with the Long machine in Baton Rouge to bring state and federal funds to the city, resulting in the construction of a new Charity Hospital and public housing projects for low-income New Orleanians. Once in City Hall, Maestri solidified his control by using spoils politics and patronage appointments, using Old Regular ward bosses to enforce loyalty and dispense patronage, to guarantee votes for himself and for Longite candidates in local and state elections. With this powerful machine behind him, he was able to win reelection in 1942 against reform candidates Herve Racivitch and Shirley Wimberly, taking 75,713 votes out of a total of 137,000 votes cast.
After this easy victory, Maestri retreated from his accessible governing style in his second term in order to spend more time running his Old Regular machine, which allowed city services to erode. With the mayor's attention elsewhere, the corruption and favoritism that characterized his administration grew further. Maestri and the Longites had reached a deal with mobster Frank Costello whereby the city would ignore slot-machine laws in exchange for a cut of the proceeds, so prostitution and illegal gambling flourished in New Orleans under Maestri's tenure; the growing problems of New Orleans in Maestri's second term were too much for the Old Regular machine to handle, allowed young reformer deLesseps Story Morrison, Sr. to defeat Maestri in the mayoral election of January 1946. Morrison served until 1961. Maestri's most famous utterance came when dining with President Franklin Roosevelt on Oysters Rockefeller at New Orleans' famous Antoine's Restaurant, when Maestri blurted "How ya like dem erstuhs, Chief?" in his characteristic thick New Orleans accent.
Haas, Edward F. "New Orleans on the Half-Shell: The Maestri Era, 1936-1946" Louisiana History, 13 Kurtz and Peoples, Morgan. Earl K. Long: The Saga of Uncle Earl and Louisiana Politics. LSU Press, 1990. Brasseaux, Carl, ed. A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography. Louisiana Historical Association, 1988
A bascule bridge is a moveable bridge with a counterweight that continuously balances a span, or "leaf", throughout its upward swing to provide clearance for boat traffic. It may be single- or double-leafed; the name comes from the French term for balance scale. Bascule bridges are the most common type of movable span because they open and require little energy to operate, while providing the possibility for unlimited vertical clearance for marine traffic. Bascule bridges have been in use since ancient times. However, it was not until the adoption of steam power in the 1850s that long, heavy spans could be moved enough for practical application. There are three types of bascule bridge designs, counterweights required to balance a bascule's span may be located either above or below the bridge deck; the fixed-trunnion rotates around a large axle. The Chicago bascule name derives from the location where it is used, is a refinement by Joseph Strauss of the fixed-trunnion; the rolling lift trunnion, raises the span by rolling on a track resembling a rocking chair base.
The "Scherzer" rolling lift is a refinement patented in 1893 by the American engineer William Donald Scherzer. The rarer Rall type combines rolling lift with longitudinal motion on trunnions, it was patented by Theodor Rall. One of the few surviving examples is the Broadway Bridge, in Oregon. Drawbridge List of bascule bridges Moveable bridges for a list of other movable bridge types
Interstate 10 in Louisiana
Interstate 10, a major transcontinental Interstate Highway in the Southern United States, runs across the southern part of Louisiana for 274.42 miles. It passes through Lake Charles and Baton Rouge before dipping south of Lake Pontchartrain to serve the New Orleans metropolitan area before leaving the state. In August 2005, the I-10 Twin Span Bridge was damaged by Hurricane Katrina, rendering it unusable; the bridge was repaired through a $30.9 million contract with Boh Brothers Construction Company. However, Louisiana has since replaced the bridge with two higher elevation spans in 2009 and 2010. From Texas to Lafayette, I-10 parallels the older U. S. Route 90 corridor. From Lafayette, the highway heads east-northeast toward Baton Rouge via the Atchafalaya Swamp Freeway, an 18.2-mile bridge across the Atchafalaya River and its accompanying swamp. Between the two cities, I-10 parallels U. S. Route 190, from Opelousas to Baton Rouge; this route has signs and is designated as an alternate I-10 by-pass that runs from I-10/I-49 north to U.
S. 190 east across to Baton Rouge and back down to I-10 via I-110 south. Traffic can be diverted both ways along this route should there be the necessity to close I-10 across the Atchafalaya Swamp Freeway and is used as a hurricane evacuation route. In the capital of Baton Rouge, U. S. 190 continues east alongside Interstate 12 to Hammond and Slidell while I-10 turns southeastward and parallels U. S. Route 61 to New Orleans. In the Crescent City, I-10 rejoins U. S. 90 as it heads toward Slidell. In Slidell, U. S. 11 continues northeastward toward Hattiesburg, Mississippi while I-10 and U. S. 90 turn eastward toward coastal Mississippi. Major bridges on I-10 in Louisiana include the Sabine River Bridge, the Lake Charles I-10 Bridge, the Atchafalaya Swamp Freeway, the Horace Wilkinson Bridge over the Mississippi River, the Bonnet Carré Spillway Bridge, the Industrial Canal Bridge, Frank Davis "Naturally N'Awlins" Memorial Bridge, the Pearl River Bridge. By the beginning of planning for the Interstate Highway System in 1939, the Houston-New Orleans-Mobile corridor was part of the system.
Preliminary plans took it along U. S. 90 all the way through Louisiana, serving Lake Lafayette but not Baton Rouge. By c. 1943, it had been shifted to the north west of New Orleans, using the Louisiana Highway 12, U. S. 190 and US 61 corridors, serving Baton Rouge but not Lake Charles or Lafayette. The 1947 plan shifted it to the current alignment, including the long stretch of new corridor across the Atchafalaya Swamp; the corridor was assigned the Interstate 10 designation in mid-1957. Prior to the gaining of federal funding for the Interstate System in the late 1950s, a toll road, the Acadian Thruway, had been proposed between Lafayette and a point near Gramercy on Airline Highway; this would have provided a shorter route than I-10. The Gramercy Bridge was built along its planned alignment, with LA 3125 connecting to Gramercy, but no road extends west from the bridge across the Atchafalaya Swamp to Lafayette. Interstate 12, serving as a bypass of New Orleans around the north side of Lake Pontchartrain, was not added until October 17, 1957.
At the time, I-10 and Interstate 59 split in eastern New Orleans, with I-59 following present I-10 and I-10 following the U. S. 90 corridor into Mississippi, so I-12 only ran to I-59 north of Slidell. By the mid-1960s, the routes had been realigned to their current configuration, with I-12 and I-59 both ending at I-10 near Slidell. Construction of the Interstate Highway System in Louisiana began in 1957. Early I-10 contracts were done under the route designation LA 3027. Much of the early construction on the I-10 corridor was concentrated on relieving traffic problems in urban centers. Several such projects were underway and were incorporated into the route of I-10 during construction, such as the Pontchartrain Expressway in New Orleans. In addition, the two major bridges on the route in Calcasieu Parish between the Texas state line and Lake Charles were built for U. S. 90 in the early 1950s and retrofitted for I-10 traffic. Sections of I-10 through rural areas and/or those sections served adequately by existing highways, such as Airline Highway between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, were constructed in the program.
By the spring of 1975, the entire route of I-10 had been opened across Louisiana except for a problem 5.5 mile section between Gonzales and Sorrento, not completed for another three years. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the I-10 Twin Span Bridge, a portion of I-10 between New Orleans and Slidell, spanning the eastern end of Lake Pontchartrain, was damaged, causing a break in I-10 at that point. Unlike the Escambia Bay Bridge, a major artery, I-12 is available to bypass New Orleans. Taking I-12 to the Lake Ponchartrain Causeway allowed entry and exit to and from the Greater New Orleans area from the East. On October 14, 2005 at 3:00 PM, the eastbound span was reopened to two way traffic. On January 6, 2006 at 6:00 AM, both lanes of the westbound span were reopened to traffic using temporary metal trusses and road panels to replace damaged sections; this restored all four lanes of the I-10 Twin Span for normal traffic with a 45 mph speed limit for the westbound lanes and 60 mph for the eastbound lanes.
Oversized and overweight traffic was prohibited until a new permanent six-lane span replaced the two tempora
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr