Igneous rock, or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava, the magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks and metamorphic rocks make up 90–95% of the top 16 km of the Earths crust by volume. Igneous rocks form about 15% of the Earths current land surface, most of the Earths oceanic crust is made of igneous rock. In terms of modes of occurrence, igneous rocks can be either intrusive or extrusive, the mineral grains in such rocks can generally be identified with the naked eye.
Intrusive rocks can be classified according to the shape and size of the intrusive body, typical intrusive formations are batholiths, laccoliths and dikes. When the magma solidifies within the earths crust, it cools slowly forming coarse textured rocks, such as granite, the central cores of major mountain ranges consist of intrusive igneous rocks, usually granite. When exposed by erosion, these cores may occupy huge areas of the Earths surface, intrusive igneous rocks that form at depth within the crust are termed plutonic rocks and are usually coarse-grained. Intrusive igneous rocks that form near the surface are termed subvolcanic or hypabyssal rocks, hypabyssal rocks are less common than plutonic or volcanic rocks and often form dikes, laccoliths, lopoliths, or phacoliths. Extrusive igneous rocks, known as rocks, are formed at the crusts surface as a result of the partial melting of rocks within the mantle. Extrusive igneous rocks cool and solidify quicker than intrusive igneous rocks and they are formed by the cooling of molten magma on the earths surface.
The magma, which is brought to the surface through fissures or volcanic eruptions, hence such rocks are smooth and fine-grained. Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock and forms lava flows, lava sheets. Some kinds of basalt solidify to form long polygonal columns, the Giants Causeway in Antrim, Northern Ireland is an example. The molten rock, with or without suspended crystals and gas bubbles, is called magma and it rises because it is less dense than the rock from which it was created. When magma reaches the surface from beneath water or air, it is called lava, eruptions of volcanoes into air are termed subaerial, whereas those occurring underneath the ocean are termed submarine. Black smokers and mid-ocean ridge basalt are examples of volcanic activity
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds. In chemistry the term is reserved for iron with an number of +3. On the other hand, ferrous refers to iron with oxidation number of +2, iron is usually the most stable form of iron in air, as illustrated by the pervasiveness of rust, an insoluble iron-containing material. The word ferric is derived from the Latin word ferrum for iron, examples include iron-sulfur clusters, oxyhemoglobin and the cytochromes. The bioavailability of iron is of great interest because all forms of life require iron. Iron-deficiency anemia illustrates the problems resulting from low iron intake, many foods contain soluble iron compounds and are therefore necessary for good nutrition. The low bioavailability of iron affects all forms of life, bacteria secrete iron-attracting agents called siderophores that form soluble compounds of iron that can be reabsorbed into the cell and used in building iron-containing metalloproteins. The impact of increasing the bioavailability of iron was famously demonstrated by an experiment where an area of the ocean surface was sprayed with iron salts.
After several days, the phytoplankton within the treated area bloomed to such an extent that the effect was visible from outer space and this fertilizing process has been proposed as a means to mitigate the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Ferric iron mitigates the eutrophication of lakes by reducing the bioavailability of phosphorus in the water, mitigation arises because ferric phosphate is insoluble. Like iron, phosphate is often a limiting nutrient, and its reduction in concentration from solution limits the growth of algae, in water, ferric iron forms compounds that are often insoluble, at least near neutral pH. A salt of ferric iron hydrolyzes water and produces iron oxide-hydroxides while contributing hydrogen ions to the solution, in contrast, typical Na+ salts dissolve in water without lowering the pH. Aluminium behaves similarly to ferric ion, rust, a mixture of ferric hydroxide compounds, illustrates the low solubility of ferric ions in water. Various reagents cause rust to dissolve even at neutral pH and these ligands include EDTA, which forms a chelate complex with the ion, displacing the hydroxide and oxide ligands that comprise rust.
For this reason, EDTA is often used to iron deposits or to deliver soluble iron in fertilizers. Citrate solubilizes ferric ion at neutral pH, although its complexes are less stable than those of EDTA, Ferric iron is a d5 center, meaning that the metal has five valence electrons in the 3d orbital shell. The magnetism of ferric compounds is determined by these five electrons. Usually ferric ions are surrounded by six ligands arranged in octahedron, sometimes three and sometimes as many as seven ligands are observed
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula 2SiO4. Thus it is a type of nesosilicate or orthosilicate and it is a common mineral in the Earths subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series and fayalite, compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite and fayalite. Forsterite has a high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure, almost 1,900 °C. The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers, as do other properties, olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen, silicon and iron. Manganese and nickel commonly are the elements present in highest concentrations. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a structure which includes tephroite and kirschsteinite. It has a structure similar to magnetite but uses one quadravalent. Olivine gemstones are called peridot and chrysolite, olivine is named for its typically olive-green color, though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron.
Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot, some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. Olivine occurs in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica and that magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be left after extraction of magmas. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earths upper mantle, the metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content produces Mg-rich olivine, or forsterite. In contrast, Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals, Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. Mg-rich olivine has discovered in meteorites, on the Moon and Mars, falling into infant stars.
Such meteorites include chondrites, collections of debris from the early Solar System, the spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. The tails of comets often have the signature of olivine
Besides molten rock, magma may contain suspended crystals, dissolved gas and sometimes gas bubbles. Magma often collects in magma chambers that may feed a volcano or solidify underground to form an intrusion, magma is capable of intruding into adjacent rocks, extrusion onto the surface as lava, and explosive ejection as tephra to form pyroclastic rock. Magma is a complex high-temperature fluid substance, temperatures of most magmas are in the range 700 °C to 1300 °C, but very rare carbonatite magmas may be as cool as 600 °C, and komatiite magmas may have been as hot as 1600 °C. Environments of magma formation and compositions are commonly correlated, environments include subduction zones, continental rift zones, mid-ocean ridges and hotspots. Despite being found in such locales, the bulk of the Earths crust. Except for the outer core, most of the Earth takes the form of a rheid. Magma, as liquid, preferentially forms in high temperature, low pressure environments within several kilometers of the Earths surface, magma compositions may evolve after formation by fractional crystallization and magma mixing.
By definition rock formed of solidified magma is called igneous rock, melting of solid rocks to form magma is controlled by three physical parameters, temperature and composition. Mechanisms are discussed in the entry for igneous rock, as a rock melts, its volume changes. When enough rock is melted, the small globules of melt link up, under pressure within the earth, as little as a fraction of a percent partial melting may be sufficient to cause melt to be squeezed from its source. The degree of melting is critical for determining what type of magma is produced. The degree of partial melting required to form a melt can be estimated by considering the relative enrichment of incompatible elements versus compatible elements, incompatible elements commonly include potassium, barium and rubidium. Rock types produced by small degrees of melting in the Earths mantle are typically alkaline. Typically, primitive melts of this composition form lamprophyre, lamproite and sometimes nepheline-bearing mafic rocks such as alkali basalts, pegmatite may be produced by low degrees of partial melting of the crust.
Some granite-composition magmas are eutectic melts, and they may be produced by low to high degrees of melting of the crust. At high degrees of melting of the crust, granitoids such as tonalite and monzonite can be produced. Being only the time in recorded history that magma had been reached, IDDP decided to invest in the hole. A cemented steel case was constructed in the hole with a perforation at the close to the magma
Aphanite, or aphanitic as an adjective, is a name given to certain igneous rocks that are so fine-grained that their component mineral crystals are not detectable by the unaided eye. This geological texture results from rapid cooling in volcanic or hypabyssal environments, as a rule, the texture of these rocks is not the same as that of volcanic glass, with volcanic glass being non-crystalline, and having a glass-like appearance. Aphanites are commonly porphyritic, having large crystals embedded in the fine groundmass or matrix, the large inclusions are called phenocrysts. They consist essentially of very fine-grained minerals, such as feldspar, with hornblende or augite, and may contain biotite, quartz. Andesite Basalt Basanite Dacite Felsite Phonolite Rhyolite Trachyte This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate minerals within the feldspar group. Rather than referring to a mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a continuous solid solution series. This was first shown by the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel in 1826, the series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers, where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the minerals crystal lattice structure. Plagioclase in hand samples is often identified by its polysynthetic crystal twinning or record-groove effect, plagioclase is a major constituent mineral in the Earths crust, and is consequently an important diagnostic tool in petrology for identifying the composition and evolution of igneous rocks. Plagioclase is a constituent of rock in the highlands of the Earths moon. Analysis of thermal emission spectra from the surface of Mars suggests that plagioclase is the most abundant mineral in the crust of Mars, the extinction angle is an optical characteristic and varies with the albite fraction.
There are several named plagioclase feldspars that fall between albite and anorthite in the series, the following table shows their compositions in terms of constituent anorthite and albite percentages. Anorthite was named by Gustav Rose in 1823 from the Ancient Greek meaning oblique, anorthite is a comparatively rare mineral but occurs in the basic plutonic rocks of some orogenic calc-alkaline suites. Albite is named from the Latin albus, in reference to its pure white color. It is a common and important rock-making mineral associated with the more acid rock types and in pegmatite dikes, often with rarer minerals like tourmaline. The intermediate members of the group are very similar to each other. Bytownite, named after the name for Ottawa, Canada, is a rare mineral occasionally found in more basic rocks. Labradorite is the characteristic feldspar of the basic rock types such as diorite, andesite. Labradorite frequently shows an iridescent display of colors due to light refracting within the lamellae of the crystal and it is named after Labrador, where it is a constituent of the intrusive igneous rock anorthosite which is composed almost entirely of plagioclase.
A variety of known as spectrolite is found in Finland. Andesine is a mineral of rocks such as diorite which contain a moderate amount of silica. Oligoclase is common in granite, syenite and gneiss and it is a frequent associate of orthoclase. The name oligoclase is derived from the Greek for little and fracture, sunstone is mainly oligoclase with flakes of hematite
The pyroxenes are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. Pyroxenes are silicon-aluminum oxides with Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Li substituting for Si, although aluminium substitutes extensively for silicon in silicates such as feldspars and amphiboles, the substitution occurs only to a limited extent in most pyroxenes. They share a structure consisting of single chains of silica tetrahedra. The name pyroxene is derived from the Ancient Greek words for fire, they are simply early-forming minerals that crystallized before the lava erupted. The upper mantle of Earth is composed mainly of olivine and pyroxene, a piece of the mantle is shown at right and is dominated by olivine, typical for common peridotite. Pyroxene and feldspar are the minerals in basalt and gabbro. Pyroxene minerals are named according to the chemical species occupying the X site, the Y site, cations in Y site are closely bound to 6 oxygens in octahedral coordination. Cations in the X site can be coordinated with 6 to 8 oxygen atoms, twenty mineral names are recognised by the International Mineralogical Associations Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and 105 previously used names have been discarded. A typical pyroxene has mostly silicon in the site and predominately ions with a charge of +2 in both the X and Y sites, giving the approximate formula XYT2O6.
The names of the common calcium – iron – magnesium pyroxenes are defined in the pyroxene quadrilateral shown in Figure 2, the enstatite-ferrosilite series contain up to 5 mol. % calcium and exists in three polymorphs, orthorhombic orthoenstatite and protoenstatite and monoclinic clinoenstatite. Increasing the calcium content prevents the formation of the orthorhombic phases, there is not complete solid solution in calcium content and Mg-Fe-Ca pyroxenes with calcium contents between about 15 and 25 mol. % are not stable with respect to a pair of exolved crystals. This leads to a miscibility gap between pigeonite and augite compositions, there is an arbitrary separation between augite and the diopside-hedenbergite solid solution. The divide is taken at >45 mol. % Ca, as the calcium ion cannot occupy the Y site, pyroxenes with more than 50 mol. % calcium are not possible. A related mineral wollastonite has the formula of the hypothetical calcium end member, magnesium and iron are by no means the only cations that can occupy the X and Y sites in the pyroxene structure. A second important series of minerals are the sodium-rich pyroxenes.
The inclusion of sodium, which has a charge of +1, in jadeite and aegirine this is added by the inclusion of a +3 cation on the Y site. Table 1 shows the range of other cations that can be accommodated in the pyroxene structure. For example, Na and Al give the jadeite composition, coupled substitution of a 1+ ion on the X site and a mixture of equal numbers of 2+ and 4+ ions on the Y site
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ, although the Latin letter D can be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume, ρ = m V, where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases, density is defined as its weight per unit volume. For a pure substance the density has the numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and iridium are the densest known elements at standard conditions for temperature and pressure but certain chemical compounds may be denser. Thus a relative density less than one means that the floats in water. The density of a material varies with temperature and pressure and this variation is typically small for solids and liquids but much greater for gases. Increasing the pressure on an object decreases the volume of the object, increasing the temperature of a substance decreases its density by increasing its volume.
In most materials, heating the bottom of a results in convection of the heat from the bottom to the top. This causes it to rise relative to more dense unheated material, the reciprocal of the density of a substance is occasionally called its specific volume, a term sometimes used in thermodynamics. Density is a property in that increasing the amount of a substance does not increase its density. Archimedes knew that the irregularly shaped wreath could be crushed into a cube whose volume could be calculated easily and compared with the mass, upon this discovery, he leapt from his bath and ran naked through the streets shouting, Eureka. As a result, the term eureka entered common parlance and is used today to indicate a moment of enlightenment, the story first appeared in written form in Vitruvius books of architecture, two centuries after it supposedly took place. Some scholars have doubted the accuracy of this tale, saying among other things that the method would have required precise measurements that would have been difficult to make at the time, from the equation for density, mass density has units of mass divided by volume.
As there are units of mass and volume covering many different magnitudes there are a large number of units for mass density in use. The SI unit of kilogram per metre and the cgs unit of gram per cubic centimetre are probably the most commonly used units for density.1,000 kg/m3 equals 1 g/cm3. In industry, other larger or smaller units of mass and or volume are often more practical, see below for a list of some of the most common units of density
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K and atomic number 19. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, in the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. Potassium in nature only in ionic salts. It is found dissolved in sea water, and is part of many minerals, naturally occurring potassium is composed of three isotopes, of which 40K is radioactive. Traces of 40K are found in all potassium, and it is the most common radioisotope in the human body, Potassium is chemically very similar to sodium, the previous element in Group 1 of the periodic table. They have a similar energy, which allows for each atom to give up its sole outer electron. That they are different elements combine with the same anions to make similar salts was suspected in 1702. Most industrial applications of potassium exploit the high solubility in water of potassium compounds, heavy crop production rapidly depletes the soil of potassium, and this can be remedied with agricultural fertilizers containing potassium, accounting for 95% of global potassium chemical production.
Potassium ions are necessary for the function of all living cells, fresh fruits and vegetables are good dietary sources of potassium. Potassium is the second least dense metal after lithium and it is a soft solid with a low melting point, and can be easily cut with a knife. Freshly cut potassium is silvery in appearance, but it begins to tarnish toward gray immediately on exposure to air, in a flame test and its compounds emit a lilac color with a peak emission wavelength of 766.5 nanometers. Neutral potassium atoms have 19 electrons, one more than the stable configuration of the noble gas argon. This process requires so little energy that potassium is readily oxidized by atmospheric oxygen, in contrast, the second ionization energy is very high, because removal of two electrons breaks the stable noble gas electronic configuration. Potassium therefore does not readily form compounds with the state of +2 or higher. Potassium is an active metal that reacts violently with oxygen in water. With oxygen it forms potassium peroxide, and with water potassium forms potassium hydroxide, the reaction of potassium with water is dangerous because of its violent exothermic character and the production of hydrogen gas.
Hydrogen reacts again with atmospheric oxygen, producing water, which reacts with the remaining potassium and this reaction requires only traces of water, because of this and the liquid sodium-potassium — NaK — are potent desiccants that can be used to dry solvents prior to distillation. Because of the sensitivity of potassium to water and air, reactions with other elements are only in an inert atmosphere such as argon gas using air-free techniques
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their low profile, resembling a warriors shield lying on the ground and this is caused by the highly fluid lava they erupt, which travels farther than lava erupted from stratovolcanoes. This results in the accumulation of broad sheets of lava. The shape of shield volcanoes is due to the low viscosity of their mafic lava, Shield volcanoes are built by effusive eruptions, which flow out in all directions to create a shield like that of a warrior. Shield volcano itself is taken from the German term Schildvulkan, examples of pyroclastic shields include Billy Mitchell volcano in Papua New Guinea and the Purico Complex in Chile, an example of a felsic shield is the Big Obsidian Flow in Oregon. Active shield volcanoes experience near-continuous eruptive activity over long periods of time. Mount Everest, by comparison, is 8,848 m in height, the research has not yet been confirmed. Shield volcanoes feature a slope that gradually steepens with elevation before eventually flattening near the summit.
In height they are typically about one twentieth their width, although the general form of a typical shield volcano varies little worldwide regional differences exist in their size and morphological characteristics. 4° and an average volume of 1.7 km3. Rift zones are a prevalent feature on shield volcanoes that is rare on other volcanic types, the large, decentralized shape of Hawaiian volcanoes as compared to their smaller, symmetrical Icelandic cousins can be attributed to rift eruptions. Fissure venting is common in Hawaiʻi, most Hawaiian eruptions begin with a wall of fire along a major fissure line before centralizing to a small number of points. These eruptions, the calmest of volcanic events, are characterized by the emission of highly fluid basaltic lavas with low gaseous content. These lavas travel a far greater distance than those of other types before solidifying, forming extremely wide. Low volumes of such lavas layered over long periods of time are what slowly constructs the characteristically low, central-vent eruptions, often take the form of large lava fountains, which can reach heights of hundreds of meters or more.
If eruptive rates are enough, they may even form splatter-fed lava flows. Hawaiian eruptions are often extremely long lived, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a cone of Kilauea, has been erupting continuously since 1983. These lava flows can be anywhere between 2 and 20 m thick, pāhoehoe flows, in contrast, move in more conventional sheets, or by the advancement of lava toes in snaking lava columns. Increasing viscosity on the part of the lava or shear stress on the part of local topography can morph a pāhoehoe flow into an aa one, although most shield volcanoes are by volume almost entirely Hawaiian and basaltic in origin, they are rarely exclusively so
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium