Magellan (spacecraft)

The Magellan spacecraft referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a 1,035-kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field. The Magellan probe was the first interplanetary mission to be launched from the Space Shuttle, the first one to use the Inertial Upper Stage booster for launching, the first spacecraft to test aerobraking as a method for circularizing its orbit. Magellan was the fifth successful NASA mission to Venus, it ended an eleven-year gap in U. S. interplanetary probe launches. Beginning in the late 1970s, scientists pushed for a radar mapping mission to Venus, they first sought to construct a spacecraft named the Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar, but it became clear that the mission would be beyond the budget constraints during the ensuing years. The VOIR mission was canceled in 1982. A simplified radar mission proposal was recommended by the Solar System Exploration Committee, this one was submitted and accepted as the Venus Radar Mapper program in 1983.

The proposal included a single primary scientific instrument. In 1985, the mission was renamed Magellan, in honor of the sixteenth-century Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, known for his exploration and circumnavigation of the Earth; the objectives of the mission included: Obtain near-global radar images of the Venusian surface with a resolution equivalent to optical imaging of 1.0 km per line pair. Obtain a near-global topographic map with 50 km spatial and 100 m vertical resolution. Obtain near-global gravity field data with 700 km two to three milligals of accuracy. Develop an understanding of the geological structure of the planet, including its density distribution and dynamics; the spacecraft was designed and built by the Martin Marietta Company, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed the mission for NASA. Elizabeth Beyer served as the program manager and Joseph Boyce served as the lead program scientist for the NASA headquarters. For JPL, Douglas Griffith served as the Magellan project manager and R. Stephen Saunders served as the lead project scientist.

To save costs, most of the Magellan probe was made up of spare parts from various missions, including the Voyager program, Galileo and Mariner 9. The main body of the spacecraft, a spare one from the Voyager missions, was a 10-sided aluminum bus, containing the computers, data recorders, other subsystems; the spacecraft measured 6.4 meters tall and 4.6 meters in diameter. Overall, the spacecraft weighed 1,035 kilograms and carried 2,414 kilograms of propellant for a total mass of 3,449 kilograms; the spacecraft's attitude control was designed to be three-axis stabilized, including during the firing of the Star 48B solid rocket motor used to place it into orbit around Venus. Prior to Magellan, all spacecraft SRM firings had involved spinning spacecraft, which made control of the SRM a much easier task. In a typical spin mode, any unwanted forces related to SRM or nozzle mis-alignments are cancelled out. In the case of Magellan, the spacecraft design did not lend itself to spinning, so the resulting propulsion system design had to accommodate the challenging control issues with the large Star 48B SRM.

The Star 48B, containing 2,014 kg of solid propellant, developed a thrust of ~89,000 Newton shortly after firing. Final conservative estimates of worst-case side forces resulted in the need for eight 445 N thrusters, two in each quadrant, located out on booms at the maximum radius that the Space Shuttle Orbiter Payload Bay would accommodate; the actual propulsion system design consisted of a total of 24 monopropellant hydrazine thrusters fed from a single 71 cm diameter titanium tank. The tank contained 133 kg of purified hydrazine; the design included a pyrotechnically-isolated external high pressure tank with additional helium that could be connected to the main tank prior to the critical Venus orbit insertion burn to ensure maximum thrust from the 445 N thrusters during the SRM firing. Other hardware regarding orientation of the spacecraft consists of a set of gyroscopes and a star scanner. For communications, the spacecraft included a lightweight graphite/aluminum, 3.7-meter high-gain antenna left over from the Voyager Program and a medium-gain antenna spare from the Mariner 9 mission.

A low-gain antenna attached to the high-gain antenna, was included for contingencies. When communicating with the Deep Space Network, the spacecraft was able to receive commands at 1.2 kilobits/second in the S-band and transmit data at 268.8 kilobits/second in the X-band. Magellan was powered by each measuring 2.5 meters across. Together, the arrays supplied 1,200 watts of power at the beginning of the mission. However, over the course of the mission the solar arrays degraded due to frequent, extreme temperature changes. To power the spacecraft while occulted from the Sun, twin 30 amp-hour, 26-cell, nickel-cadmium batteries were included; the batteries recharged. The computing system on the spacecraft modified equipment from the Galileo, included two ATAC-16 computers, as one redundant system, located in the attitude-control subsystem, four RCA 1802 microprocessors, as two redundant systems, to control the command and data subsystem; the CDS was able to store commands for up to three days, to autonomously control the spacecraft if problems were to arise while mission operators were not in contact with the spacecraft.

For storing the com


CORONA is an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle developed from 1992 to 2012. In 2016, the company announced plans to resume CORONA development. Lockheed Martin X-33 Blue Origin New Shepard Quad Zarya SpaceX reusable launch system development program McDonnell Douglas DC-X Project Morpheus NASA program to continue developing ALHAT and Quad landers Reusable Vehicle Testing Kankoh-maru New in the development of rocket and space systems: single-stage reusable rocket "CROWN" // Aerospace Technology. Scientific and technical collection. Issue 1 Part 2 / holes. YP Panov, editor EA Osipova. - Miass: SRC "Design Bureau. Academician VP Makeyev ", 1999. - S. 181 - 209. -. - 400 copies. On the possible ways of development of reusable space transportation systems // Aerospace Technology. Scientific and technical collection. Issue 1 Part II / holes. OD Parkhomenko, EA Editor Osipova. - Miass: SRC "Design Bureau. Academician VP Makeyev ", 2002. - S. 120 - 340. -. - 300 copies. Anton Pervushin.

Chapter 15. Heirs "Buran"; the "cold" // The battle for the stars. Part II; the cosmic confrontation. - Moscow: OOO "Publishing ACT», 2004. - 831 p.. - 5000 copies -. ISBN 5-17-024200-X. Kosmodem'yanskii AA Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. - 2nd supplemented. - M:. Science, 1987. - 304 p. - 80,000 copies

Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

The Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge located in the U. S. state of Montana. The refuge is 915,814 acres in size, it is the second-largest National Wildlife Refuge in the lower 48 states of the United States, the largest in Montana. Created in 1936, it was called the Fort Peck Game Range, it was renamed in 1963 after Montana artist Charles M. Russell, a famous painter of the American West. In 1976, the "range" was made a "refuge"; the establishment of the Russell National Wildlife Refuge is tied to the construction of Fort Peck Dam. The lower Missouri River had long been used for commerce, but commercial ships stopped using the upper portion of the river after the railroads pushed west in the 1880s. Extensive flooding in the lower part of the river in 1903 and a push for development of the upper portion by the states of South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana in the 1920s led the federal government to consider building large dams on the Missouri; the dams would not only generate electricity for use by railroads and industry, but they would aid in flood prevention and create large reservoirs which could be used for commercial traffic.

With the onset of the Great Depression in October 1929, unemployment became a severe problem in Montana. The Franklin D. Roosevelt administration saw dam building as a way of providing unemployment relief. On December 12, 1933, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6491, which turned federal land over to the United States Army Corps of Engineers for the construction of the Fort Peck Dam. Additional lands were turned over to the Corps on May 8, 1934, September 11, 1934, April 3, 1936. In 1929, President Herbert Hoover signed into law the Migratory Bird Conservation Act, which authorized the federal government to purchase or lease land for the establishment of waterfowl refuges. In 1934, President Roosevelt signed into law the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, which generated revenue for purchase of waterfowl refuge lands by requiring bird hunters using federal land to purchase a "duck stamp". In 1935, the Roosevelt administration began to consider whether a "Fort Peck Migratory Bird Refuge" should be established around the soon-to-be-filled Fort Peck Reservoir.

Noted wildlife biologist Olaus Murie was sent to the area to document the soils, topography and wildlife in the area. Murie's comprehensive report proved critical in convincing the Roosevelt administration that the area around Fort Peck Reservoir should be a wildlife refuge, not for birds. On December 11, 1936, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 7509, establishing the Fort Peck Game Range. Jurisdiction over the range was transferred from the Army Corps of Engineers to the Bureau of Biological Survey; the primary purpose of the range was the preservation of wildlife, although grazing by domestic livestock was permitted. Over the intervening years, the protected area expanded several times and its name and purpose were changed. On April 13, 1942, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9132 which turned over more Corps-administered land to the game refuge. On February 25, 1963, President John F. Kennedy issued Public Land Order 2951, changing the name of the range to the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range.

On March 25, 1969, President Lyndon B. Johnson issued Public Land Order 4588, which established the UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge; this order dissolved Executive Order 7509, re-established the Russell National Game Refuge under the authority of the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission. The exploitation of the UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge for oil, natural gas and other minerals was prohibited on May 15, 1970, by Public Land Order 4826; the 1970s brought additional changes to the protected area. Both the Russell Game Refuge and the UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge were transferred on April 25, 1975, to the Bureau of Land Management by Public Land Order 5498. A year Congress amended the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act to designate the Missouri River and its banks within Russell National Wildlife Range as part of the Upper Missouri River National Wild and Scenic River system. On October 19, 1976, Congress established the UL Bend Wilderness as a wilderness area within the UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge.

Over time, the wilderness area would expand to 20,819 acres. On April 25, 1978, the United States Secretary of the Interior issued Public Land Order 5635; this order revoked Public Land Order 5498, changed the name of the protected area to the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, turned the area over to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for management. Two important changes were made to the refuge in the 1990s. On September 28, 1993, the Secretary of the Interior issued Public Land Order 6997, which prohibited all mineral exploration within the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge for 20 years. On December 28 of that same year, the General Services Administration transferred of 6,020 acres of land from the Army Corps of Engineers to the wildlife refuge; as of September 2010, the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge contained 915,814 acres of land. 739,097 acres of land within the refuge were withdrawn from settlement, mineral exploration and other uses under federal government's general public land laws.

358,196 acres of the refuge's 915,814 acres are under the sole jurisdiction of the Fish and Wildlife Service. The Army Corps of Engineers