click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Magenta

Magenta is a color, variously defined as purplish-red, reddish-purple or mauvish-crimson. On color wheels of the RGB and CMY color models, it is located midway between blue, it is one of the four colors of ink used in color printing by an inkjet printer, along with yellow and cyan, to make all the other colors. The tone of magenta used in printing is called "printer's magenta". Magenta took its name from an aniline dye made and patented in 1859 by the French chemist François-Emmanuel Verguin, who called it fuchsine, it was renamed to celebrate the Italian-French victory at the Battle of Magenta fought between the French and Austrians on June 4, 1859, near the Italian town of Magenta in Lombardy. A identical color, called roseine, was created in 1860 by two British chemists: Chambers Nicolson and George Maule; the web color magenta is called fuchsia. Magenta is an extra-spectral color, meaning that it is not a hue associated with monochromatic visible light. Magenta is associated with perception of spectral power distributions concentrated in longer wavelength reddish components and shorter wavelength blueish components.

In the RGB color system, used to create all the colors on a television or computer display, magenta is a secondary color, made by combining equal amounts of red and blue light at a high intensity. In this system, magenta is the complementary color of green, combining green and magenta light on a black screen will create white. In the CMYK color model, used in color printing, it is one of the three primary colors, along with cyan and yellow, used to print all the rest of the colors. If magenta and yellow are printed on top of each other on a page, they make black. In this model, magenta is the complementary color of green, these two colors have the highest contrast and the greatest harmony. If combined and magenta ink will look dark gray or black; the magenta used in color printing, sometimes called process magenta, is a darker shade than the color used on computer screens. A purple hue in terms of color theory, magenta is evoked by light having less power in green wavelengths than in blue/violet and red wavelengths In terms of physiology, the color is stimulated in the brain when the eye reports input from short wave blue cone cells along with a sub-sensitivity of the long wave cones which respond secondarily to that same deep blue color, but with little or no input from the middle wave cones.

The brain interprets that combination as some hue of magenta or purple, depending on the relative strengths of the cone responses. In the Munsell color system, magenta is called red–purple. If the spectrum is wrapped to form a color wheel, magenta appears midway between violet. Violet and red, the two components of magenta, are at opposite ends of the visible spectrum and have different wavelengths; the additive secondary color magenta, as noted above, is made by combining violet and red light at equal intensity. In optics and magenta are the same color; the web colors fuchsia and magenta are identical, are made by mixing the same proportions of blue and red light. In design and printing, there is a little more variation; the French version of fuchsia in the RGB color model and in printing contains a higher proportion of red than the American version of fuchsia. Fuchsia flowers themselves, which inspired both colors, have a variety of colors, from fuchsia to purple to red; the color magenta was the result of the industrial chemistry revolution of the mid-nineteenth century, which began with the invention by William Perkin of mauveine in 1856, the first synthetic aniline dye.

The enormous commercial success of the dye and the new color it produced, inspired other chemists in Europe to develop new colors made from aniline dyes. In France, François-Emmanuel Verguin, the director of the chemical factory of Louis Rafard near Lyon, tried many different formulae before in late 1858 or early 1859, mixing aniline with carbon tetrachloride, producing a reddish-purple dye which he called "fuchsine", after the color of the flower of the fuchsia plant, he quit the Rafard factory and took his color to a firm of paint manufacturers and Joseph Renard, who began to manufacture the dye in 1859. In the same year, two British chemists, Chambers Nicolson and George Maule, working at the laboratory of the paint manufacturer George Simpson, located in Walworth, south of London, made another aniline dye with a similar red-purple color, which they began to manufacture in 1860 under the name "roseine". In 1860 they changed the name of the color to "magenta", in honor of the Battle of Magenta fought between the French and Austrians at Magenta, Lombardy the year before, the new color became a commercial success.

Starting in 1935 the family of quinacridone dyes was developed. These have colors ranging from red to violet, so nowadays a quinacridone dye is used for magenta. Various tones of magenta—light, brilliant, rich, or deep—may be formulated by adding varying amounts of white to quinacridone artist's paints. Another dye used for magenta is Lithol Rubine BK. One of its uses is as a food coloring. In color printing, the color called process magenta, pigment magenta, or printer's magenta is one of the three primary pigment colors which, along with yellow and cyan, constitute the three subtractive primary colors of pigment; as such, the hue magenta is the complement of green: magenta pigments absorb green light. The CMYK printing process was invented in the 1890s, when newspapers began to

Emily Smith (cricketer)

Emily Jane Smith is an Australian cricketer who plays as a wicket-keeper for Western Fury and Perth Scorchers. She has taken the field for Tasmanian Roar, Essex Eagles and Hobart Hurricanes. Smith began her cricketing career in Victoria, after being introduced to the game by one of her friends. Neither of her parents was a cricket fan. After playing as a junior at Sunshine Cricket Club, she joined Victorian Premier Cricket team Essendon Maribyrnong Park, during the 2012–13 season she was a member of the Victorian Spirit rookie squad. At the start of the 2013–14 season, Smith was signed by Tasmanian Roar. In 2014–15, she spent the majority of the season travelling south to play for the Roar. In 2015–16, she relocated to Tasmania for the full season, during the Australian winters of 2015 and 2016, she played for Essex. Smith kept wickets for the Hobart Hurricanes during its inaugural WBBL|01 season. In October 2016, she was recruited by Westmeadows Cricket Club in Melbourne as its girls' cricket program coach, joined Western Fury and the Perth Scorchers as a replacement for Jenny Wallace, who had retired.

In November 2018, she was named in the Perth Scorchers' squad for the 2018–19 Women's Big Bash League season. On 18 November 2019 Smith was suspended from playing cricket for twelve months, with nine of those suspended, for breaching Cricket Australia's anti-corruption policy when she posted an image of her team's batting lineup on Instagram. Media related to Emily Smith at Wikimedia Commons Emily Smith at ESPNcricinfo

Marvin Perry

Marvin Perry is a Trinidadian and Tobagonian former kickboxer. Perry started training in Karate at the age of 13, he trained for about two years before coming to the United States and beginning training in Kung Fu. After training in Kung Fu he was introduced to San Shou by Al Loriaux, he is now retired and teaches as a Head Instructor at Red Line Fight Sports, a gym in Boston, Massachusetts. The International Kickboxing Federation national amateur heavyweight san shou title Perry won in 2001 was stripped by the IKF in 2002 when it found he had been fighting professionally since 2000. 2001 USKBA Muay Thai Heavyweight Champion 2001 USKBA Super Cruiserweight Northeast Championship 2001 IKF Amateur Heavyweight San Shou National Champion 2000 USKBA North East Full Contact Kickboxing Champion 2000 USKBA Super Cruiserweight New England Championship Title 2000 USAWKF West Coast San Shou National Champion 2000 USAWKF East Coast San Shou National Champion 1999 USAWKF San Shou National Champion 1998 USAWKF San Shou National Champion 1997 International Chinese Martial Arts San Shou Champion Marvin Perry's Web Site Redline Fight Sports

Planet Records Europe

Planet Records, an independent label founded in 1998 by producer Roberto Ferrante, has had twelve records certified platinum in Europe, four gold and two silver. Its records have sold several million copies. Planet Records is part of an international Discographic & Publishing Group, with branches and / or operators in Miami, New York, Milan, Havana-Cuba, Santo Domingo using a large worldwide distribution network of both "physical records" and "digital music"; the Group is managed by the European headquarters staff. In the U. S. the staff includes human resources of great experience like Daisy De La Cruz as Head of Promotion, Marlene Maseda as TV promoter and Jeff Young as sales manager. The brands Planet Records America and Planet Records Europe are an exclusive ownership, to the group belong various international Music Publishing Companies and the recordin/remastering studio "Planet Recordings Studio". Since 2004, Planet is operative in the sector of magazines with Latino!, bimonthly music magazine that, in 8 years, has sold in Italian newsstands more than 1,250,000 copies, other successful magazine publications.

Roberto Ferrante, a producer and remixer who had worked at Flying Records before its closure, created Planet Records. In 2003 the company released Noelia's "Enamorada", followed by Aventura's "Obsesión"Planet Records created a music magazine with a CD included which has called it Latino! which 1,250,000 copies sold in 8 years). At the end of 2004 Planet Records promoted a new Dominican artist, Papi Sánchez releasing the CD "Yeah Baby" and the single "Enamórame", which sold about 1,000,000 copies in Europe. In 2005/2006 Planet continues the collection of chart hits with the reconfirmation of Aventura among the 20 top sellers of the year with the album Love & Hate and God's Project, followed by the singles "Nore", "Oye Mi Canto", Bascom X's "Lonely Girl", the new CD of the reunion of the Tears for Fears Everybody Loves a Happy Ending and the return of former Spice Girl Melanie C with the album Beautiful Intention. In 2005 Planet Records had artists present at the Festivalbar. In 2006 it released the first Italian product from Piper.

Planet Records released and promoted the new solo album This Time by the former Spice Girl Melanie C and promoted the Aventura's new album KOB and in April 2008 a new album by Hanson. Planet Records opened an office at Miami and became Planet Records US LLC. Omega, El Cata, Gente De Zona, Alex Matos, Prince Royce, Luis Enrique, Fito Blanko were promoted by Planet Records. Tears For Fears Melanie C Agnes The Ark Hanson

William Pears Group

William Pears Group is one of Britain's largest property companies, with £6 billion of property in London and south-east England. The William Pears Group was founded by Bernard Pears and his son Clive Pears, it is run by Mark Pears with his younger brothers David. According to The Daily Telegraph, Mark Pears is a director of 212 companies, a "complex labyrinth of operating and investment companies", but won't say, the main holding company or what the group's annual profit is. William Pears Group owns 3 - 4,000 London freehold residential properties, including large areas of Notting Hill. In 2009, they were reported as owning 15,000 properties in total. In 2009, William Pears Group paid £750 million to Land Securities, to buy Telereal Trillium, a commercial property management and investment company. In April 2013, William Pears Group bought The Spires Shopping Centre in Barnet, from the bank UBS for a reported £34 million. Through Pears Global, they have "up to 6,200 apartments" in Berlin, managed through a series of "letterbox companies".

In 2019, a collaboration of investigative journalists in Germany, headed by Correctiv, tracked down the ownership of about 25 companies with property in Berlin to six firms in Luxembourg, who belong to two firms on Cyprus, who belong to two firms on the British Virgin Islands, who the journalists concluded to be controlled by the William Pears Group

On Fairy-Stories

"On Fairy-Stories" is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form, it was written for presentation by Tolkien as the Andrew Lang lecture at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, on 8 March 1939. In the lecture, Tolkien chose to focus on Andrew Lang’s work as a folklorist and collector of fairy tales, he disagreed with Lang's broad inclusion in his Fairy Books collection, of traveller's tales, beast fables, other types of stories. Tolkien held a narrower perspective, viewing fairy stories as those that took place in Faerie, an enchanted realm, with or without fairies as characters, he disagreed with both Max Müller and Andrew Lang in their respective theories of the development of fairy stories, which he viewed as the natural development of the interaction of human imagination and human language. The essay first appeared in print, with some enhancement, in 1947, in a festschrift volume, Essays Presented to Charles Williams, compiled by C. S. Lewis. Charles Williams, a friend of Lewis's, had been relocated with the Oxford University Press staff from London to Oxford during the London blitz in World War II.

This allowed him to participate in gatherings of the Inklings with Tolkien. The volume of essays was intended to be presented to Williams upon the return of the OUP staff to London with the ending of the war. However, Williams died on 15 May 1945, the book was published as a memorial volume. Essays Presented to Charles Williams received little attention, was out of print by 1955."On Fairy-Stories" began to receive much more attention in 1964, when it was published in Tree and Leaf. Since Tree and Leaf has been reprinted several times, "On Fairy-Stories" itself has been reprinted in other compilations of Tolkien's works, such as The Tolkien Reader in 1966 and The Monsters and the Critics, Other Essays in 1983. "On Fairy Stories" was published on its own in an expanded edition in 2008. The length of the essay, as it appears in Tree and Leaf, is 60 pages, including about ten pages of notes; the essay is significant because it contains Tolkien's explanation of his philosophy on fantasy and thoughts on mythopoiesis.

Moreover, the essay is an early analysis of speculative fiction by one of the most important authors in the genre. Tolkien had not intended to write a sequel to The Hobbit; the Lang lecture was important as it brought him to clarify for himself his view of fairy stories as a legitimate literary genre, one not intended for children. "It is a perceptive commentary on the interdependence of language and human consciousness."Tolkien was among the pioneers of the genre that we would now call fantasy writing. In particular, his stories—together with those of C. S. Lewis—were among the first to establish the convention of an alternative world or universe as the setting for speculative fiction. Most earlier works with styles similar to Tolkien's, such as the science fiction of H. G. Wells or the Gothic romances of Mary Shelley, were set in a world, recognisably that of the author and introduced only a single fantastic element—or at most a fantastic milieu within the author's world, as with Lovecraft or Howard.

Tolkien departed from this. The essay "On Fairy-Stories" is an attempt to explain and defend the genre of fairy tales or Märchen, it distinguishes Märchen from "traveller's tales", science fiction, beast tales, dream stories. In the essay, Tolkien claims that one touchstone of the authentic fairy tale is that it is presented as wholly credible: "It is at any rate essential to a genuine fairy-story, as distinct from the employment of this form for lesser or debased purposes, that it should be presented as'true'.... But since the fairy-story deals with'marvels', it cannot tolerate any frame or machinery suggesting that the whole framework in which they occur is a figment or illusion."Tolkien emphasises that through the use of fantasy, which he equates with imagination, the author can bring the reader to experience a world, consistent and rational, under rules other than those of the normal world. He calls this "a rare achievement of Art," and notes that it was important to him as a reader: "It was in fairy-stories that I first divined the potency of the words, the wonder of things, such as stone, wood, iron.

Tolkien suggests that fairy stories allow the reader to review his own world from the "perspective" of a different world. Tolkien calls this "recovery", in the sense that one's unquestioned assumptions might be recovered and changed by an outside perspective. Second, he defends fairy stories as offering escapist pleasure to the reader, justifying this analogy: a prisoner is not obliged to think of nothing but cells and wardens, and third, Tolkien suggests that fairy stories can provide moral or emotional consolation, through their happy ending, which he terms a "eucatastrophe". In conclusion and as expanded upon in an epilogue, Tolkien asserts that a good and representative fairy story is marked by joy: "Far more powerful and poignant is the effect in a serious tale of Faerie. In such stories, when the sudden turn comes, we get a piercing glimpse of joy, heart's desire, that for a moment passes outside the frame, rends indeed the web of story, lets a gleam come through." Tolkien sees Christianity as partaking in and fulfilling the overarching mythological nature of the cosmos: "I wo