Magic (illusion)

Magic, which encompasses the subgenres of illusion, stage magic, close up magic, is a performing art in which audiences are entertained by tricks or illusions of impossible feats using natural means. It is to be distinguished from paranormal magic which are effects claimed to be created through supernatural means, it is one of the oldest performing arts in the world. Modern entertainment magic, as pioneered by 19th-century magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, has become a popular theatrical art form. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, magicians such as Maskelyne and Devant, Howard Thurston, Harry Kellar, Harry Houdini achieved widespread commercial success during what has become known as "the Golden Age of Magic". During this period, performance magic became a staple of Broadway theatre and music halls. Magic retained its popularity in the television age, with magicians such as David Copperfield, Doug Henning, Penn & Teller, David Blaine modernizing the art form; the term "magic" etymologically derives from the Greek word mageia.

In ancient times and Persians had been at war for centuries, the Persian priests, called magosh in Persian, came to be known as magoi in Greek. Ritual acts of Persian priests came to be known as mageia, magika — which came to mean any foreign, unorthodox, or illegitimate ritual practice. To the general public, successful acts of illusion could be perceived as if it were similar to a feat of magic supposed to have been able to be performed by the ancient magoi; the performance of tricks of illusion, or magical illusion, the apparent workings and effects of such acts have been referred to as "magic" and as magic tricks. During the 17th century, many books were published; until the 18th century, magic shows were a common source of entertainment at fairs. A founding figure of modern entertainment magic was Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, who had a magic theatre in Paris in 1845. John Henry Anderson was pioneering the same transition in London in the 1840s. Towards the end of the 19th century, large magic shows permanently staged at big theatre venues became the norm.

As a form of entertainment, magic moved from theatrical venues to television magic specials. Performances that modern observers would recognize as conjuring have been practiced throughout history. For many recorded centuries, magicians were associated with the occult. During the 19th and 20th centuries, many stage magicians capitalized on this notion in their advertisements; the same level of ingenuity, used to produce famous ancient deceptions such as the Trojan Horse would have been used for entertainment, or at least for cheating in money games. They were used by the practitioners of various religions and cults from ancient times onwards to frighten uneducated people into obedience or turn them into adherents. However, the profession of the illusionist gained strength only in the 18th century, has enjoyed several popular vogues since. Opinions vary among magicians on how to categorize a given effect, but a number of categories have been developed. Magicians may pull a rabbit from an empty hat, make something seem to disappear, or transform a red silk handkerchief into a green silk handkerchief.

Magicians may destroy something, like cutting a head off, "restore" it, make something appear to move from one place to another, or they may escape from a restraining device. Other illusions include making something appear to defy gravity, making a solid object appear to pass through another object, or appearing to predict the choice of a spectator. Many magic routines use combinations of effects. One of the earliest books on the subject is Gantziony's work of 1489, Natural and Unnatural Magic, which describes and explains old-time tricks. In 1584, Englishman Reginald Scot published The Discoverie of Witchcraft, part of, devoted to debunking the claims that magicians used supernatural methods, showing how their "magic tricks" were in reality accomplished. Among the tricks discussed were sleight-of-hand manipulations with rope and coins. At the time and belief in witchcraft was widespread and the book tried to demonstrate that these fears were misplaced. Popular belief held that all obtainable copies were burned on the accession of James I in 1603.

During the 17th century, many similar books were published that described in detail the methods of a number of magic tricks, including The Art of Conjuring and The Anatomy of Legerdemain: The Art of Juggling. Until the 18th century, magic shows were a common source of entertainment at fairs, where itinerant performers would entertain the public with magic tricks, as well as the more traditional spectacles of sword swallowing and fire breathing. In the early 18th century, as belief in witchcraft was waning, the art became respectable and shows would be put on for rich private patrons. A notable figure in this transition was the English showman, Isaac Fawkes, who began to promote his act in advertisements from the 1720s—he claimed to have performed for King George II. One of Fawkes' advertisements described his routine in some detail: He takes an empty bag, lays it on the Table and turns it several times inside out commands 100 Eggs out of it and several showers of real Gold and silver the Bag beginning to swell several sorts of wild fowl run out of it upon the Table.

He throws up a Pack of Cards, causes them to be living birds flying about the room. He causes living Beasts and other Creatures to appear upon the Table, he blows the spots of the Cards off and on, changes them to any pictures. From 1756 to 1781, Jacob Philadelphia performed feats of magic, sometimes under the guise of s

John Trevor (1596–1673)

Sir John Trevor was a Puritan Welsh landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1659. He supported the Parliamentarian cause in the English Civil War and was a member of the Council of State during the Commonwealth. Trevor, whose father Sir John Trevor was Surveyor of the Queen's Ships under Elizabeth I, was knighted in 1619. In 1621 he was elected Member of Parliament for Denbighshire, he was elected MP for Flintshire in the Parliaments of 1624 and 1625. In 1628 he was elected MP for Great Bedwyn and sat until 1629 when King Charles decided to rule without parliament for eleven years. During the Personal Rule of Charles I, he was a member of several Royal Commissions, amassed a substantial income: he had inherited from his father a share in the duties levied on coal from Newcastle, said to bring in £1,500 a year, held the keepership of several Royal forests, all lucrative sinecures, he inherited Trevalyn Hall on the death of his uncle Richard Trevor in 1638.

In November 1640 Trevor was elected MP for Grampound in the Long Parliament, having connections with Cornwall through his mother, a Trevanion. He took the parliamentary side during the Civil War, he was sufficiently supportive of the trial of the King to survive Pride's Purge and sit in the Rump, he seems to have been accepted as the spokesman for North Wales in many of the administrative committees that took over the country after the overthrow of the Monarchy, being twice elected to the Council of State, serving on the Committee of Both Kingdoms from 1648. However, he was not a member of the smaller council established after Cromwell assumed the Protectorate in 1653. In 1656 Trevor was elected MP for Arundel in the Second Protectorate Parliament, was one of those advocating the offer of the Crown to Cromwell, he was elected MP for Steyning in 1659 for the Third Protectorate Parliament. Although he resumed his seat at Grampound in 1659 in the restored Rump after Richard Cromwell's fall, he was an early supporter of the Restoration of Charles II, which ensured that he suffered no penalties for his earlier political loyalties after the King returned, being granted a royal pardon on 24 July 1660.

However, he had invested much of his fortune during the Commonwealth in buying up lands confiscated from convicted Royalists, suffered considerable loss as a result. Trevor's son called Sir John Trevor, was an MP with his father during the Commonwealth, after the Restoration rose to become Secretary of State in 1668. Concise Dictionary of National Biography D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 Flintshire Record Office John Trevor on National Library of Wales Dictionary of Welsh Biography

Brentwood, Missouri

Brentwood is an inner-ring suburb of St. Louis, located in St. Louis County, United States; the population was 8,055 at the 2010 census. Brentwood is located at 38°37′9″N 90°20′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.96 square miles, all land. The area, Brentwood consists of three land purchases: that of Louis J. Bompart who acquired his lot first in 1804, that of the Gay family, that of the Marshall family. In the 1870s, a man by the name of Thomas Madden arrived and soon became the businessman of the community, he operated a rock quarry, constructed a tavern, a barbershop, a grocery store, a blacksmith shop. Due to Madden's prominence in the community, the town was named Maddenville. With a location on the Manchester Trail, a route, frequented by mail coaches and prairie schooners going west, Maddenville in the 1800s became a prosperous town on the outskirts of St. Louis, to which it was connected by a streetcar line. In 1919, it was discovered by the residents of Maddenville that the inhabitants of the neighboring Maplewood were planning to elect whether or not to annex their town.

To avoid annexation and to establish their own school district, the residents decided to incorporate Maddenville into a village. On December 15, 1919, the town of Maddenville became the village of Brentwood. During the late 1920s, the village earned an unhealthy reputation for its numerous gambling houses and illegal activities that took place around the intersection of Manchester Road and Brentwood Boulevard; the first mayor, James L. Willingham, ran on the promise to clean Brentwood up and eliminate the casinos, along with the hoodlums who hung around them, which he did; the town became once again attractive for families. On April 12, 1929, Willingham signed ordinance 1A, which established Brentwood as a city and determined its boundaries; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,055 people, 4,136 households, 1,832 families living in the city. The population density was 4,109.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,410 housing units at an average density of 2,250.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.5% White, 3.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 6.8% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.8% of the population. There were 4,136 households of which 20.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.6% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 55.7% were non-families. 46.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.94 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 35 years. 18.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.1% male and 53.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,693 people, 3,929 households, 1,775 families living in the city; the population density was 3,948.4 people per square mile. There were 4,088 housing units at an average density of 2,098.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.68% White, 1.81% African American, 0.19% Native American, 3.48% Asian, 0.32% from other races.0278 Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.73% of the population.

There were 3,929 households out of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 54.8% were non-families. 46.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.96 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 40.2% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years; the median income for a household in the city was $60,643, the median income for a family was $63,311. Males had a median income of $47,113 versus $38,924 for females; the per capita income for the city was $30,645. About 3.4% of families and 5.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. Brentwood School District operates two elementary schools, one middle school, Brentwood High School.

The town has the Brentwood Public Library. City of Brentwood official website