A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story. Such stories feature entities such as dwarfs, elves, giants, goblins, mermaids, talking animals, unicorns, or witches, magic or enchantments. In most cultures, there is no clear line separating myth from fairy tale. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends and explicit moral tales, including beast fables; the term is used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries relates to children's literature. In less technical contexts, the term is used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy-tale ending" or "fairy-tale romance". Colloquially, the term "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can mean any far-fetched story or tall tale. Legends are perceived as real. However, unlike legends and epics, fairy tales do not contain more than superficial references to religion and to actual places and events. Fairy tales occur both in literary form.
Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations, in multiple cultures around the world. The history of the fairy tale is difficult to trace because only the literary forms can survive. Still, according to researchers at universities in Durham and Lisbon, such stories may date back thousands of years, some to the Bronze Age more than 6,500 years ago. Fairy tales, works derived from fairy tales, are still written today. Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways; the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp are among the most notable. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales; some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale" to refer to the genre over fairy tale, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes.
It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvellous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses." The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls. Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute; the term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's Conte de fées, first used in her collection in 1697. Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or mythical beings should be taken as a differentiator. Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals. To select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folklore Aarne-Thompson 300-749 – in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction – to gain a clear set of tales.
His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself to tales that do not involve a quest, furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works. Were I asked, what is a fairytale? I should reply, Read Undine:, a fairytale... of all fairytales I know, I think Undine the most beautiful. As Stith Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves. However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale when the animal is a mask on a human face, as in fables. In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves and not only other magical species but many other marvels. However, the same essay excludes tales that are considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.
Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales. Davidson and Chaudri identify "transformation" as the key feature of the genre. From a psychological point of view, Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives. In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, b
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
Wuxia, which means "martial heroes", is a genre of Chinese fiction concerning the adventures of martial artists in ancient China. Although wuxia is traditionally a form of fantasy literature, its popularity has caused it to spread to diverse art forms such as Chinese opera, mànhuà, television series and video games, it forms part of popular culture in many Chinese-speaking communities around the world. The word "wǔxiá" is a compound composed of the elements wǔ and xiá. A martial artist who follows the code of xia is referred to as a xiákè or yóuxiá. In some translations, the martial artist is referred to as a "swordsman" or "swordswoman" though he or she may not wield a sword; the heroes in wuxia fiction do not serve a lord, wield military power, or belong to the aristocratic class. They originate from the lower social classes of ancient Chinese society. A code of chivalry requires wuxia heroes to right and redress wrongs, fight for righteousness, remove oppressors, bring retribution for past misdeeds.
Chinese xia traditions can be compared to martial codes from other cultures such as the Japanese samurai's bushidō tradition. Though the term "wuxia" as the name of a genre is a recent coinage, stories about xia date back more than 2,000 years. Wuxia stories have their roots in some early youxia tales from 300–200 BCE; the Legalist philosopher Han Fei spoke disparagingly of youxias in his book Han Feizi in the chapter On Five'Maggot' Classes about five social classes in the Spring and Autumn period. Some well-known stories include Zhuan Zhu's assassination of King Liao of Wu, most notably, Jing Ke's attempt on the life of the King of Qin. In Volume 86 of the Records of the Grand Historian, Sima Qian mentioned five notable assassins – Cao Mo, Zhuan Zhu, Yu Rang, Nie Zheng and Jing Ke – in the Warring States period who undertook tasks of conducting political assassinations of aristocrats and nobles; these assassins were known as cike. They rendered their loyalties and services to feudal lords and nobles in return for rewards such as riches and women.
In Volume 124 of the Shi Ji, Sima Qian detailed several embryonic features of xia culture from his period. These popular phenomena were documented in other historical records such as the Book of Han and the Book of the Later Han. Xiake stories returned in the form of chuanqi. Stories from that era, such as Nie Yinniang, The Kunlun Slave, Thirteenth Madame Jing, Red String and The Bearded Warrior, served as prototypes for modern wuxia stories, they featured fantasies and isolated protagonists – loners – who performed daring heroic deeds. During the Song dynasty, similar stories circulated in the huaben, short works that were once thought to have served as prompt-books for shuochang; the genre of the martial or military romance developed during the Tang dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, Luo Guanzhong and Shi Nai'an wrote Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin which are among the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature; the former is a romanticised historical retelling of the events in the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period, while the latter criticises the deplorable socio-economic status of the late Northern Song dynasty.
Water Margin is seen as the first full-length wuxia novel: the portrayal of the 108 heroes, their code of honour and willingness to become outlaws rather than serve a corrupt government, played an influential role in the development of jianghu culture in centuries. Romance of the Three Kingdoms is seen as a possible early antecedent and contains classic close-combat descriptions that were borrowed by wuxia writers in their worksIn the Qing dynasty, further developments were the gong'an and related detective novels, where xia and other heroes, in collaboration with a judge or magistrate, solved crimes and battled injustice; the Justice Bao stories from Sanxia Wuyi and Xiaowuyi, incorporated much of social justice themes of wuxia stories. Xiayi stories of chivalrous romance, which featured female heroes and supernatural fighting abilities surfaced during the Qing dynasty. Novels such as Shi Gong'an Qiwen and Ernü Yingxiong Zhuan have been cited as the clearest nascent wuxia novels; the term "wuxia" as a genre label itself first appeared at the end of the Qing dynasty, a calque of the Japanese "bukyō", a genre of oft-militaristic and bushido-influenced adventure fiction.
The term was brought to China by writers and students who hoped that China would modernise its military and place emphasis on martial virtues, it became entrenched as the term used to refer to xiayi and other predecessors of wuxia proper. In Japan, the term "bukyō" faded into obscurity. Many wuxia works produced during the Ming and Qing dynasties were lost due to the governments' crackdown on and banning of such works. Wuxia works were deemed responsible for brewing anti-government sentiments, which led to rebellions in those eras; the departure from mainstream literature meant that patronage of this genre was limited to the masses and not to the literati, which led to the stifling of the development of the wuxia genre. Nonetheless, the wuxia genre remained enormously popular with the common people; the modern wuxia genre rose to prominence in the early 20th ce
Weird fiction is a subgenre of speculative fiction originating in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. John Clute defines weird fiction as a "Term used loosely to describe Fantasy, Supernatural Fiction and Horror tales embodying transgressive material". China Miéville defines weird fiction thus: "Weird Fiction is roughly, conceived of as a rather breathless and generically slippery macabre fiction, a dark fantastic featuring nontraditional alien monsters." Discussing the "Old Weird Fiction" published in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock says, "Old Weird fiction utilises elements of horror, science fiction and fantasy to showcase the impotence and insignificance of human beings within a much larger universe populated by malign powers and forces that exceed the human capacities to understand or control them." Weird fiction either eschews or radically reinterprets ghosts, vampires and other traditional antagonists of supernatural horror fiction. Weird fiction is sometimes symbolised by the tentacle, a limb-type absent from most of the monsters of European folklore and gothic fiction, but attached to the monstrous creatures created by weird fiction writers such as William Hope Hodgson, M. R. James, H. P. Lovecraft.
Weird fiction attempts to inspire awe as well as fear in response to its fictional creations, causing commentators like Miéville to say that weird fiction evokes a sense of the numinous. Although "weird fiction" has been chiefly used as a historical description for works through the 1930s, the term has been used since the 1980s, sometimes to describe slipstream fiction that blends horror and science fiction. Although the term "weird fiction" did not appear until the 20th century, Edgar Allan Poe is regarded as the pioneering author of weird fiction. Poe was identified by Lovecraft as the first author of a distinct type of supernatural fiction different from traditional Gothic literature, commentators on the term have suggested Poe was the first "weird fiction" writer. Sheridan Le Fanu is seen as an early writer working in the sub-genre. Literary critics in the nineteenth century would sometimes use the term "weird" to describe supernatural fiction. For instance, the Scottish Review in an 1859 article praised Poe, E. T. A. Hoffmann and Walter Scott by saying the three writers had the "power of weird imagination".
The Irish magazine The Freeman's Journal, in an 1898 review of Dracula by Bram Stoker, described the novel as "wild and weird" and not Gothic. Weinstock has suggested there was a period of "Old Weird Fiction" that lasted from the late 19th to early 20th centuries. S. T. Joshi and Miéville have both argued that there was a period of "Haute Weird" between 1880 and 1940, when authors important to Weird Fiction, such as Arthur Machen and Clark Ashton Smith were publishing their work. In the late nineteenth century, there were a number of British writers associated with the Decadent movement who wrote what was described as weird fiction; these writers included Machen, M. P. Shiel, Count Eric Stenbock, R. Murray Gilchrist. Other pioneering British weird fiction writers included Algernon Blackwood, William Hope Hodgson, Lord Dunsany, Arthur Machen, M. R. James; the American pulp magazine Weird Tales published many such stories in the United States from March 1923 to September 1954. The magazine's editor Farnsworth Wright used the term "weird fiction" to describe the type of material that the magazine published.
The writers who wrote for the magazine Weird Tales are thus identified with the weird fiction subgenre H. P. Lovecraft, Clark Ashton Smith, Fritz Leiber and Robert Bloch. Other pulp magazines that published weird fiction included Strange Tales, edited by Harry Bates, Unknown Worlds. H. P. Lovecraft popularised the term "weird fiction" in his essays. In "Supernatural Horror in Literature", Lovecraft gives his definition of weird fiction: The true weird tale has something more than secret murder, bloody bones, or a sheeted form clanking chains according to rule. A certain atmosphere of breathless and unexplainable dread of outer, unknown forces must be present. S. T. Joshi describes several subdivisions of the weird tale: supernatural horror, the ghost story, quasi science fiction and ambiguous horror fiction and argues that "the weird tale" is the result of the philosophical and aesthetic predispositions of the authors associated with this type of fiction. Although Lovecraft was one of the few early 20th-century writers to describe his work as "weird fiction", the term has enjoyed a contemporary revival in New Weird fiction.
For example, China Miéville refers to his work as weird fiction. Many horror writers have situated themselves within the weird tradition, including Clive Barker, who describes his fiction as fantastique, Ramsey Campbell, whose early work was influenced by Lovecraft; the following notable authors have been described as writers of weird fiction. They are listed alphabetically by last name, it has been suggested by some, predominantly Ann and Jeff VanderMeer and China Miéville, that Weird fiction has seen a recent resurgence, a phenomenon they term the New Weird. Tales which fit this category, as well as extensive discussion of the phenomenon, appear in the anthology The New Weird. Cosmic horror Cthulhu Mythos Dark
Romantic fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction, describing a fantasy story using many of the elements and conventions of the chivalric romance genre. One of the key features of romantic fantasy involves the focus on relationships, social and romantic. Romantic fantasy has been published by both fantasy lines and romance lines; some publishers distinguish between "romantic fantasy" where the fantasy elements is most important and "fantasy romance" where the romance are most important. Others say that "the borderline between fantasy romance and romantic fantasy has ceased to exist, or if it's still there, it's moving back and forth constantly". A teenager either from an overly strict or abusive family runs away and discovers that they possess either magical or psychic powers and a glorious destiny; this destiny involves saving a city, kingdom, or other large group from harm by a powerful villain or a dangerous monster. A somewhat older person a minor noble or someone who has lost a loved one and has left their previous home in search of a new life either overthrows an usurper or saves their kingdom from outside invasion.
Such characters are warriors, uncover the plot through a combination of intrigue and use of their powers. In the course of this adventure, the character falls in love and, by the end of the novel or at least by the end of the series, their lover becomes their life-partner; the complexities of this romance form a significant focus in these novels. In a time of troubles, a group of adolescents or adults are drawn together through circumstance and destiny to form a group or organization, larger than the sum of its parts; these young people are outcasts, orphans, or people on the fringes of society. Most or all of these people possess some form of special powers; the groups' special powers sometimes form a complementary set, such as a group comprising four people each of whom has the ability to command one of the four classical elements. These characters find friendship and sometimes love with the others in their newly formed group; this group ends up either overthrowing the current social order or overcoming some threat that no one else is aware of or able to face.
Characters may start as solitary wanderers in romantic fantasy, but they never remain that way for long. One of the key features of romantic fantasy involves the focus on social, to a lesser extent, political relationships; the characters all find close friends and other companions with whom they either live or travel, as well as a larger social circle where they all belong. In addition, many character have significant ties with the larger world. Many of these characters have a sworn duty to their kingdom; the rootless travelers of sword and sorcery novels are found in romantic fantasy. Catherine Asaro's Lost Continent series. Mercedes Lackey's Tales of the Five Hundred Kingdoms series. Tamora Pierce's The Immortals quartet. Wen Spencer's Tinker series. Fantasy romance Medieval fantasy Fantasy Romance Writers
Fantasy comics have been around as long as the medium itself. In the US market, early years of fantasy comics began in the Golden Age of Comic Books and were populated with such notable works range from All-American comics' Greek myth inspired super hero Wonder Woman to Dell's Tarzan. Starting in the late 1940s through the mid-1950s horror-themed fantasy anthologies gained prominence. Though fantasy comics were able to survive in this new atmosphere though in a diminished capacity compared to its much stronger output in these early years. Fantasy-themed super heroes continued to populate comics through the 1950s and regained popularity in the 1960s with such characters as Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange published by Marvel comics and Jack Kirby's Thor both appearing in two of Marvel's fantasy-themed anthologies – Strange Tales and Journey into Mystery. In the 1970s, Conan the Barbarian, created by Robert E. Howard, became one of the most popular publications of Marvel Comics. After some changes of publishers, it continued to be published in the 2010s.
In the 1990s, The Sandman, created by Neil Gaiman, Sam Kieth and Mike Dringenberg was popular. Al Feldstein Frank Frazetta Otto Binder Gardner Fox Steve Ditko Jack Kirby Moebius Joe Orlando Osamu Tezuka Bernie Wrightson Hal Foster Jim Starlin Al Williamson Wallace Wood Several fantasy manga have been or will be adapted into anime television series, including Hakkenden: Eight Dogs of the East, Akame ga Kill!, The Seven Deadly Sins, Trinity Seven and Akatsuki no Yona. List of fantasy comics
Tokusatsu is a Japanese term for live-action film or television drama that makes heavy use of special effects. Tokusatsu entertainment deals with science fiction, fantasy or horror, but films and television shows in other genres can sometimes count as tokusatsu as well; the most popular types of tokusatsu include kaiju monster films like the Godzilla and Gamera film series. Some tokusatsu television programs combine several of these subgenres, for example the Ultraman and Super Sentai series. Tokusatsu is one of the most popular forms of Japanese entertainment, but despite the popularity of films and television programs based on tokusatsu properties such as Godzilla or Super Sentai, most tokusatsu films and television programs are not known outside Asia. Tokusatsu has origins in early Japanese theater in kabuki and in bunraku, which utilized some of the earliest forms of special effects puppetry. Modern tokusatsu, did not begin to take shape until the early 1950s, with the conceptual and creative birth of Godzilla, one of the most famous monsters of all time.
The special-effects artist Eiji Tsuburaya and the director Ishirō Honda became the driving forces behind 1954's Godzilla. Tsuburaya, inspired by the American film King Kong, formulated many of the techniques that would become staples of the genre, such as so-called suitmation—the use of a human actor in a costume to play a giant monster—combined with the use of miniatures and scaled-down city sets. Godzilla forever changed the landscape of Japanese science fiction and cinema by creating a uniquely Japanese vision in a genre dominated by American cinema. In 1954, Godzilla kickstarted the kaiju genre in Japan called the "Monster Boom", which remained popular for several decades, with characters such as the aforementioned Godzilla and King Ghidorah leading the market. However, in 1957 Shintoho produced the first film serial featuring the superhero character Super Giant, signaling a shift in popularity that favored masked heroes over giant monsters called the "Henshin Boom" started by Kamen Rider.
Along with the anime Astro Boy, the Super Giant serials had a profound effect on the world of tokusatsu. The following year, Moonlight Mask premiered, the first of numerous televised superhero dramas that would make up one of the most popular tokusatsu subgenres. Created by Kōhan Kawauchi, he followed-up its success with the tokusatsu superhero shows Seven Color Mask and Messenger of Allah, both starring a young Sonny Chiba; these original productions preceded the first color-television tokusatsu series, Ambassador Magma and Ultraman, which heralded the Kyodai Hero genre, wherein a regular-sized protagonist grows to larger proportions to fight large monsters. Popular tokusatsu superhero shows in the 1970s included Kamen Rider, Warrior of Love Rainbowman, Super Sentai and Spider-Man. Suitmation in Japanese identifies the process in tokusatsu movies and television programs used to portray a monster using suit acting; the exact origin of the term remains unknown. At the least, it was used to promote the Godzilla suit from The Return of Godzilla.
The many productions of tokusatsu series have general themes common throughout different groups. Kaiju productions feature monsters, or giant monsters; such series include Ultra Q, the Godzilla film series, the Gamera series, the Daimajin series, films such as Frankenstein Conquers the World, War of the Gargantuas, The X from Outer Space. Kaijin productions feature supervillains as their central character; this includes films such as The Secret of the Telegian, The Human Vapor, The H-Man, Half Human, Tomei Ningen. Since about 1960, several long-running television-series have combined various other themes. Tsuburaya Productions has had the Ultra Series starting with Ultra Q and Ultraman in 1966. P Productions began their foray into tokusatsu in 1966 with the series Ambassador Magma, they had involvement in the Lion-Maru series which concluded in November 2006. Toei Company has several series that fall under their Toei Superheroes category of programming, starting in 1961 with the single series, Moonlight Mask.
They produced several other long running series, starting with Shotaro Ishinomori's Kamen Rider Series in 1971, the Super Sentai series in 1975, the Metal Hero Series in 1982, the Toei Fushigi Comedy Series in 1981. Toei produced several other television series based on Ishinomori's works, including Android Kikaider and Kikaider 01, Robot Detective and Inazuman Flash, Kaiketsu Zubat. Toei was involved in the Spider-Man television series, which influenced their subsequent Super Sentai series. In 2003, TV Asahi began broadcasting the Super Sentai and Kamen Rider series in a weekly one-hour block known as Super Hero Time. Toho, the creators of Godzilla had their hands in creating the Chouseishin Series of programs from 2003 to 2006. In 2006, Keita Amemiya's Garo, a mature late-night tokusatsu drama was released, starting a franchise composed of several television series and films. Other mature late-night series followed, including a revival of Lion-Maru in Lion-Maru G, the Daimajin Kanon television series, Shougeki Gouraigan!!.
Various movies classified as tokusatsu work like generalized science fiction films. These include Warning from Space (宇宙人東京に現わる, Uchūjin Tokyo ni arawaru, Spacemen Appear in Toky