The Maginot Line, named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, is a line of concrete fortifications and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications. Constructed on the French side of its borders with Italy, Switzerland and Luxembourg, the line did not extend to the English Channel due to French strategy that envisioned a move into Belgium to counter a German assault. Based on France's experience with trench warfare during World War I, the massive Maginot Line was built in the run-up to World War II, after the Locarno Conference gave rise to a fanciful and optimistic "Locarno spirit". French military experts extolled the Line as a work of genius that would deter German aggression, because it would slow an invasion force long enough for French forces to mobilise and counterattack; the Maginot Line was impervious to most forms of attack, including aerial bombings and tank fire, had underground railways as a backup.
Instead of attacking directly, the Germans invaded through the Low Countries, bypassing the Line to the north. French and British officers had anticipated this: when Germany invaded the Netherlands and Belgium, they carried out plans to form an aggressive front that cut across Belgium and connected to the Maginot Line. However, the French line was weak near the Ardennes forest. Marshal Maurice Gamelin, when drafting the Dyle Plan, believed this region, with its rough terrain, would be an unlikely invasion route of German forces; the German Army, having reformulated their plans from a repeat of the First World War-era plan, became aware of and exploited this weak point in the French defensive front. A rapid advance through the forest and across the River Meuse encircled much of the Allied forces, resulting in a sizeable force being evacuated at Dunkirk leaving the forces to the south unable to mount an effective resistance to the German invasion of France; the line has since become a metaphor for expensive efforts.
The Maginot Line was built to fulfill several purposes: To prevent a German surprise attack To deter a cross-border assault. To protect Alsace and Lorraine and their industrial basin To save manpower To cover the mobilisation of the French Army To push Germany into an effort to circumvent via Switzerland or Belgium, allow France to fight the next war off French soil to avoid a repeat of 1914–1918. To be used as a basis for a counter-offensive The defences were first proposed by Marshal Joseph Joffre, he was opposed by modernists such as Paul Reynaud and Charles de Gaulle, who favored investment in armor and aircraft. Joffre had support from Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, there were a number of reports and commissions organised by the government, it was André Maginot who convinced the government to invest in the scheme. Maginot was another veteran of World War I. In January 1923, after Weimar Germany defaulted on reparations, the French Premier Raymond Poincaré responded by sending French troops to occupy Germany's Ruhr region.
During the ensuing Ruhrkampf between the Germans and the French that lasted until September 1923, Britain condemned the French occupation of the Ruhr, a period of sustained Francophobia broke out in Britain, with Poincaré being vilified in Britain as a cruel bully punishing Germany with unreasonable reparations demands. The British—who championed the German position on reparations—applied intense economic pressure on France to change its policies towards Germany. At a conference in London in 1924 to settle the Franco-German crisis caused by the Ruhrkampf, the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald pressed the French Premier Édouard Herriot to make concessions to Germany; the British diplomat Sir Eric Phipps who attended the conference commented afterwards that: The London Conference was for the French'man in the street' one long Calvary as he saw M. Herriot abandoning one by one the cherished possessions of French preponderance on the Reparations Commission, the right of sanctions in the event of German default, the economic occupation of the Ruhr, the French-Belgian railroad Régie, the military occupation of the Ruhr within a year.
The great conclusion, drawn in Paris after the Ruhrkampf and the 1924 London conference was that France could not make unilateral military moves to uphold Versailles as the resulting British hostility to such moves was too dangerous to the republic. Beyond that, the French were well aware of the contribution of Britain and its Dominions to the victory of 1918, French decision-makers believed that they needed Britain's help to win another war. From 1871 onward, French elites had concluded that France had no hope of defeating Germany on its own, France would need an alliance with another great power to defeat the Reich. In 1926, The Manchester Guardian ran an exposé showing the Reichswehr had been developing military technology forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles in the Soviet Union, the secret German-Soviet co-operation had started in 1921; the German statement following The Manchester Guardian's article that Germany did not feel bound by the terms of Versailles and would violate them as much as possible
The Westinghouse J30 known as the Westinghouse 19XB, was a turbojet engine developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. It was the first American-designed turbojet to run, only the second axial-flow turbojet to run outside Germany. A simple and robust unit with six-stage compressor, annular combustor, single-stage turbine, it gave 1,200 pounds of thrust but improved to 1,600 in production versions, its first flight was under a FG Corsair in January 1944. It was developed into the smaller J32, the successful Westinghouse J34, an enlarged version which produced 3,000 pounds of thrust. 19A Prototypes and initial production, boost engines 19B Increased mass flow version delivering 1,400 lbf at 18,000 rpm at sea level, added gearbox to allow engine to be a prime driver 19XB-2B Company designation for WE-20. XJ30-WE-8 designated J43 J30-WE-20 production engines delivering 1,600 lbf thrust, Internal model 19XB-2B Convair XF-92 McDonnell FH Phantom Northrop XP-79 Northrop X-4 Bantam Data from Type: Axial flow turbojet Length: 100 in, 19B 104.5 in Diameter: 19 in Dry weight: 830 lb, 19B 809 lb Compressor: 6-stage axial Combustors: Annular stainless steel Turbine: Single-stage axial Fuel type: 100/130 gasoline Oil system: pressure spray at 40 psi dry sump, 60 S.
U. secs grade oil Maximum thrust: 1,360 lbf at 18,000 rpm at sea level, 19B 1,400 lbf at 18,000 rpm at sea level Overall pressure ratio: 3:1 Air mass flow: 26.5 lb /s at 17,000 rpm, 19B 30 lb /s at 18,000 rpm Turbine inlet temperature: 1,500 °F Specific fuel consumption: 1.35 lb/, 19B 1.28 lb/ Thrust-to-weight ratio: 1.639, 19B 1.724 Normal thrust, static: 1,160 lbf at 18,000 rpm at sea level, 19B 1,170 lbf at 17,000 rpm at sea level Military thrust, flight: 660 lbf at 17,200 rpm at altitude, 19B 525 lbf at 18,000 rpm at altitude Normal thrust, flight: 570 lbf at 16,260 rpm at altitude, 19B 465 lbf at 17,000 rpm at altitude Related development Westinghouse J34 Comparable engines BMW 003 Metropolitan-Vickers F.2Related lists List of aircraft engines Minijets website Westinghouse 19
West Turin is a town in Lewis County, New York, United States. The population was 1,524 at the 2010 census; the name is derived from Turin. The Town of West Turin is north of Rome; the town was first settled near Constableville. West Turin was formed from part of Town of Turin in 1830 and was subsequently reduced in size by the formation of newer towns: Montague and Osceola; the Town of West Turin now includes the former "Town of Highmarket,", disbanded in 1973. Highmarket had been set apart from West Turin in 1852. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 102.4 square miles, of which 102.2 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. The Black River forms the east town line. West Turin is on the Tug Hill Plateau of northwestern New York. New York State Route 26 and New York State Route 12D are north-south highways. New York State Route 12 is a north-south highway near the Black River. West Turin has a warm-summer humid continental climate. Winter is cold and snowy, with most days not making it to freezing.
Snow can fall anytime from October to May and a consistent snowpack is expected from November to April. Due to its elevation, it is one of the coldest and wettest places in the state. Summer is warm during the day, but it cools off at night. While West Turin is wet year round, spring is the driest time of year with 3-5” per month while fall is the wettest time of year with 5-6” per month; the highest recorded temperature is 94 °F on June 28, 2005 and August 10, 2001. The coldest recorded temperature is −40 °F on January 25, 26, 27 in 2004; the highest minimum temperature is 69 °F on July 18, 2005, July 19, 2013, July 22, 2011. The lowest high on record is −15 °F on January 16, 2004; the low falls below freezing on an average of 190 days per year and it falls below 0 °F on 39. The average lowest temp in a year is −29 °F, putting West Turin in hardiness zone 4A; the high stays below freezing on an average of 69 days per year and exceeds 90 °F on 1.6 days per year. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,674 people, 635 households, 433 families residing in the town.
The population density was 16.4 people per square mile. There were 971 housing units at an average density of 9.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.22% White, 0.18% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.24% from other races, 0.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.12% of the population. There were 635 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.16. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.7 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $35,150, the median income for a family was $41,618. Males had a median income of $32,065 versus $21,838 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,538. About 13.5% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. Byron Corners – A location northwest of Mohawk Hill. Collinsville – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town, west of Lyons Falls village on NY-12D; the name is from an early settler. Collinsville Cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. Constableville – The Village of Constableville on NY-26 near the southeast town line. Fish Creek – A hamlet west of Mohawk Hill by the southwest town line. High Market – A location north of Byron Corners. Lyons Falls – Part of the Village of Lyons Falls is at the east town line and the Black River; the falls were called the "High Falls." Michigan Mills – A hamlet in the western part of the town.
Mohawk Hill – A hamlet in the south part of the town on NY-26. Page – A location in the northwest part of the town. Potters Corners – A location southwest of Collinsville at the junction of Routes NY-12D and NY-26
Ivar Kristianslund is a Norwegian preacher, former professor of statistics, agronomist and politician. He is active as a Christian fundamentalist preacher in the self-proclaimed "Church of Norway in Exile", has been active in the leadership of several minor Christian right political parties since the late 1990s. Kristianslund was educated as an agronomist from the Norwegian College of Agriculture in 1959, as cand.oecon. From the University of Oslo in 1962, he has dr. scient. From NLH in 1963, dr. philos. in agricultural economics from the Michigan State University in 1972. He completed a master's degree in theology at KNOX theological seminary in 2015, he worked most of his career at the NLH writing numerous books and dissertations, was leader of the institute of social economics at the Oslo Business School from 1989 to 1992. He was rector of BI Østfold from 1994 to 1995, professor of statistics at the BI Norwegian Business School between 1993 and 1997, he resides in Greåker, Østfold where he works as a farmer.
He is married and has eight children, twentyfour teen grandchildren as of 2015. Kristianslund became the leader of the New Future Coalition Party in 1998, which merged into the Christian Unity Party the same year, he was leader of the new party until 2001, when he was dismissed after a court ruled against his leadership of the party, following an internal conflict since the party's national convention. He founded the more fundamentalist party Christian Future the same year, which only allowed men and those confessing to Lutheran faith to hold formal posts, he left the party to join the Abortion Opponents' List for the 2005 and 2009 elections, from 2008 as party secretary, alongside figures such as Ludvig Nessa, Børre Knudsen and Per Kørner. In 1998 he criticised a sex-information film from the Department of Health as "solicitating to adultery", filed charges against Christian Democratic cabinet minister Jon Lilletun, he filed charges against a children's program by state broadcaster NRK that had arranged a "kissing school" for children.
In 1999 he gathered 6,000 signatures demanding the government to dismiss bishop Rosemarie Köhn and capellan Siri Sunde from their positions due to their liberal positions on homosexual relations. The same year he filed charges of blasphemy against the art exhibition "Ecce Homo", which displayed photographs by Swedish artist Elisabeth Ohlson imaging Jesus surrounded by gays and lesbians, he participated in the demonstration against Muslim prayer calling in Oslo in 2000, has expressed fears of a coming "religious war" in Norway because of increasing numbers of Muslims. Kristianslund appeared in the first season of Fredrik Skavlan's talk-show Først & sist in 1998. In 2002 he was portrayed with his then-new party in the NRK-documentary "Norwegian fundamentalism", was described as Norwegian fundamentalists' "most eager spokesman", he has been active as a preacher in the self-proclaimed "Church of Norway in Exile". Official web magazine
Øyvind Staveland was the founder of the Norwegian band Vamp together with Torbjørn Økland in 1991. Staveland has composed the music for the majority of Vamps hits throughout the years including "Tir n'a noir", "Harry", "Sitte å tenke", "Ba", "Månemannen" and "Kim du nå va", he has worked with his neighbor, the poet Kolbein Falkeid for the lyrics to Vamp song. His son Odin Aarvik Staveland has written the music amongst others to The Color of Milk; as a musician, He is a versatile musician playing the violin, viola and flute in addition to vocals. Before being involved in music, he was working as a carpenter
USS Fanning, a Knox-class frigate, is the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for Nathaniel Fanning. The Knox-class design was derived from the Brooke-class frigate modified to extend range and without a long-range missile system; the ships had a beam of 47 feet and a draft of 25 feet. They displaced 4,066 long tons at full load, their crew consisted of 211 enlisted men. The ships were equipped with one Westinghouse geared steam turbine that drove the single propeller shaft; the turbine was designed to produce 35,000 shaft horsepower, using steam provided by 2 C-E boilers, to reach the designed speed of 27 knots. The Knox class had a range of 4,500 nautical miles at a speed of 20 knots; the Knox-class ships were armed with a 5"/54 caliber Mark 42 gun forward and a single 3"/50 caliber gun aft. They mounted an eight-round ASROC launcher between the bridge. Close-range anti-submarine defense was provided by two twin 12.75-inch Mk 32 torpedo tubes. The ships were equipped with a torpedo-carrying DASH drone helicopter.
Beginning in the 1970s, the DASH was replaced by a SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I helicopter and the hangar and landing deck were accordingly enlarged. Most ships had the 3-inch gun replaced by an eight-cell BPDMS missile launcher in the early 1970s. Constructed by Todd Shipyards, Los Angeles Division, San Pedro, laid down 7 December 1968, launched 24 January 1970 and delivered 16 July 1971, she was commissioned 23 July 1971, decommissioned 31 July 1993 and was struck 11 January 1995. She was renamed Adatepe. Decommissioned by Turkey in 2001. Friedman, Norman. U. S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-733-X. Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947-1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-132-7. Navsource.org: USS Fanning Naval Vessel Register FF1076 Navysite.de