England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
A comprehensive school is a secondary school or middle school that is a state school and does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude. This is in contrast to the school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria. The term is used in relation to England and Wales. About 90% of British secondary school pupils now attend comprehensive schools and they correspond broadly to the public high school in the United States and Canada and to the German Gesamtschule. Comprehensive schools are primarily about providing an entitlement curriculum to all children, a consequence of that is a wider ranging curriculum, including practical subjects such as design and technology and vocational learning, which were less common or non-existent in grammar schools. In addition, government initiatives such as the City Technology Colleges, a problem with this is whether the quotas should be taken from a normal distribution or from the specific distribution of attainment in the immediate catchment area.
In the selective system, which survives in several parts of the United Kingdom, admission is dependent on selection criteria. Although comprehensive schools were introduced to England and Wales in 1965, in principle, comprehensive schools were conceived as neighbourhood schools for all students in a specified catchment area. Finland has used comprehensive schools after 5th grade since the 1970s, since the 1970s, everyone has been required to complete the same nine grades of peruskoulu, from the ages of 7 to 16. This change was modeled on the British comprehensive school, which goes from the ages of 11 to 16, from the ages of 16 to 19, students go either to vocational school or high school. The division of the peruskoulu into a school and upper school has been discontinued. Germany has a school known as the Gesamtschule. While some German schools such as the Gymnasium and the Realschule have rather strict entrance requirements and they offer college preparatory classes for the students who are doing well, general education classes for average students, and remedial courses for those who arent doing that well.
In most cases students attending a Gesamtschule may graduate with the Hauptschulabschluss, the percentage of students attending a Gesamtschule varies by Bundesland. In the State of Brandenburg more than 50% of all students attended a Gesamtschule in 2007, the Mittelschule is a school in some States of Germany that offers regular classes and remedial classes but no college preparatory classes. In some States of Germany, the Hauptschule does not exist, students may be awarded the Hauptschulabschluss or the Mittlere Reife but not the Abitur. There is some controversy about comprehensive schools, Gesamtschule senior students of average mathematical ability found themselves in the upper half of their class and had an average grade of Three Plus. When a central Abitur examination was established in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, the comprehensives do not help students achieve I am sick and tired of the comprehensive schools blaming their problems on the social class origins of their students
Brown v. Board of Education
The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17,1954, the Warren Courts unanimous decision stated that educational facilities are inherently unequal. As a result, de jure segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This ruling paved the way for integration and was a victory of the Civil Rights Movement. For much of the sixty years preceding the Brown case, race relations in the United States had been dominated by racial segregation, racial segregation in education varied widely from the 17 states that required racial segregation to the 16 in which it was prohibited. Brown was influenced by UNESCOs 1950 Statement, signed by a variety of internationally renowned scholars. This declaration denounced previous attempts at scientifically justifying racism as well as morally condemning racism, another work that the Supreme Court cited was Gunnar Myrdals An American Dilemma, The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy.
Myrdal had been a signatory of the UNESCO declaration, the research performed by the educational psychologists Kenneth B. Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark influenced the Courts decision. The Clarks doll test studies presented substantial arguments to the Supreme Court about how segregation affected black schoolchildrens mental status, the plaintiffs were thirteen Topeka parents on behalf of their 20 children. The suit called for the district to reverse its policy of racial segregation. The plaintiffs had been recruited by the leadership of the Topeka NAACP, notable among the Topeka NAACP leaders were the chairman McKinley Burnett, Charles Scott, one of three serving as legal counsel for the chapter, and Lucinda Todd. The named plaintiff, Oliver L. Brown, was a parent, a welder in the shops of the Santa Fe Railroad, an assistant pastor at his church. He was convinced to join the lawsuit by Scott, a childhood friend, as directed by the NAACP leadership, the parents each attempted to enroll their children in the closest neighborhood school in the fall of 1951.
They were each refused enrollment and directed to the segregated schools, linda Brown Thompson recalled the experience in a 2004 PBS documentary. Like I say, we lived in a neighborhood and I had all of these playmates of different nationalities. And so when I found out that day that I might be able to go to their school, I was just thrilled, you know. And I remember walking over to Sumner school with my dad that day and going up the steps of the school, and I remember going inside and my dad spoke with someone and he went into the inner office with the principal and they left me out. To sit outside with the secretary, and while he was in the inner office, I could hear voices and hear his voice raised, you know, as the conversation went on
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet, a force that pulls on other materials, such as iron. A permanent magnet is a made from a material that is magnetized. An everyday example is a refrigerator used to hold notes on a refrigerator door. Materials that can be magnetized, which are the ones that are attracted to a magnet, are called ferromagnetic. These include iron, cobalt, some alloys of rare-earth metals, ferromagnetic materials can be divided into magnetically soft materials like annealed iron, which can be magnetized but do not tend to stay magnetized, and magnetically hard materials, which do. To demagnetize a saturated magnet, a magnetic field must be applied. Hard materials have high coercivity, whereas soft materials have low coercivity, an electromagnet is made from a coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it but stops being a magnet when the current stops.
Often, the coil is wrapped around a core of soft material such as steel. The overall strength of a magnet is measured by its magnetic moment or, the local strength of magnetism in a material is measured by its magnetization. Ancient people learned about magnetism from lodestones, which are naturally magnetized pieces of iron ore, the word magnet in Greek meant stone from Magnesia, a part of ancient Greece where lodestones were found. Lodestones, suspended so they could turn, were the first magnetic compasses, the earliest known surviving descriptions of magnets and their properties are from Greece and China around 2500 years ago. The properties of lodestones and their affinity for iron were written of by Pliny the Elder in his encyclopedia Naturalis Historia, by the 12th to 13th centuries AD, magnetic compasses were used in navigation in China, the Arabian Peninsula and elsewhere. The magnetic flux density is a vector field, the magnetic B field vector at a given point in space is specified by two properties, Its direction, which is along the orientation of a compass needle.
Its magnitude, which is proportional to how strongly the compass needle orients along that direction, in SI units, the strength of the magnetic B field is given in teslas. A magnets magnetic moment is a vector that characterizes the overall magnetic properties. For a bar magnet, the direction of the moment points from the magnets south pole to its north pole. In SI units, the moment is specified in terms of A·m2
A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve, coming after preschool and before secondary school. In most parts of the world, primary education is the first stage of education, and is normally available without charge. The term grade school is used in the US though this term may refer to both primary education and secondary education. The term primary school is derived from the French école primaire, primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization. Elementary school is preferred in some countries, especially in the United States, in the United States, primary school may refer to a school with grades Kindergarten through second grade or third grade. In these municipalities, the school includes grade three through five or grades four to six
The term Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise. Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, wheel, each of these inventions is essentially consistent with the modern definition of engineering. The term engineering is derived from the engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engineer originally referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, now obsolete, a referred to a military machine. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, the word engine itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep, as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC.
Ancient Greece developed machines in both civilian and military domains, the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed, the first steam engine was built in 1698 by Thomas Savery. The development of this gave rise to the Industrial Revolution in the coming decades. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The inventions of Thomas Newcomen and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to mechanical engineering. The development of specialized machines and machine tools during the revolution led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the father of civil engineering.
He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, harbours and he was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime and his lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeatons Tower. The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of engineer for the first time with a count of 2,000, there were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. S. before 1865. In 1870 there were a dozen U. S. mechanical engineering graduates, in 1890 there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics established at Cambridge until 1875, the theoretical work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics
Dallas Independent School District
The Dallas Independent School District is a school district based in Dallas, Texas. Dallas ISD, which schools in much of Dallas County, is the second largest school district in Texas. In 2014, the district was rated as having met the standard by the Texas Education Agency. Dallas ISD covers 312.6 square miles of land and most of the city of Dallas, the Dallas public school district in its current form was first established in Dallas in 1884, although there is evidence that public schools had existed for Dallas prior to that date. Mayor W. L. Baker, praised the new laws abandonment of tying teachers salaries to the number of pupils attending, a practice he called a relic of barbarism. At the time of the 1884 organization, six schools already were operating, four schools were designated for whites, booker T. Washington High School is one of these original schools, beginning as Colored School No.2 in 1884 and adopting its name in 1902. Dallas ISD has absorbed many smaller school districts throughout its history, vickery Independent School District was annexed into Dallas ISD in 1948.
Pleasant Grove ISD was annexed in 1954, and Pleasant Grove High School was replaced by Samuell High School in the same year, Seagoville ISD of Seagoville was annexed into Dallas ISD in 1965.5 years, although that hope did not prove a reality. The period from 1946 to 1966 saw rapid construction of schools, with 97 of the school buildings erected during this period. The Dallas school board commissioned studies over the several months, deciding in August,1956, that desegregation was premature. And the flinty determination of the School Board, to serve the public in their lawfully constituted duty. In September 1967 Dallas ISD states that its schools were desegregated, during another desegregation suit in the 1970s, a judge suggested that students from different schools could interact via television instead of forcing desegregation busing in the district. The judge liked the plan, while the parties filing suit did not, after the forced busing desegregation, in the 1970s many White American students and families withdrew from district schools en masse.
In 1996 DISD announced that it would en masse rezone many areas to different schools, DISD officials said that the rezoning, which would affect over 40 campuses, would be the largest such rezoning since at least the 1950s. In the summer of 2005, the Texas Education Agency ordered the Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District closed for the 2005–2006 school year due to financial stress, after negotiations, Dallas ISD agreed to accept the students for the 2005–2006 school year. The Wilmer-Hutchins ISD district was absorbed into Dallas ISD in summer 2006, Dallas ISD opened 11 new campuses in the fall of 2006. The district incorporated the WHISD territory via Plan K, adopted on November 30,2006, Dallas ISD issued drug dog searches to schools in order to combat the problem. Dallas ISD was reported in April 2008 to have the 7th highest dropout rate of any school district in the US
Kansas City Public Schools
Kansas City Public Schools or KCPS is a fully accredited school district headquartered at 2901 Troost Avenue in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. The district regained provisional accreditation on August 6,2014 and full accreditation November 7,2016, the district moved from their long time offices at 1211 McGee in Downtown Kansas City, Missouri to a Midtown location to be closer to district families in 2016. The school district serves some of the residents within Kansas City and it is bordered on the west by the Kansas/Missouri border line and on the east by the Independence and Raytown school districts. It is bordered on the north by the Missouri River and it is bordered on the south by the Hickman Mills school district and, at approximately 85th Street, by the Center school district. Many areas that have been annexed by Kansas City over the years are within the borders of 11 suburban districts, April 1885, Portions of District #1 and the Oakley District. April 1886, Portions of the Ashland and Westport Districts, April 1887, Another portion of the Oakley District.
February 16,1899, Entire Westport District, September 6,1906, A portion of the Swope District. October 18,1906, September 3,1908, February 4,1909, September 16,1910, April 4,1910, A portion of the Mount Washington District. May 18,1910, Remaining portion of the Swope District, August 28,1911, Entire District No.101. September 7,1911, Entire Border Star District, September 21,1911, Another portion of the Seven Oaks District. November 2,1911, Entire Briston District, November 16,1911, Entire Mount Washington District. March 21,1912, Part of the Boone District, February 13,1913, Remaining portion of the Seven Oaks District. September 2,1913, A portion of the Center District, december 11,1916, All of the Leeds District. August 7,1947, The Ruhl–Hartman District, January 17,1952, A portion of the Center District. May 11,1955, Sugar Creek District, February 7,1957, Rock Creek District. January 1,1973, Pleasant Valley District, the districts annual budget more than tripled in the process. The expenditure per pupil and the ratio were the best of any major school district in the nation.
Many high schools were given college-level facilities, despite all the largesse, test scores in the magnet schools did not rise, the black-white gap did not diminish, and there was less, not more, integration
An audition is a sample performance by an actor, musician, dancer or other performer. In some cases, such as with a model or acrobat, Actors may be asked to present a monologue. Singers will perform a song in a popular music context or an aria in a Classical context, a dancer will present a routine in a specific style, such as ballet, tap dance or hip-hop, or show his or her ability to quickly learn a choreographed dance piece. The audition is a process in which industry professionals select performers. In an audition, the employer is testing the ability of the applicant to meet the needs of the job and assess how well the individual will take directions, auditions are required for many reasons in the performing arts world. Often, employing companies or groups use auditions to select performers for upcoming shows or productions, an audition for a performing opportunity may be for a single performance, for a series or season of performances, or for permanent employment with the performing organization.
Auditions for performing opportunities may be for amateur, school, or community organizations, for actors in theater, and TV, the audition is a systematic process in which industry professionals make final casting decisions. Industry professionals may consist of casting directors, directors or agency representatives, in film and television, the audition is called a screen test, and it is filmed so that the casting director or director can see how the actor appears on screen. Auditions are advertised in media outlets, industry magazines and newsletters, audition websites. Some performers hire an agent, to be able to draw on the connections with casting directors. However, the agent will take a cut of the performers earnings, although an actors talents comprise crucial criteria in the casting process, an almost equal amount of attention is given to an actors type, as required for a particular production. Actors who are selecting a piece may select a monologue by a character who is close to their own age.
They may wear clothing that allows freedom of movement. Auditionees may avoid going over the time limit. By convention, some choose to not direct their speech to the audition panel if they are doing an on-stage audition. In some cases, the panel may request that the auditionee interacts with them. An actor who is doing an audition may warm up before the audition, like an athlete would, although with an actor, just as with any interview outside of the performing arts world, an auditionee may dress well. Even if the auditionee does not have expensive clothing, simple clothing may be if it is clean
Historically, the five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance. Today, the fine arts commonly include additional forms, such as film, video production/editing, sequential art, conceptual art, and printmaking. However, in some institutes of learning or in museums, fine art, in that sense, there are conceptual differences between the fine arts and the applied arts. The word fine does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question and this definition originally excluded the applied or decorative arts, and the products of what were regarded as crafts. According to some writers the concept of a category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art, A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century, There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. ”Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, and Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is often placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance.
The separation of arts and crafts that often exists in Europe, in Japanese aesthetics the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the mostly landscape painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting. A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving, weaving. Drawing is a form of expression and is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, There are a number of subcategories of drawing, including cartooning. Mosaics are images formed with pieces of stone or glass. They can be decorative or functional, an artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaic artist or a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper, except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print.
Each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy, the reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression, prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix. But there are other kinds, discussed below. Multiple nearly identical prints can be called an edition, in modern times each print is often signed and numbered forming a limited edition
SMPTE color bars is a television test pattern used where the NTSC video standard is utilized, including countries in North America. The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers refers to this test pattern as Engineering Guideline EG 1-1990, the components of this pattern are a known standard. The pattern is used for setting a television monitor or receiver to reproduce NTSC chrominance and luminance information correctly. The color bar test pattern was originally conceived by Norbert D. Larky of RCA Laboratories, U. S. patent 2,742,525 Color Test Pattern Generator was awarded on April 17,1956 to Norbert D. Larky and David D. Holmes. Previously categorized by SMPTE as ECR 1-1978, the development of this test pattern was awarded an Engineering Emmy in 2001-2002, the Color bar signal is generated with unconventionally slow rise and fall time value to facilitate video level control and monitor color adjustments of HDTV and SDTV equipment. In a survey of the top standards of the organizations first 100 years, in a SMPTE color bar image, the top two-thirds of the television picture contain seven vertical bars of 75% intensity.
In order from left to right, the colors are white, cyan, magenta and blue. The graticule of a vectorscope is etched with boxes showing the regions where the traces from these seven bars are supposed to fall if the signal is properly adjusted. Below the main set of seven bars is a strip of blue, cyan, the bottom section of the test pattern contains a square of 100% intensity white and a rectangle of 7. 5% intensity black, for use in setting the luminance range. More modern versions of the feature a pluge pulse. The white square lines up so that it is below the green and cyan bars, on a waveform monitor this will show up with the white bar overlapping the peak of the yellow, the pluge pulse is positioned within the black rectangle, below the red bar. It comprises three vertical bars, a rightmost one with intensity 4% above black level, a middle one with intensity exactly equal to black. When a monitor is properly adjusted, the rightmost pluge bar should be just barely visible, while the two should appear indistinuishable from each other and completely black.
On a vectorscope, they appear as two short lines ninety degrees apart and these are used to ensure that the television receiver is properly demodulating the 3.58 MHz color subcarrier portion of the signal. The vectors for the -I and +Q blocks should fall exactly on the I and Q axes on the vectorscope if the signal is demodulated properly. These bars give rise to the portion of the casual term, bars. Likewise, producers of television programs typically record bars and tone at the beginning of a videotape or other recording medium so that the equipment can be calibrated. Often, the name or callsign of the TV station, other such as a real-time clock
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution.
The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v.
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to vote