Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in South London in the late 1990s. It is characterized by sparse, syncopated rhythmic patterns with massive wobbly basslines that contain prominent sub-bass frequencies and epic gigantic breakdowns; the style emerged as an offshoot of UK garage, drawing on a lineage of related styles such as 2-step and dub reggae, as well as jungle, broken beat, grime. In the United Kingdom the origins of the genre can be traced back to the growth of the Jamaican sound system party scene in the early 1980s; the earliest dubstep releases date back to 1998, were featured as B-sides of 2-step garage single releases. These tracks were darker, more experimental remixes with less emphasis on vocals, attempted to incorporate elements of breakbeat and drum and bass into 2-step. In 2001, this and other strains of dark garage music began to be showcased and promoted at London's night club Plastic People, at the "Forward" night, which went on to be influential to the development of dubstep.
The term "dubstep" in reference to a genre of music began to be used by around 2002 by labels such as Big Apple and Tempa, by which time stylistic trends used in creating these remixes started to become more noticeable and distinct from 2-step and grime. A early supporter of the sound was BBC Radio 1 DJ John Peel, who started playing it from 2003 onwards. In 2004, the last year of his show, his listeners voted Distance, Digital Mystikz, Plastician in their top 50 for the year. Dubstep started to enter mainstream British popular culture when it spread beyond small local scenes in late 2005 and early 2006; the genre was receiving extensive coverage in music magazines such as The Wire and online publications such as Pitchfork, with a regular feature entitled The Month In: Grime/Dubstep. Interest in dubstep grew after BBC Radio 1 DJ Mary Anne Hobbs started championing the genre, beginning with a show devoted to it in January 2006. Towards the end of the 2000s and into the early 2010s, the genre started to become more commercially successful in the UK, with more singles and remixes entering the music charts.
Music journalists and critics noticed a dubstep influence in several pop artists' work. Around this time, producers began to fuse elements of the original dubstep sound with other influences, creating fusion genres including future garage, the slower and more experimental post-dubstep, the harsher electro house and heavy metal influenced brostep, the latter of which contributed to dubstep's popularity in the United States; the music website Allmusic has described Dubstep's overall sound as "tightly coiled productions with overwhelming bass lines and reverberant drum patterns, clipped samples, occasional vocals." According to Simon Reynolds, Dubstep's constituents came from "different points in the 1989—99 UK lineage: bleep'n' bass, techstep, Photek-style neurofunk, speed garage, 2 step." Reynolds comments that the traces of pre-existing styles "worked through their intrinsic sonic effects but as signifiers, tokenings-back addressed to those who know". Dubstep's early roots are in the more experimental releases of UK garage producers, seeking to incorporate elements of drum and bass into the South London-based 2-step garage sound.
These experiments ended up on the B-side of a white label or commercial garage release. Dubstep is instrumental. Similar to a vocal garage hybrid – grime – the genre's feel is dark. Other distinguishing features found are the use of samples, a propulsive, sparse rhythm, an omnipresent sub-bass; some dubstep artists have incorporated a variety of outside influences, from dub-influenced techno such as Basic Channel to classical music or heavy metal. Dubstep rhythms are syncopated, shuffled or incorporating tuplets; the tempo is nearly always in the range of 138–142 beats per minute, with a clap or snare inserted every third beat in a bar. In its early stages, dubstep was more percussive, with more influences from 2‑step drum patterns. A lot of producers were experimenting with tribal drum samples, such as Loefah's early release "Truly Dread" and Mala's "Anti-War Dub". In an Invisible Jukebox interview with The Wire, Kode9 commented on a MRK1 track, observing that listeners "have internalized the double-time rhythm" and the "track is so empty it makes nervous, you fill in the double time yourself, physically, to compensate".
One characteristic of certain strands of dubstep is the wobble bass referred to as the "wub", where an extended bass note is manipulated rhythmically. This style of bass is produced by using a low-frequency oscillator to manipulate certain parameters of a synthesiser such as volume, distortion or filter cutoff; the resulting sound is a timbre, punctuated by rhythmic variations in volume, filter cutoff, or distortion. This style of bass is a driving factor in some variations of dubstep at the more club-friendly end of the spectrum. Dubstep releases had some structural similarities to other genres like drum and bass and UK garage; this would comprise an intro, a main section, a midsection, a second main section similar to the first, an outro. Many early dubstep tracks incorporate one or more "bass drops", a char
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
MIDI is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments and related audio devices for playing and recording music. A single MIDI link through a MIDI cable can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device or instrument; this could be sixteen different digital instruments, for example. MIDI carries event messages, data that specify the instructions for music, including a note's notation, velocity, panning to the right or left of stereo, clock signals; when a musician plays a MIDI instrument, all of the key presses, button presses, knob turns and slider changes are converted into MIDI data. One common MIDI application is to play a MIDI keyboard or other controller and use it to trigger a digital sound module to generate sounds, which the audience hears produced by a keyboard amplifier. MIDI data can be recorded to a sequencer to be edited or played back.
A file format that stores and exchanges the data is defined. Advantages of MIDI include small file size, ease of modification and manipulation and a wide choice of electronic instruments and synthesizer or digitally-sampled sounds. A MIDI recording of a performance on a keyboard could sound like a piano or other keyboard instrument. A MIDI recording is not an audio signal, as with a sound recording made with a microphone. Prior to the development of MIDI, electronic musical instruments from different manufacturers could not communicate with each other; this meant that a musician could not, for example, plug a Roland keyboard into a Yamaha synthesizer module. With MIDI, any MIDI-compatible keyboard can be connected to any other MIDI-compatible sequencer, sound module, drum machine, synthesizer, or computer if they are made by different manufacturers. MIDI technology was standardized in 1983 by a panel of music industry representatives, is maintained by the MIDI Manufacturers Association. All official MIDI standards are jointly developed and published by the MMA in Los Angeles, the MIDI Committee of the Association of Musical Electronics Industry in Tokyo.
In 2016, the MMA established the MIDI Association to support a global community of people who work, play, or create with MIDI. In the early 1980s, there was no standardized means of synchronizing electronic musical instruments manufactured by different companies. Manufacturers had their own proprietary standards to synchronize instruments, such as CV/gate and Digital Control Bus. Roland founder Ikutaro Kakehashi felt the lack of standardization was limiting the growth of the electronic music industry. In June 1981, he proposed developing a standard to Oberheim Electronics founder Tom Oberheim, who had developed his own proprietary interface, the Oberheim System. Kakehashi felt the system was too cumbersome, spoke to Sequential Circuits president Dave Smith about creating a simpler, cheaper alternative. While Smith discussed the concept with American companies, Kakehashi discussed it with Japanese companies Yamaha and Kawai. Representatives from all companies met to discuss the idea in October.
Using Roland's DCB as a basis and Sequential Circuits engineer Chet Wood devised a universal synthesizer interface to allow communication between equipment from different manufacturers. Smith proposed this standard at the Audio Engineering Society show in November 1981; the standard was discussed and modified by representatives of Roland, Korg and Sequential Circuits. Kakehashi favored the name Universal Musical Interface, pronounced you-me, but Smith felt this was "a little corny". However, he liked the use of "instrument" instead of "synthesizer", proposed the name Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Moog Music founder Robert Moog announced MIDI in the October 1982 issue of Keyboard. At the 1983 Winter NAMM Show, Smith demonstrated a MIDI connection between Prophet 600 and Roland JP-6 synthesizers; the MIDI specification was published in August 1983. The MIDI standard was unveiled by Kakehashi and Smith, who received Technical Grammy Awards in 2013 for their work; the first MIDI synthesizers were the Roland Jupiter-6 and the Prophet 600, both released in 1982.
1983 saw the release of the first MIDI drum machine, the Roland TR-909, the first MIDI sequencer, the Roland MSQ-700. The first computers to support MIDI were the NEC PC-88 and PC-98 in 1982, the MSX released in 1983. MIDI's appeal was limited to professional musicians and record producers who wanted to use electronic instruments in the production of popular music; the standard allowed different instruments to communicate with each other and with computers, this spurred a rapid expansion of the sales and production of electronic instruments and music software. This interoperability allowed one device to be controlled from another, which reduced the amount of hardware musicians needed. MIDI's introduction coincided with the dawn of the personal computer era and the introduction of samplers and digital synthesizers; the creative possibilities brought about by MIDI technology are credited for helping revive the music industry in the 1980s. MIDI introduced capabilities. MIDI sequencing makes it possible for
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
"Anthemic" is a song by live electronic music project Magnetic Man. It is the fourth single to be released from the debut album Magnetic Man and was released as a digital download on 22 July 2011. For its release, grime rapper P Money was added to the track – with the version serving as the lead promotion for the release; the single version premiered in May 2011 during Magnetic Man's performance at BBC Radio 1's Big Weekend. A music video to accompany the release of "Anthemic" was first released onto YouTube on 30 June 2011 at a total length of three minutes and forty-nine seconds. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment. According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. By the beginning of 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made US$1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year. Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Management that restricts copying the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players, they are always compressed using a lossy codec, which reduces file size and bandwidth requirements. These music resources have been created as a response to expanding technology and needs of customers that wanted easy, quick access to music, their business models respond to the "download revolution" by making legal services attractive for users.
Legal music downloads have faced a number of challenges from artists, record labels and the Recording Industry Association of America. In July 2007, the Universal Music Group decided not to renew their long-term contracts with iTunes; this decision was based upon the issue of pricing of songs, as Universal wanted to be able to charge more or less depending on the artist, a shift away from iTunes' standard—at the time—99 cents per song pricing. Many industry leaders feel that this is only the first of many show-downs between Apple Inc. and the various record labels. According to research by the website TorrentFreak, 38% of Swedish artists support file share downloading and claim that it helps artists in early career stages; the Swedish rock group Lamont has profited from file sharing. The Recording Industry Association of America oversees about 85% of published music production and manufacturing in the United States, they work to protect musicians while supporting the First Amendment rights. Their stated goal is to support artists' creativity and help them not be cheated out of money by illegal downloading.
The Recording Industry Association of America launched its first lawsuits on 8 September 2003, against individuals who illegally downloaded music files from the Kazaa FastTrack network. Two years after it began, the campaign survived at least one major legal challenge; the RIAA said it filed 750 suits in February 2006 against individuals downloading music files without paying for them in hopes of putting an end to Internet music piracy. The RIAA hopes their campaign will force people to respect the copyrights of music labels and minimize the number of illegal downloads; the Official Charts Company began to incorporate downloads in the UK Singles Chart on 17 April 2005, at which time Radio 1 stopped broadcasting the separate download chart, although the chart is still compiled. This was on condition that the song must have a physical media release at the same time. Music downloads have been measured by the Official Charts Company since 2004 and included in the main UK Singles Chart from 2005.
The most downloaded song in the UK is "Happy" by Pharrell Williams with over 1.8 million downloads. In November 2005, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States was held by Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl", which sold over one million downloads, making it the first song to achieve platinum download status; as of July 2012, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States on the iTunes Store is held by The Black Eyed Peas's "I Gotta Feeling", which has sold over 8 million downloads. Soon after his death in 2009, Michael Jackson became the first artist to sell over one million songs downloaded via the Internet in one week. However, Adele marks the most downloads sold by a single song in a week, with "Hello" selling 1.12 million copies in November 2015. Eminem's seventh studio album, became the first album to sell one million digital copies. Beyoncé's self-titled fifth studio album became the fastest-selling album within 24 hours in iTunes history after its release in December 2013.
Within 24 hours of availability, the album sold 430,000 digital copies. Adele's third studio album 25 became the fastest-selling album in a week iTunes history after it was released on 20 November 2015, it sold 1.64 million digital copies in its first week. In 2006, the Recording Industry Association of Japan began issuing certifications for digitally released music in Japan, compiling data from the early 2000s onwards; the best-selling song is Fukushima-based vocal group Greeeen's song "Kiseki", certified for being downloaded four million times between 2008 and 2015, followed by R&B singer Thelma Aoyama's "Soba ni Iru ne" featuring rapper SoulJa, certified for three million downloads between 2008 and 2014. Greeeen's song "Ai Uta" ranks as the third highest certified song, with 2.5 million downloads tracked between 2007 and 2009. Two more songs have sold more than two million paid downloads: Ayaka's "Mikazuki" and Kobukuro's "Tsubomi"; the most successful ringtone in Japan is Moldovan-Romanian band O-Zone's "Dragostea din tei", known locally as "Koi no Maiahi", certified as having four million units sold.
In Japan, only two albums have received digital certifications by the RIAJ. The first was Songs for Japan, a charity compilation album raising profits for the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, certified gold for 100,000 downloa
"Getting Nowhere" is a song by English electronic music project Magnetic Man featuring American singer John Legend. It is the third single to be released from their debut album Magnetic Man, it was released on 18 February 2011. It only managed to peak to number 65 on the UK Singles Chart but had some success in Flanders where it reached number four; the song was used in a Sony PlayStation Move advert in November 2011. Nick Levine of Digital Spy gave the song a positive review stating: On which Artwork and Skream – the commanding triptych of Croydon clubland, if you will – team up with nine-time Grammy Award winner John Legend to reaffirm what the James Blake album has suggested – that dubstep can possess genuine gets-you-in-the-guts soul. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics