The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Westminster is a printing and display typeface inspired by the machine-readable numbers printed on cheques and designed by Leo Maggs. In the 1960s, Leo Maggs was working at the Hazell Sun Group's design studio in Covent Garden, London. At that time, he was commanded to create a futuristic style title for an article of About the House. Maggs based the letters of that title on the MICR system, E-13B, used on bank cheques, he continued to design the rest of the letters of the alphabet in his spare time, basing their proportions on that of the Gill Sans typeface. The MICR E-13B font was designed for automated reading by a simple magnetic reader in the early days of automatic character recognition; the weight of strokes in the characters can be recognised as "light" or "heavy" by a simple circuit and these patterns map directly to the bit patterns of a computer character set. This made the characters practical to read before'smart' OCR, but limited the length of the character set. E-13B has only 14 characters: a few control codes.
None of the alphanumeric'computer' typefaces like Westminster could be read magnetically. The work was presented to Letraset, but it was Robert Norton, founder of the Photoscript Ltd photo-typesetting company, who decided to produce it; the font was named by Norton and, according to Microsoft, it received its name from the then–Westminster Bank Limited from the United Kingdom, that helped fund its production. It became. Since its design, the typeface has been associated with computers—especially in the late 1960s and early-to-mid-1970s, it is used to indicate computer involvement in television series, films and comics. List of typefaces MICR OCR-A font, another font designed to be machine-readable
A negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, with the payer named on the document. More it is a document contemplated by or consisting of a contract, which promises the payment of money without condition, which may be paid either on demand or at a future date; the term can have different meanings, depending on what law is being applied and what country and context it is used in. In the Commonwealth of Nations all jurisdictions have codified the law relating to negotiable instruments in a Bills of Exchange Act, e.g. Bills of Exchange Act 1882 in the UK, Bills of Exchange Act 1908 in New Zealand, Bills of Exchange Act 1909 in Australia, the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 in India and the Bills of Exchange Act 1914 in Mauritius; the Bills of Exchange Act: defines a bill of exchange as:'an unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand, or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money to or to the order of a specified person, or to bearer.
Defines a cheque as:'a bill of exchange drawn on a banker, payable on demand' defines a promissory note as:'an unconditional promise in writing made by one person to another, signed by the maker, engaging to pay on demand, or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money to or to the order of a specified person or to bearer.'Additionally most Commonwealth jurisdictions have separate Cheques Acts providing for additional protections for bankers collecting unendorsed or irregularly endorsed cheques, providing that cheques that are crossed and marked'not negotiable' or similar are not transferable, providing for electronic presentation of cheques in inter-bank cheque clearing systems. In India, during the Mauryan period in the 3rd century BCE, an instrument called adesha was in use, an order on a banker desiring him to pay the money of the note to a third person, which corresponds to the definition of a bill of exchange as we understand it today; the ancient Romans are believed to have used an early form of cheque known as praescriptiones in the 1st century BCE and 2,000-year-old Roman promissory notes have been foundCommon prototypes of bills of exchanges and promissory notes originated in China, where special instruments called feitsyan were used to safely transfer money over long distances during the reign of the Tang Dynasty in the 8th century.
Around 1150 the Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims, pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value. In the mid-13th century, the Ilkhanid rulers of Persia printed the "cha" or "chap", used as paper money for limited usage for transactions between the court and the merchants for about three years before it collapsed; the collapse was caused by the court accepting the "cha" only at progressive discount. Such documents were used for money transfer by Middle Eastern merchants, who had used the prototypes of bills of exchange from the 8th century to present; such prototypes came to be used by the Iberian and Italian merchants in the 12th century. In Italy in the 13–15th centuries, bills of exchange and promissory notes obtained their main features, while further phases of their development have been associated with France and Germany.
The first mention of the use of bills of exchange in English statutes dates from 1381, under Richard II. English exchange law was different than continental European law because of different legal systems; the modern emphasis on negotiability may be traced to Lord Mansfield. Germanic Lombards documents may have some elements of negotiability. A negotiable instrument can serve to convey value constituting at least part of the performance of a contract, albeit not obvious in contract formation, in terms inherent in and arising from the requisite offer and acceptance and conveyance of consideration; the underlying contract contemplates the right to hold the instrument as, to negotiate the instrument to, a holder in due course, the payment on, at least part of the performance of the contract to which the negotiable instrument is linked. The instrument, memorializing: the power to demand payment. Certain exceptions exist, such as instances of loss or theft of the instrument, wherein the possessor of the note may be a holder, but not a holder in due course.
Negotiation requires a valid endorsement of the negotiable instrument. The consideration constituted by a negotiable instrument is cognizable as the value given up to acquire it and the consequent loss of value to the prior holder; the instrument itself is understood as memorializing the right for, power to demand, an obligation for payment evidenced by the instrument itself with possession as a holder in due course being the touchstone for the right to, power to demand, payme
American Bankers Association
The American Bankers Association is a Washington, D. C.-based trade association for the U. S. banking industry. Founded in 1875, ABA represents banks of all sizes and charters, including community banks and money center banks, savings associations, mutual savings banks, trust companies, with the average member bank having $250 million in assets. Like many large trade associations, ABA's principal activities include lobbying, professional development for member institutions, maintenance of best practices and industry standards, consumer education, distribution of products and services. ABA is considered the largest financial trade group in the United States; the origins of the American Bankers Association are in the Panic of 1873, when St. Louis, Missouri banker James Howenstein found himself in "a tight squeeze," with only a few hundred dollars in funds and millions of deposits to pay. Relying on help and intelligence from peer bankers in the form of frequent correspondence, Howenstein escaped his dilemma and realized the value of a bankers' fraternal organization.
Howenstein recalled: The 1873 panic was a well spring of subject matter for correspondence and we cashiers availed of it for the general information. We were acquaintances, but the time had now come for something better. With our pens we had wished each other the good cheer of a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year, that scarcely discharged the pensiveness of our unrelief of bank work. We wanted to meet each other; the desire possessed us to engage the mind for a season in new and restful and indeed educational objects to mitigate and counteract the despotism of money. Howenstein convened a group of 17 bankers in New York City on May 24, 1875; the initial constitution called for the association to: promote the general welfare and usefulness of banks and banking institutions, to secure uniformity of action, together with the practical benefits to be derived from personal acquaintance and from the discussion of subjects of importance to the banking and commercial interests of the country, in order to secure the proper consideration of questions regarding the financial and commercial usages and laws which affect the banking interests of the entire country, for protection against loss by crime.
Among the ABA's earliest activities was the founding of the American Institute of Banking in 1903 to provide professional education via examinations and certificates through local chapters. AIB provided a path to careers in banking without collegiate training in law; the ABA, first headquartered in New York City, organized its activities through sections focused on particular bank types. The trust company section was organized in 1896, followed by one for clearing houses in 1899, savings banks in 1902, state bankers associations in 1908; the ABA's growth continued with the emergence of the Federal Reserve System, which required national banks to be members of a Federal Reserve Bank and provided the option to state-chartered banks. In 1915, the ABA organized a section for national banks and an additional section for state banks in 1916. To facilitate advocacy before the Comptroller of the Currency, the national bank section opened the ABA's first office in Washington, D. C. in 1919. The state bank section used the Washington office to represent its banks' interest before the Federal Reserve.
In 1925, to commemorate the ABA's 50th anniversary, the ABA organized an Educational Foundation, with bankers and state associations contributing an initial $400,000 to provide scholarships to study banking and economics. The Educational Foundation went on to house the ABA's youth financial literacy initiatives; the 1930s saw an expansion of the ABA's professional development activities led by Harold Stonier, ABA's executive from 1937 to 1952. Stonier founded the ABA Graduate School of Banking at Rutgers University in 1935 with 220 students; the school moved to Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, in 2007, the Graduate School was named after Stonier. ABA launched other professional development programs in the years that followed, including for bank marketers, compliance officers, trust bankers, commercial lenders. Federal-level advocacy became important to ABA members over the 20th century; the 1933 Banking Act established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, separated commercial banking from investment banking under the Glass-Steagall provision, the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 brought additional Federal Reserve oversight to bank holding companies.
With these changes in the industry, the ABA consolidated its operations in its current Washington, D. C. location in 1971, closing the New York office. The ABA achieved a major goal with the passage of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in November 1999. Noting that "bankers urgently needed new competitive tools to serve their customers," ABA's executive vice president at the time, Donald Ogilvie, attributed the law's passage to "the deliberate actions of many bankers asking their members of Congress to take action now" and the ABA and state bankers association officers and leaders who "patiently lobbied and bargained with one Congress after another to help make financial modernization a
Electronic Recording Machine, Accounting
ERMA, was a pioneering computer development project run at SRI International under contract to Bank of America in order to automate banking bookkeeping. The project ran from 1950 to 1955. ERMA was under the technical leadership of computer scientist Jerre Noe. After the project's successful conclusion, General Electric was contracted to build 32 ERMA machines, they were so successful in operation that Bank of America was propelled ahead of other banks in profitability, became the world's largest bank by 1970. In 1950, Bank of America was the largest bank in California, led the world in the use of checks; this presented a serious problem due to the workload processing them. An experienced bookkeeper could post 245 accounts in an hour, about 2,000 in an 8-hour workday and 10,000 per week. Bank of America's checking accounts were growing at a rate of 23,000 per month and banks were being forced to close their doors by 2:00 PM to finish daily postings. S. Clark Beise was a senior vice president at BoA, introduced to Thomas H. Morrin, SRI's Director of Engineering.
They formed an alliance under which SRI would act as BoA's R&D arm. In July 1950 they contracted SRI for an initial feasibility study for automating their bookkeeping and check handling. SRI found a problem; because accounts were kept alphabetically, adding a new account required a reshuffling of the account listings. SRI instead suggested using account numbers adding new ones to the end of the list. In addition these numbers would be pre-printed on checks, thereby reducing the time to match the checks with account information. Numbered accounts are now a feature of all banks. With that problem out of the way, SRI returned a report in September 1950 that stated a computer-based system was feasible, which they called ERM, the Electronic Recording Machine. Bank of America offered a second six-month contract in November to study the changes needed to banking procedures, design the logical layout of production ERM machines. While this was underway, Bank of America went to a number of industrial companies to set up production of the machines, but none were interested.
So SRI was given another contract in January 1952 to build a prototype machine. One of the biggest problems found in the second phase was how to input the check information the account numbers, with any sort of speed. Beise demanded a system that would not require the information to be changed from one medium to another, from check to punched card for instance, while at the same time lowering error rates. SRI investigated several solutions to the problem, including the first OCR system from a company in Arlington, Virginia. However, they found that it was all too easy for banks, customers, to write over the account numbers and spoil the system, they experimented with barcode information, while this worked well when printed over, if there was enough "damage" to the code a human operator could not read them in order to input them manually. Instead, they decided to combine the two technologies, used MICR-printed account numbers which could be read by a magnetic reader similar to those in a cassette tape recorder.
The resulting reader was a mechanical tour-de-force, combining five MICR readers with a large rotating drum that forced checks dumped in the top to come out the bottom single-file. The system was able to read ten checks a second, with errors on the order of 1 per 100,000 checks; the final ERM computer contained more than a million feet of wiring, 8,000 vacuum tubes, 34,000 diodes, 5 input consoles with MICR readers, 2 magnetic memory drums, the check sorter, a high-speed printer, a power control panel, a maintenance board, 24 racks holding 1,500 electrical packages and 500 relay packages, 12 magnetic tape drives for 2,400-foot tape reels. ERM weighed about 25 tons, used more than 80 kW of power and required cooling by an air conditioning system. By 1955, the system was still in development, but Bank of America was anxious to announce the project. At the time, computers were all the rage. In September 1955, Bank of America froze the design. By this point, no fewer than 24 companies had expressed interest in building the production machines, General Electric won the competition.
Among GE's team members was AI pioneer Joseph Weizenbaum. The company took the basic design, but decided it was time to move the tube-based system to a transistor-based one using core memory; this won SRI yet another contract, this time by GE to study the commercial computer market and suggest ways the ERM machines could be sold into other markets. After the construction run they contracted them to dispose of the original machine; the first production ERMA system, known as the GE-100, was installed in 1959. Over the next two years 32 systems were installed and by 1966 twelve regional ERMA centers served all but 21 of Bank of America's 900 branches; the centers handled more than 750 million checks a year, about the number they had predicted to occur by 1970. The automation was so effective that it allowed Bank of America to be the first bank to offer credit cards attached to a user's bank account. ERMA machines were replaced with newer equipment in the early 1970s. There is a special room commemorating ERMA machines inside of Bank of America facilities in Concord, California.
Nielson, Donald. A Heritage of Innovation: SRI's First Half Century. Menlo Park, California: SRI International. ISBN 978-0-9745208-1-0. SRI page on ERMA
Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press, a process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper. A worker composes and locks movable type into the "bed" or "chase" of a press, inks it, presses paper against it to transfer the ink from the type which creates an impression on the paper. In practice, letterpress includes other forms of relief printing with printing presses, such as wood engravings, photo-etched zinc "cuts", linoleum blocks, which can be used alongside metal type, or wood type, in a single operation, as well as stereotypes and electrotypes of type and blocks. With certain letterpress units it is possible to join movable type with slugs cast using hot metal typesetting. In theory, anything, "type high" or.918 inches can be printed using letterpress. Letterpress printing was the normal form of printing text from its invention by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century until the 19th century and remained in wide use for books and other uses until the second half of the 20th century.
Letterpress printing remained the primary means of printing and distributing information until the 20th century, when offset printing was developed, which supplanted its role in printing books and newspapers. All forms of data collection were affected by the invention of letterpress printing, as were many careers such as teachers, preachers and surgeons and artist-engineers. More letterpress printing has seen a revival in an artisanal form. Johannes Gutenberg is credited with the development in the western hemisphere, in about 1440, of modern movable type printing from individually cast, reusable letters set together in a form. Movable type was first invented in China using ceramic type in 1040 AD. Gutenberg invented a wooden printing press, based on the extant wine press, where the type surface was inked with leather-covered ink balls and paper laid on top by hand slid under a padded surface and pressure applied from above by a large threaded screw, it was Gutenberg's "screw press" or hand press, used to print 180 copies of the Bible.
At 1,282 pages, it took him and his staff of 20 3 years to complete. 48 copies remain intact today. This form of presswork replaced the hand-copied manuscripts of scribes and illuminators as the most prevalent form of printing. Printers' workshops unknown in Europe before the mid-15th century, were found in every important metropolis by 1500. Metal presses used a knuckle and lever arrangement instead of the screw, but the principle was the same. Ink rollers made of composition paved the way for further automation. With the advent of industrial mechanisation, inking was carried out by rollers that passed over the face of the type moved out of the way onto an ink plate to pick up a fresh film of ink for the next sheet. Meanwhile, a sheet of paper slid against a hinged platen, which rapidly pressed onto the type and swung back again as the sheet was removed and the next sheet inserted; as the fresh sheet of paper replaced the printed paper, the now freshly inked rollers ran over the type again. Automated 20th-century presses, such as the Kluge and "Original" Heidelberg Platen, incorporated pneumatic sheet feed and delivery.
Rotary presses were used for high-speed work. In the oscillating press, the form slid under a drum around which each sheet of paper got wrapped for the impression, sliding back under the inking rollers while the paper was removed and a new sheet inserted. In a newspaper press, a papier-mâché mixture called a flong used to make a mould of the entire form of type dried and bent, a curved metal stereotype plate cast against it; the plates were clipped to a rotating drum and could print against a continuous reel of paper at the enormously high speeds required for overnight newspaper production. This invention helped aid the high demand for knowledge during this time period. Letterpress printing was introduced in Canada in 1752 in Halifax, Nova Scotia by John Bushell in the newspaper format; this paper became Canada's first newspaper. Bushell apprenticed under Bartholomew Green in Boston. Green moved to Halifax in 1751 in hopes of starting a newspaper. Two weeks and a day after the press he was going to use for this new project arrived in Halifax, Green died.
Upon receiving word about what happened, Bushell moved to Halifax and continued what Green had started. The Halifax Gazette was first published on March 23, 1752, making Bushell the first letterpress printer in Halifax, Canada. There is only one known surviving copy, found in the Massachusetts Historical Society. One of the first forms of letterpress printing in the United States was Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick started by Benjamin Harris; this was the first form of a newspaper with multiple pages in the Americas. The first publication of Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick was September 25, 1690. Letterpress started to become out-of-date in the 1970s because of the rise of computers and new self-publishing print and publish methods. Many printing establishments went out of business from the 1980s to 1990s and sold their equipment after computers replaced letterpress's abilities more efficiently; these commercial print shops discarded presses, making them affordable and available to artisans throughout the country.
Popular presses are, in particular, Vandercook cylinder proof presses and Chandler & Price platen presses. In the UK there is particular affection for the Arab press, built by Josiah Wade in Halifax. Letterpress
In typography, a typeface is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features. Each font of a typeface has a specific weight, condensation, slant, italicization and designer or foundry. For example, "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed Italic" means the bold, condensed-width, italic version of ITC Garamond, it is a different font from "ITC Garamond Condensed Italic" and "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed", but all are fonts within the same typeface, "ITC Garamond". ITC Garamond is a different typeface from "Adobe Garamond" or "Monotype Garamond". There are thousands of different typefaces with new ones being developed constantly; the art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. Designers of typefaces are called type designers and are employed by type foundries. In digital typography, type designers are sometimes called font developers or font designers; every typeface is a collection of glyphs, each of which represents an individual letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol.
The same glyph may be used for characters from different scripts, e.g. Roman uppercase A looks the same as Cyrillic uppercase А and Greek uppercase alpha. There are typefaces tailored for special applications, such as map-making or astrology and mathematics; the term typeface is confused with the term font. Before the advent of digital typography and desktop publishing, the two terms had more understood meanings. In professional typography, the term typeface is not interchangeable with the word font, because the term font has been defined as a given alphabet and its associated characters in a single size. For example, 8-point Caslon Italic was one font, 10-point Caslon Italic was another. Fonts came in specific sizes determining the size of characters, in quantities of sorts or number of each letter provided; the design of characters in a font took into account all these factors. As the range of typeface designs increased and requirements of publishers broadened over the centuries, fonts of specific weight and stylistic variants have led to font families, collections of related typeface designs that can include hundreds of styles.
A font family is a group of related fonts which vary only in weight, width, etc. but not design. For example, Times is a font family, whereas Times Roman, Times Italic and Times Bold are individual fonts making up the Times family. Font families include several fonts, though some, such as Helvetica, may consist of dozens of fonts; the distinction between font and typeface is that a font designates a specific member of a type family such as roman, boldface, or italic type, while typeface designates a consistent visual appearance or style which can be a "family" or related set of fonts. For example, a given typeface such as Arial may include roman and italic fonts. In the metal type era, a font meant a specific point size, but with digital scalable outline fonts this distinction is no longer valid, as a single font may be scaled to any size; the first "extended" font families, which included a wide range of widths and weights in the same general style emerged in the early 1900s, starting with ATF's Cheltenham, with an initial design by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, many additional faces designed by Morris Fuller Benton.
Examples include Futura, Lucida, ITC Officina. Some became superfamilies as a result such as Linotype Syntax, Linotype Univers. Typeface superfamilies began to emerge when foundries began to include typefaces with significant structural differences, but some design relationship, under the same general family name. Arguably the first superfamily was created when Morris Fuller Benton created Clearface Gothic for ATF in 1910, a sans serif companion to the existing Clearface; the superfamily label does not include quite different designs given the same family name for what would seem to be purely marketing, rather than design, considerations: Caslon Antique, Futura Black and Futura Display are structurally unrelated to the Caslon and Futura families and are not considered part of those families by typographers, despite their names. Additional or supplemental glyphs intended to match a main typeface have been in use for centuries. In some formats they have been marketed as separate fonts. In the early 1990s, the Adobe Systems type group introduced the idea of expert set fonts, which had a standardized set of additional glyphs, including small caps, old style figures, additional superior letters and ligatures not found in the main fonts for the typeface.
Supplemental fonts have included alternate letters such as swashes and alternate character sets, complementing the regular fonts under the same family. However, with introduction of font formats such as OpenType, those supplemental glyphs were merged into the main fonts, relying on specific software capabilities to access the alternate glyphs. Since Apple's and Microsoft's operating systems supported different character sets in the platform related fonts, some foundries used expert fonts in a different way; these fonts included the characters which were missing on either Macintosh or Windows computers, e.g. fractions, ligatures or some accented glyphs. The goal was to deliver t