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Magnetohydrodynamics is the study of the magnetic properties and behaviour of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such magneto­fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, salt water, electrolytes; the word "magneto­hydro­dynamics" is derived from magneto- meaning magnetic field, hydro- meaning water, dynamics meaning movement. The field of MHD was initiated by Hannes Alfvén, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970; the fundamental concept behind MHD is that magnetic fields can induce currents in a moving conductive fluid, which in turn polarizes the fluid and reciprocally changes the magnetic field itself. The set of equations that describe MHD are a combination of the Navier–Stokes equations of fluid dynamics and Maxwell’s equations of electro­magnetism; these differential equations must be solved either analytically or numerically. The first recorded use of the word magnetohydrodynamics is by Hannes Alfvén in 1942: "At last some remarks are made about the transfer of momentum from the Sun to the planets, fundamental to the theory.

The importance of the Magnetohydrodynamic waves in this respect are pointed out."The ebbing salty water flowing past London's Waterloo Bridge interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to produce a potential difference between the two river-banks. Michael Faraday called this effect "magneto-electric induction" and tried this experiment in 1832 but the current was too small to measure with the equipment at the time, the river bed contributed to short-circuit the signal. However, by a similar process the voltage induced by the tide in the English Channel was measured in 1851; the simplest form of MHD, Ideal MHD, assumes that the fluid has so little resistivity that it can be treated as a perfect conductor. This is the limit of infinite magnetic Reynolds number. In ideal MHD, Lenz's law dictates. To explain, in ideal MHD a small rope-like volume of fluid surrounding a field line will continue to lie along a magnetic field line as it is twisted and distorted by fluid flows in the system; this is sometimes referred to as the magnetic field lines being "frozen" in the fluid.

The connection between magnetic field lines and fluid in ideal MHD fixes the topology of the magnetic field in the fluid—for example, if a set of magnetic field lines are tied into a knot they will remain so as long as the fluid/plasma has negligible resistivity. This difficulty in reconnecting magnetic field lines makes it possible to store energy by moving the fluid or the source of the magnetic field; the energy can become available if the conditions for ideal MHD break down, allowing magnetic reconnection that releases the stored energy from the magnetic field. The ideal MHD equations consist of the continuity equation, the Cauchy momentum equation, Ampere's Law neglecting displacement current, a temperature evolution equation; as with any fluid description to a kinetic system, a closure approximation must be applied to highest moment of the particle distribution equation. This is accomplished with approximations to the heat flux through a condition of adiabaticity or isothermality; the main quantities which characterize the electrically conducting fluid are the bulk plasma velocity field v, the current density J, the mass density ρ, the plasma pressure p.

The flowing electric charge in the plasma is the source of a magnetic field B and electric field E. All quantities vary with time t. Vector operator notation will be used, in particular ∇ is gradient, ∇⋅ is divergence, ∇× is curl; the mass continuity equation is ∂ ρ ∂ t + ∇ ⋅ = 0. The Cauchy momentum equation is ρ v = J × B − ∇ p; the Lorentz force term J×B can be expanded using Ampere's law and the vector calculus identity 1 2 ∇ = B + B × to give J × B = B μ 0 − ∇, where the first term on the right hand side is the magnetic tension force and the second term is the magnetic pressure force. The ideal Ohm's law for a plasma is given by E + v × B = 0. Faraday's law is ∂ B ∂ t = − ∇ × E

Tougher Than Leather

Tougher Than Leather is the fourth studio album by hip hop group Run–D. M. C. Released on May 17, 1988 by Profile Records; the album was produced by Davy D. and Rick Rubin. While the new record did not maintain the same popularity as its predecessor, it obtained platinum status and spawned the favorites "Run's House" and "Mary, Mary". Despite being given a mixed reception at the time of its release, it is now hailed as a seminal classic in hip-hop and many see it as an underrated album. Tougher Than Leather peaked at number 9 on the US Billboard 200, number 2 on the Top R&B/Hip Hop Albums chart; the album was certified Platinum by the RIAA on July 19, 1988. The album features three the Billboard singles: "Run's House", "Mary, Mary" and "I'm Not Going Out Like That". "Run's House" and "Mary, Mary" hit the UK Singles Chart. The album was reissued by Arista Records in 1999 and 2003. An expanded and remastered edition was released in 2005 and contained 4 unreleased songs; the platinum-selling album, a follow-up to the group's big commercial breakthrough album 1986's Raising Hell, featured some of the group's classics like "Run's House", "Beats to the Rhyme", a cover of The Monkees's "Mary, Mary".

Tougher Than Leather was the group's fourth effort and blended in elements of not only rap but rock n' roll and funk, making it their most varied effort to date alongside King of Rock. "Papa Crazy" is based on "Papa" by The Temptations. The album was recorded at 5 studios in New York City: Chung King House Of Metal, Unique Recording Studios, Inc. Electric Lady Studios, Ian London Studios, Greene St. Recording. In response to albums such as Eric B. & Rakim's Paid In Full, Public Enemy's It Takes A Nation Of Millions To Hold Us Back, Boogie Down Productions' Criminal Minded and By All Means Necessary, the group made a distinct departure from their earlier work, as Jam-Master Jay used a heavier amount of sampling. Run and DMC made changes in their rapping style as techniques such as alliteration, polysyllabic rhyming, internal rhyme are found in songs like "I'm Not Going Out Like That," "Radio Station", the title track; the group introduces storytelling to their arsenal in "Ragtime". Despite this, Run-D.

M. C. Does not abandon their formula of combining hip-hop beats with hard rock guitar riffs, using it in "Miss Elaine", the title track, "Soul To Rock And Roll", "Mary, Mary"; the album was accompanied by the release of a crime film of the same name by New Line Cinema with Rick Rubin as a director and starring Run-D. M. C. According to the plot Run-D. M. C. Must find and punish the evil drug lord-record company executive who murdered their friend. Along the way, they encounter racist bikers, blonde bimbos, the Beastie Boys; the film was released on VHS on September 16, 1988. The information about samples was taken from WhoSampled; the information about bonus tracks was taken from a booklet of 2005 expanded deluxe edition. Notes: 1 - Charted with "Beats To The Rhyme" Tougher Than Leather at Discogs Tougher Than Leather at RapGenius Review of video, Video Review, Jan. 1989 Tougher Than Leather at the Internet Movie Database

Moro language

Moro is a Niger–Congo language in the Heiban family spoken by the Moro people in the Nuba Mountains of Kordofan, Sudan. There are 7 dialects of Moro. Ethnologue names are given in parentheses. Laiyənia or Layenia Tobəɽelda or Thetogovela Uləba Lənəbwa Nḏərria or Ndërria Ləmwarəŋ Ləŋorəban Each dialect corresponds to a separate clan, except for Ləmwarəŋ and Ləŋorəban, which are amalgamated into a single clan known as the Wërria. Thus, there is a total of 6 different clans. Blench, Roger. 2005. A dictionary of the Moro language of the Nuba hills, Sudan. M.s. Black, K. & K. Black 1971; the Moro language: grammar and dictionary. Khartoum: Sudan Research Unit. MacDiarmid, P. A. and D. N. Edwards, G. 1941. Moro Dictionary. Gibbard, Hannah Rohde & Sharon Rose.. Moro Noun Class Morphology. In M. Matondo, F. McLaughlin & E. Potsdam Selected Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference on African Linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 106-117. Guest, Elizabeth. 1997a. Moro Phonology. M.s. Guest, Elizabeth. 1997b. Moro Noun Classes.

M.s. Guest, Elizabeth. 1997c. Moro Verbs. M.s. Guest, Elizabeth. 1997d. Moro Verbs Lexicon. M.s. Guest, Elizabeth. 1997e. History of the Moro NT. m.s. Guest, Elizabeth. 1998. Miscellaneous Moro Grammar. M.s. Jenks, Peter. Noun phrases in Moro. In R. Blench & T. Schadeberg Languages of the Nuba Mountains. Jenks, Peter & Sharon Rose. High Tone in Moro: Effects of Prosodic Categories and Morphological Domains. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 29, 211-250. Jenks and Sharon Rose. Syllable Weight and High Tone in Moro. Papers from the 45th Chicago Linguistic Society. Rose, Sharon; the morphological structure of the Moro verb. In R. Blench & T. Schadeberg Languages of the Nuba Mountains. MacDiarmid. 1931. The languages of the Nuba Mountains. Sudan Notes and Records 14:149-162. Schadeberg, Thilo C. 1981. A Survey of Kordofanian. Volume 1: The Heiban Group. Hamburg: Helmut Buske. Stevenson, Roland C. 1956-57. "A survey of the phonetics and grammatical structures of the Nuba Mountain languages, with particular reference to Otoro and Nyimang".

Afrika und Übersee 40:73-84, 93-115. Strabone, Andrew & Sharon Rose.. Morpho-phonological properties of the Moro causative. Selected Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference on African Linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Moro Marriage notes Notes on Language Use in the Moro Community in Khartoum Moro Language Project Moro Story Corpus Moro materials

History of Sonora

This article details the history of Sonora. The Free and Sovereign State of Sonora is one of 31 states that, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico, it is divided into 72 municipalities. Sonora is located in Northwest Mexico, bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U. S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California. There are various possible histories as to the origin of the name Sonora. One states that the name was derived from "Nuestra Señora", the name given to the territory when Diego de Guzmán crossed the Yaqui River on 7 October, the day of Nuestra Señora del Rosario; the name's pronunciation may have changed in part because none of the indigenous languages of the area have the "ñ" sound. Another version states that Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his companions, who were wrecked on the Florida coast and made their way across the continent, were forced to cross present-day Sonora from north to south, carrying an image of Nuestra Señora de las Angustias on a cloth.

This group encountered the Opata people, who could not pronounced "Señora", instead saying Senora or Sonora. A third version, written by Father Cristóbal de Cañas in 1730, states that the name comes from the word for a natural water well, "sonot" which the Spanish modified to Sonora, it is not known. The first to use the name Sonora was explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado who passed through the state in 1540, calling part of the area the "Valle de La Sonora". In 1567, Francisco de Ibarra traveled through and referred to the "Valles of Señora". Evidence of human existence in the state dates back over 10,000 years, with some of the best known remains at the San Dieguito Complex in the El Pinacate Desert; the first humans were nomadic hunter gatherers and used stone and wooden tools. The oldest Clovis culture site in North America is believed to be El Fin del Mundo in northwestern Sonora, it features occupation dating around 13,390 calibrated years BP. In 2011, remains of Gomphothere were found.

In much of the prehistoric period, the environmental conditions were less severe than they are today. Vegetation was similar. Agriculture first appears around 400 200 CE in the river valleys. Ceramics developed after 750 CE and would diversity between 800 and 1350. Between 1100 and 1350, the region had small but somewhat complex villages, which were involved in well-developed trade networks. One exception to this was the lowland central coast, which never adopted agriculture. Sonora and much of the northwest is not considered to be part of Mesoamerica, with Guasave in Sinaloa the most northwestern Mesoamerican settlement known, but there is evidence of trade between the peoples of Sonora and Mesoamerica. Three distance cultures developed in the low flat areas of the state near the coast called the Trincheras tradition, the Huatabampo tradition and the Central Coast tradition; the Trincheras tradition is dated to between 750 and 1450 CE and known from sites in the Altar and Concepción valleys, but their range extended from the Gulf of California into northern Sonora.

The tradition is named after trenches found in a number of sites, the best known of, the Cerro de Trincheras. The Huatabampo tradition is centered south of the Trincheras along the coast, with sites along extinct lagoons and river valleys; the pottery is distinctive. The culture shows similarities with the Chametla to the Hohokam to the north, it disappeared around 1000 CE. Unlike the other two tradition, the Central Coast remained a hunter-gatherer culture, as the area lacks the resources for agriculture; the higher elevations of the state were dominated by the Río Casas Grandes traditions. The Río Sonora culture is located in central Sonora from the border area to modern Sinaloa. A beginning date for this culture has not been determined but it disappeared by the early 1300s; the Casas Grandes tradition in Sonora was an extension of that based in the modern state of Chihuahua, these people exerted their influence down to parts of the Sonoran coast. Climatic changes in the middle of the 15th century resulted in the increased desertification of Sonora and northwest Mexico in general.

This is the probable cause for the drastic decrease in the number and size of settlements starting around this time. Those peoples who remained in the area reverted to lifestyle. Whatever complex organization existed in Sonora before the Spanish was long gone by the 16th century. There is little reliable information about the area for the 16th century, just after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire; some state that the first Spanish settlement was founded by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1530, near Huépac. Others state that Francisco Vásquez de Coronado founded a village on the edge of the Yaqui River in 1540 on his way north... Others state that the first Spanish presence was not until 1614, by missionaries such as Pedro Méndez and Pérez de Rivas, working with the Mayo. Unlike Mesoamerica in central Mexico, there was no central social or economic centralization in the Sonora area, given the collapse of population centers in the 15th century; the five traditions of the past had broken down to a number of fractured ethnicities.

There was no empire or other system for the Spanish to co-opt for domination purposes. In addition, there was Yaqui resistance to European intrusion on

Coffin Texts

The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins beginning in the First Intermediate Period. They are derived from the earlier Pyramid Texts, reserved for royal use only, but contain substantial new material related to everyday desires, indicating a new target audience of common people. Ordinary Egyptians who could afford a coffin had access to these funerary spells and the pharaoh no longer had exclusive rights to an afterlife; as the modern name of this collection of some 1,185 spells implies, they were inscribed on Middle Kingdom coffins. They were sometimes written on tomb walls, canopic chests and mummy masks. Due to the limited writing surfaces of some of these objects, the spells were abbreviated, giving rise to long and short versions, some of which were copied in the Book of the Dead. In contrast to the Pyramid Texts which focus on the celestial realm, the coffin texts emphasize the subterranean elements of the afterlife ruled by the deity Osiris, in a place called the Duat.

An Osirian afterlife is offered to everyone, the deceased is referred to as "the Osiris-." This subterranean realm is described as being filled with threatening beings and snares with which the deceased must contend. The spells in the Coffin Texts allow the deceased to protect themselves against these dangers and "dying a second death". A new theme recorded in the coffin texts is the notion that all people will be judged by Osiris and his council according to their deeds in life; the texts allude to the use of a balance, which became the pivotal moment of judgment in the Book of the Dead. The texts address common fears of the living, such as having to do manual labor, with spells to allow the deceased to avoid these unpleasant tasks, they combine ritual actions intended as protection, expressions of aspiration for a blessed existence after death and of the transformations and transmigrations of the ba and akh and so on. In addition there are descriptions of the land of its landscape and inhabitants.

These include the paths of Rostau and the abode of Osiris. Coffin text 1130 is a speech by the sun god Ra, who says: Hail in peace! I repeat to you the good deeds which my own heart did for me from within the serpent-coil, in order to silence strife... I made the four winds, that every man might breathe in his time... I made the great inundation, that the humble might benefit by it like the great... I made every man like his fellow, it is their hearts which disobey what I have said... I have created the gods from my sweat, the people from the tears of my eye. Coffin text 1031 is spoken by the deceased, who replies: I shall sail rightly in my bark, I am lord of eternity in the crossing of the sky. I am not afraid in my limbs, for Hike overthrow for me that evil being. I shall see light-land, I shall dwell in it... Make way for me, that I may see Nun and Amun! For I am that Akh who passes by the guards... I am equipped and effective in opening his portal! As for any person who knows this spell, he will be like Re in the eastern sky, like Osiris in the netherworld.

He will go down to the circle of fire, without the flame touching him ever! A few coffins from the Middle Egyptian necropolis of el-Bersheh contain unique graphical representations of the realm of the afterlife, along with spells related to the journey of the deceased through the Duat; this collection, called the Book of Two Ways, was the first example of an Ancient Egyptian map of the underworld. The Book of Two Ways is a precursor to the New Kingdom books of the underworld as well as the Book of the Dead, in which descriptions of the routes through the afterlife are a persistent theme; the two ways depicted are the land and water routes, separated by a lake of fire, that lead to Rostau and the abode of Osiris. An Egyptian'map for the soul' was detected on two wooden panels with a mix of ancient hieroglyphs and symbols inside a 4000-year-old sarcophagus; the study, published in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, noted that these ancient depictions are the oldest copy of The Book of Two Ways.

Pyramid Texts The Book of the Dead Opening of the mouth ceremony Raymond O. Faulkner, "The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts", ISBN 0-85668-754-5, 3 vols. 1972-78. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, Erik Hornung, ISBN 0-8014-8515-0 The Egyptian Coffin Texts, edited by Adriaan de Buck and Alan Gardiner and published by the University of Chicago Oriental Institute Volume 1, Texts of Spells 1-75 Volume 2, Texts of Spells 76-163 Volume 3, Texts of Spells 164-267 Volume 4, Texts of Spells 268-354 Volume 5, Texts of Spells 355-471 Volume 6, Texts of Spells 472-787 Volume 7, Texts of Spells 787-1185 Volume 8, Middle Kingdom Copies of Pyramid Texts Coffin Texts The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Part I The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Part II The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Part III

L'Etat Et Moi

L'Etat Et Moi is Blumfeld's second album, released in 1994. The cover is a parody of Elvis Presley's 1959 album. All lyrics by Jochen Distelmeyer with music by Eike Bohlken, Jochen Distelmeyer and André Rattay "Draußen auf Kaution" - 5:24 "Jet Set" - 2:13 "2 oder 3 Dinge, die ich von Dir weiß" - 2:55 "Walkie, Talkie" - 3:24 "Eine eigene Geschichte" - 3:52 "Verstärker" - 4:50 "Ich-Wie es wirklich war" - 2:57 "L' Etat et Moi" - 5:25 "Sing Sing" - 5:14 "Evergreen" - 4:05 "Superstarfighter" - 2:44 "You Make Me" - 5:44 Jochen Distelmeyer - Vocals, Piano, Lyrics Eike Bohlken - Bass, Harmonica, Chorus vocals André Rattay - Drums, Percussion Blumfeld - Producer, Cover Design Chris Von Rautenkranz - Producer, Technician Svenja Rossa Rocko Schamoni Anne Schulte Katta Schulte Frank Spilker Ralf Vidakovicz Dirk von Lowtzow Pascal Fuhlbrügge Günther Jakob Schorsch Kamerun Tobias Levin Jutta Postel Tilman Rossmy L'Etat Et Moi at Discogs