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A magnetosphere is a region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field. It is created by a planet with an active interior dynamo. In the space environment close to a planetary body, the magnetic field resembles a magnetic dipole. Farther out, field lines can be distorted by the flow of electrically conducting plasma, as emitted from the Sun or a nearby star. E.g. the solar wind. Planets having active magnetospheres, like the Earth, are capable of mitigating or blocking the effects of solar radiation or cosmic radiation, that protects all living organisms from detrimental and dangerous consequences; this is studied under the specialized scientific subjects of plasma physics, space physics and aeronomy. Study of Earth's magnetosphere began in 1600, when William Gilbert discovered that the magnetic field on the surface of Earth resembled that on a terrella, a small, magnetized sphere. In the 1940s, Walter M. Elsasser proposed the model of dynamo theory, which attributes Earth's magnetic field to the motion of Earth's iron outer core.

Through the use of magnetometers, scientists were able to study the variations in Earth's magnetic field as functions of both time and latitude and longitude. Beginning in the late 1940s, rockets were used to study cosmic rays. In 1958, Explorer 1, the first of the Explorer series of space missions, was launched to study the intensity of cosmic rays above the atmosphere and measure the fluctuations in this activity; this mission observed the existence of the Van Allen radiation belt, with the follow up Explorer 3 that year definitively proving its existence. During 1958, Eugene Parker proposed the idea of the solar wind, with the term'magnetosphere' being proposed by Thomas Gold in 1959 to explain how the solar wind interacted with the Earth's magnetic field; the mission of Explorer 12 in 1961 led by the Cahill and Amazeen observation in 1963 of a sudden decrease in magnetic field strength near the noon-time meridian was named the magnetopause. By 1983, the International Cometary Explorer observed the magnetotail, or the distant magnetic field.

Magnetospheres are dependent on several variables: the type of astronomical object, the nature of sources of plasma and momentum, the period of the object's spin, the nature of the axis about which the object spins, the axis of the magnetic dipole, the magnitude and direction of the flow of solar wind. The planetary distance where the magnetosphere can withstand the solar wind pressure is called the Chapman–Ferraro distance; this is usefully modeled by the formula wherein R P represents the radius of the planet, B s u r f represents the magnetic field on the surface of the planet at the equator, V S W represents the velocity of the solar wind: R C F = R P 1 6 A magnetosphere is classified as "intrinsic" when R C F ≫ R P, or when the primary opposition to the flow of solar wind is the magnetic field of the object. Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune, for example, exhibit intrinsic magnetospheres. A magnetosphere is classified as "induced" when R C F ≪ R P, or when the solar wind is not opposed by the object's magnetic field.

In this case, the solar wind interacts with the ionosphere of the planet. Venus has an induced magnetic field, which means that because Venus appears to have no internal dynamo effect, the only magnetic field present is that formed by the solar wind's wrapping around the physical obstacle of Venus; when R C F ≈ R P, the planet itself and its magnetic field both contribute. It is possible; the bow shock forms the outermost layer of the magnetosphere. For stars, this is the boundary between the stellar wind and interstellar medium; the magnetosheath is the region of the magnetosphere between the magnetopause. It is formed from shocked solar wind, though it contains a small amount of plasma from the magnetosphere, it is an area exhibiting high particle energy flux, where the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field varies erratically. This is caused by the collection of solar wind gas that has undergone thermalization, it acts as a cushion that transmits the pressure from the flow of the solar wind and the barrier of the magnetic field from the object.

The magnetopause is the area of the magnetosphere wherein the pressure from the planetary magnetic field is balanced with the p

KT Tunstall's Acoustic Extravaganza

KT Tunstall's Acoustic Extravaganza is a collection album by Scottish singer-songwriter KT Tunstall released 15 May 2006 and was only available through her website. The CD comes with a DVD which includes the making of the album and features about her songs and her equipment, namely her AKAI E2 headrush loop pedal, known as her "Wee Bastard"; the Acoustic Extravaganza version of "Universe & U" was featured in a season 2 episode, "Deterioration of the Fight or Flight Response" of Grey's Anatomy, is featured in the Volume 2 Soundtrack. "Golden Age" is a Beck cover from the 2002 album Sea Change. The album carries a "Parental Advisory" label, as the words "ass" and "fuck" are present in its first track, "Ashes". CD "Ashes" – 3:34 "Girl and the Ghost" – 4:14 "One Day" – 5:02 "Golden Age" – 5:00 "Boo Hoo" – 4:56 "Gone to the Dogs" – 3:59 "Change" – 3:44 "Miniature Disasters" – 4:32 "Universe & U" – 4:31 "Throw Me a Rope" – 3:43 DVD "Five Go to Skye" "Gone to the Dogs" "Throw Me a Rope" "The Wee Bastard Pedal" "Out-takes" KT Tunstall — vocals, guitar Luke Bullendrums, cajon Kenny Dickenson — Trumpet, backing vocals, glockenspiel, hammond organ, melodica Arnulf Lindner — Double bass Sam Lewis — Lead guitar Donna Maciocia — backing vocals - lead singer of Amplifico Chris Harley — Shaker KT Tunstall Official website Amplifico Official website

Bryan Murphy (Gaelic footballer)

Bryan Murphy is an Irish Gaelic football manager and former dual player of hurling and Gaelic football who played for club sides Bishopstown and Clane. He was a member of the Kildare senior football team for six years, while he lined out with the Cork senior hurling team and the Cork senior football team. University College CorkFitzgibbon Cup: 1990, 1991ClaneKildare Senior Football Championship: 1997CorkMunster Senior Hurling Championship: 1992 All-Ireland Junior Football Championship: 1993 Munster Junior Football Championship: 1993 All-Ireland Minor Hurling Championship: 1985 Munster Minor Hurling Championship: 1985 Munster Minor Football Championship: 1985KildareLeinster Senior Football Championship: 1998, 2000

Farr Building (Allentown Pennsylvania)

The Farr Building is a historical building, located in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Opened in 1907, today it is used for retail and residential space; the building was constructed in 1906-1907. It was built by Harvey H. and Jacob L. Farr Jr. whose father, Jacob Farr Sr. had opened a shoe business in Allentown at the same location in June 1862. Jacob Farr had learned the shoe trade in Philadelphia in 1852, he operated the business at the site during the industrial revolution years of the late 19th Century, passing the business down to his family upon his death in April 1889 at the age of 51. The family brought in a business partner, Nathan Hass, the business was named Farr, Hass & Company. In 1898, the business was expanded to large-scale manufacturing of shoes, with the organization of the Leigh Valley Shoe Company, located at Chestnut and Howard streets in Allentown. Farr manufactured 1,000 shoes a day, sold them both at the store on 8th and Hamilton as well as distributing them to other stores in the area.

When describing the business, the owners stated that "There is nothing in the line of ladies' men's and children's shoes that cannot be supplied to their large trade from their establishment." In 1900 Nathan Hass and Harvey Farr dissolved the partnership by mutual consent after Hass purchased the Cross Keys Hotel on the northwest corner of Eighth and Hamilton streets from the Hagenbuch family, who had operated a tavern and the hotel at the site since about 1800. Hass tore down the hotel and erected a five-story building in 1901 and opened N. A. Hass & Son, a competitive shoe business that he operated until 1912 when Hass sold the property and retired from the shoe business. In 1900 when Hass left the Farr company, Edgar Wenner was brought in by the family to replace him, the company was renamed Farr Brothers' and Co. By this time the business had expanded beyond its existing building, a new, larger five-story building was constructed that exists on the site today, it was designed by Allentown architects Lange.

The Farr company occupied the first floor with a retail store, the basement held the stockroom and company offices were on the fifth floor. The second and fourth floors were rented space for business offices; the company opened a store in Bethlehem in 1919. The company's slogan was "Better Shoes By Farr"; the building was remodeled in 1932, again in 1965. The company thrived until the 1970s, as with most downtown Allentown businesses, the central shopping district along Hamilton street suffered from the suburbanization and the building of shopping malls, which drew shoppers away from the downtown. In December 1985, the company announced that the store at 8th and Hamilton streets would end full retail service and become a self-service store; the company was sold to a New York firm, the Farr family leaving the shoe business. In 1988, the building was taken over by a speculator. A family member, Harvey Farr, re-acquired the property. In August 1992, Farr sold the property to D. E. Jones Company, a "poor man's Kmart" and used the store for selling discounted merchandise.

By this time, the upper four floors were abandoned. In 2004, the building was sold to Metropolis Management LLC, a development firm from New York City with a history of preserving historic structures; the property was renovated and was retrofitted into luxury loft-style apartments. On December 1, 2005, the Farr Lofts were inaugurated with a public showing of a finished 2-bedroom model unit. An additional 19 units began occupancy in early 2006; the ground floor is used as "The Villa" urban clothing store. In 2011, when demolition began for the PPL Center, an entire block along the north side of Hamilton Street between 7th and 8th streets was demolished except for The Farr Building and Dime Savings and Trust Company, it was noted that "... Because of the improvements that have been made, it is the most valuable property on the block". During the physical demolition work of buildings for the Arena in 2012, it was found that the east wall of the Farr Building required additional shoring, the wall was strengthened by a structural engineering team brought in to insure the building's stability.

A historical plaque on the side of the building along North 8th Street states that "On this site was located one of four hospitals for soldiers of the Continental Army." The plaque was placed on the building in 1925 by the "Citizens of Allentown and Liberty Bell Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution". Historical and Notable Sites in Allentown, Pennsylvania

Surfing locations in the Capes region of South West Western Australia

Most surf breaks in the Capes region – from Cape Naturaliste to Cape Leeuwin – within the larger area known as the South West region of Western Australia tend to have the name Margaret River attached, despite the wide geographic range of locations where the breaks are located. Surfing in this region was well established in the 1970s, with a 1970 government mapping guide to the region identifying surfing locations. By the 1990s the names of the individual breaks were so well established that online and published guides were able to locate and identify the behaviours of the breaks; the surfing culture of the region is well embedded in the communities along the coast. The roads named below run off the main western route between Dunsborough and Augusta; the identification of nearby roads does not guarantee that there is access to any of these locations. Some systems in describing locations, have Margaret River North - this list divides as below, using Yalingup, Gracetown, as boundaries of smaller surfing regions.

The Ngari Capes Marine Park has some many of the breaks listed below in the Special Purpose Zone locations in the park. These breaks are in the north-west corner of Geographe Bay, sheltered by Cape Naturaliste, are not directly exposed to westerly winds or surges. Castle Rock – north of Dunsborough, south of Eagle Bay Rocky Point – north of Eagle Bay, east of Bunker Bay The Farm and Bone Yards – east of Bunker Bay The Quarries – north-west corner of Bunker Bay These breaks are in an isolated difficult access area of the coast north of Yallingup. Windmills – north of Sugarloaf Rock Three Bears – midway between Sugarloaf and Yallingup Yallingup and Rabbit Hill – just north of Yallingup The beaches Three Bears, Smiths Beach and Injidup are all considered "beaches of Yallingup" with related surf breaks of the same names; these breaks are more accessible, but not all. Smiths and Supertubes – at Smiths Beach Injidup Point/Carparks and Pea Break – south end of Indijup Beach and just north of Cape Clairault Cape Clairault – just south of location with same name Wildcat and The Window – west of Quinninup Road Moses Rock – at west end of road with same name Honeycombs – isolated and south of Moses Rock Road Gallows – at end of Cullen Road Guillotine – west of Juniper Road North Point – at northern side of Cowaramup Bay Mousetraps – south of Supertubes Gracetown is a locality on the coastline on Cowaramup Bay, Margaret River Mouth is the location of Prevelly Cowaramup Bombora South Point and Huzzawouie – southern side of Cowaramup Bay Left Handers – south of Cowaramup Bay The Womb Ellensbrook - The Box – at Cape Mentelle The Rivermouth Just south of the Margaret river mouth, Surfers Point is the location of the Margaret River Pro surfing events and the central point by which tourism promotion, simplified explanations of the surfing region focus upon.

Surfers Point and Southside Bombies and Boatramp Grunters Gas Bay Boodjidup Redgate Breaks and locations between Redgate and Cape Hamelin are more spread out, not as accessed as some northern breaks. Conto's Beach – just north of Cape Freycinet Boranup – north of Hamelin Bay Deepdene – just south of Cape Hamelin Note: these items occur in multiple editions, the editions here might not reflect either the most recent or most accurate guides to locations or names. Blair, Wave-finder: Australia, Hedonist Surf Co, ISBN 978-0-9581726-6-0 Rennie, The surfer's travel guide Australia, Liquid Addictions, ISBN 978-0-9577754-8-0 Thornley, Mark.

Nigeria at the 2012 Summer Olympics

Nigeria competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. This was the nation's fifteenth appearance at the Olympics. Nigeria missed the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal because of the African boycott; the Nigerian Olympic Committee sent the nation's smallest delegation to the Games since 1984. A total of 53 athletes, 30 men and 23 women, competed in 8 sports. Men's basketball was the only team-based sport in which Nigeria was represented at these Olympic Games. Among the eight sports played by the athletes, Nigeria marked its official Olympic debut in slalom canoeing; the Nigerian team featured two Olympic medalists from Beijing: taekwondo jin Chika Chukwumerije, who served as the nation's team captain, long jumper Blessing Okagbare. Table tennis player Segun Toriola, the oldest member of the team, at age 37, became the first Nigerian athlete to compete in six Olympic games. Toriola's fellow table tennis player Olufunke Oshonaike made her fifth Olympic appearance, making her the nation's oldest and most experienced female athlete.

Freestyle wrestler Sinivie Boltic was Nigeria's first male flag bearer at the opening ceremony since 2000. Nigeria failed to win a single medal for the first time in Olympic history since 1988, after achieving poor athletic performance at these Games. Triple jumper Tosin Oke, the women's sprint relay team, weightlifter Felix Ekpo qualified for the final rounds of their respective events, but missed out of the medal standings. Following the athletes' lackluster performance, President Goodluck Jonathan "called for a complete overhaul of Nigerian sports administration". A few weeks after the Olympics, the Nigerian athletes, were able to recapture the nation's sporting success at the Paralympics, as they had earned a total of twelve medals, including six golds. Nigerian athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events: KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road eventsField eventsWomen Track & road eventsField eventsCombined events – Heptathlon RosterThe following is the Nigeria roster in the men's basketball tournament of the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Group play Nigeria has so far qualified boxers for the following events MenWomen Nigeria has qualified boats for the following events Nigeria has so far qualified two men and two women. Nigeria has qualified 2 athletes. Nigeria has qualified the following quota places. Nigeria has qualified the following quota places. Key: VT - Victory by Fall. PP - Decision by Points - the loser with technical points. PO - Decision by Points - the loser without technical points. Men's freestyleWomen's freestyle Nigeria at the 2012 Summer Paralympics