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Magnus IV of Sweden

Magnus IV was King of Sweden from 1319 to 1364, King of Norway as Magnus VII from 1319 to 1355, ruler of Scania from 1332 to 1360. By adversaries he has been called Magnus Smek. Referring to Magnus Eriksson as Magnus II is incorrect; the Swedish Royal Court lists three Swedish kings before him of the same name. A few authors do not count Magnus Nelson as a Swedish king and have thus called this king Magnus III, he is the second longest-reigning monarch in Swedish history, only surpassed by the current king Carl XVI Gustaf. Magnus was born in Norway in April or May 1316 to Eric, Duke of Södermanland and Ingeborg, a daughter of Haakon V of Norway. Magnus was elected king of Sweden on 8 July 1319, acclaimed as hereditary king of Norway at the thing of the Haugating in Tønsberg in August of the same year. Under the regencies of his grandmother, Helwig of Holstein, his mother, Ingeborg of Norway, the countries were ruled by Knut Jonsson and Erling Vidkunsson. Magnus was declared to have come of age at 15 in 1331.

This provoked resistance in Norway, where a statute from 1302 stipulated that a king came of age at the age of 20, a rising by Erling Vidkunsson and other Norwegian nobles ensued. In 1333, the rebels submitted to King Magnus. In 1332 the King of Denmark, Christopher II, died as a "king without a country" after he and his older brother and predecessor had pawned Denmark piece by piece. King Magnus took advantage of his neighbour's distress, redeeming the pawn for the eastern Danish provinces for a huge amount of silver, thus became ruler of Scania. On 21 July 1336 Magnus was crowned king of both Sweden in Stockholm; this caused further resentment in Norway, where the nobles and magnates desired a separate Norwegian coronation. A second rising by members of the high nobility of Norway ensued in 1338. In 1335 he married Blanche of Namur, daughter of John I, Marquis of Namur, Marie of Artois, a descendant of Louis VIII of France; the wedding took place in October or early November 1335 at Bohus castle.

As a wedding gift Blanche received the province of Tunsberg in Lödöse in Sweden as fiefs. They had two sons and Haakon, plus at least three daughters who died in infancy and were buried at Ås Abbey. Opposition to Magnus' rule in Norway led to a settlement between the king and the Norwegian nobility at Varberg on 15 August 1343. In violation of the Norwegian laws on royal inheritance, Magnus' younger son Haakon would become king of Norway, with Magnus as regent during his minority; the same year, it was declared that Magnus' older son, Eric would become king of Sweden on Magnus' death. Thus, the union between Norway and Sweden would be severed; this occurred when Haakon came of age in 1355. Because of the increase in taxes to pay for the acquisition of the Scanian province, some Swedish nobles supported by the Church attempted to oust Magnus, setting up his elder son Erik Magnusson as king, but Eric died of the plague in 1359, with his wife Beatrice of Bavaria and their two sons. On 12 August 1323, Magnus concluded the first treaty between Sweden and Novgorod at Nöteborg where Lake Ladoga empties into the Neva River.

The treaty delineated spheres of influence among the Finns and Karelians and was supposed to be an "eternal peace", but Magnus' relations with Russia were not so peaceful. In 1337, religious strife between Orthodox Karelians and the Swedes led to a Swedish attack on the town of Korela and Viborg, in which the Novgorodian and Ladogan merchants there were slaughtered. A Swedish commander named Sten captured the fortress at Orekhov. Negotiations with the Novgorodian mayor Fedor were inconclusive and the Swedes attacked Karelians around Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega before a peace was concluded in 1339 along the old terms of the 1323 treaty. In this treaty, the Swedes claimed that Sten and others acted on their own without the consent of the king. In 1335, Magnus outlawed Thralldom for thralls "born by Christian parents" in Västergötland and Värend, being the last parts of Sweden where slavery had remained legal; this put an end to Medieval Swedish slavery - though it was only applicable within the borders of Sweden, which left an opening - used long afterwards - for the 17th and 18th Century Swedish slave trade.

Relations were quiet between Sweden and Novgorod until 1348, when Magnus led a crusade against Novgorod, marching up the Neva, forcibly converting the tribes along that river, capturing the fortress of Orekhov for a second time. The Novgorodians retook the fortress in 1349 after a seven-month siege, Magnus fell back, in large part due to the ravages of the plague farther West. While he spent much of 1351 trying to drum up support for further crusading action among the German cities in the Baltic States, he never returned to attack Novgorod. In 1355 Magnus sent a ship to Greenland to inspect its Eastern Settlements. Sailors found settlements Norse and Christian; the Greenland carrier made the Greenland run at intervals till 1369, when she sank and was not replaced. King Valdemar IV of Denmark reconquered Scania in 1360, he went on to conquer Gotland in 1361. On 27 July 1361, outside the city of Visby, the main city of the final battle took place, it ended in a complete victory for Valdemar. Magnus had warned the inhabitants of Visby in a letter and started to gather troops to reconquer Scania.

Valdemar took a lot of plunder with him. Either in late 136

Siargao Island Institute of Technology

The Siargao Island Institute of Technology is located on the north side of the Dapa township. Most of its buildings are in the northwest corner of Dapa, but some are spread across the north side of the town, it was in the summer of 1995 when the idea of putting up a school for the welfare of poor but deserving students in Siargao and Bucas Grande Islands, Surigao del Norte came about. It was a brainchild of Department of Education and Sports – Caraga Regional Director Dr. Sol Matugas; the school, which came to be known as the Siargao Island Institute of Technology was born with the help of the director's son Francisco Jose Matugas, plus the financial support of the Siargao Foundation set up by her husband, former Surigao del Norte Governor Francisco Matugas. Harnessing her expertise in documentation, in compliance with permit application requirements, in the installation of all necessary equipment and facilities prescribed by the Commission on Higher Education, Dr. Matugas obtained permits to offer Bachelor in Elementary Education, Bachelor in Secondary Education and Associate in Computer Science courses by June 1996.

Classes during its first year of operation were held in three classrooms at Gerona Building along Sto. Nino Street in Dapa, Surigao del Norte; the late Dr. Genevieve Guda was designated as the School Director. With her were three full-time teachers Raul de Castro, Jr. Jonathan Etcuban and Rey Baquirquir from Cebu City. Part-time teachers from the island were hired to complement the teaching staff. In just a matter of eight years since it opened with only 148 students, SIIT’s enrolment quadrupled to over 500 students by 2003; the phenomenal growth in enrolment was brought about by the expansion of course offerings. This required the opening of additional classrooms in two more buildings along Sto. Nino Street. On March 20, 1998, the first Commencement Exercises were held for the 15 graduates of its two-year Associate in Computer Science course. Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Regional Director Enrique Einar was the commencement speaker; the year 2000 marked a new milestone in the history of SIIT, when the government granted recognition to its two-year Computer Secretarial course.

With an initial enrollment of only 15 students, it did not take long for the new program to attract about 50 students. It was during this year when the first batch of candidates for graduation from the baccalaureate degrees received their diplomas. Twelve students graduated with the degree of BSEd and 43 graduated with the degree of BSEEd; the candidates took pride in having Regional Director Joanna Cuenca of the Commission on Higher Education, Caraga Region, as their commencement speaker. By 2003, permits were issued allowing SIIT to offer two new four-year courses, Bachelor of Science in Office Administration and Bachelor of Science in Criminology. Two thousand five was yet another turning point in the history of the institute when the construction of the new Don Mariano Matugas building was completed; the availability of more classrooms, new equipment and other facilities, including an Internet facility, encouraged more students to study at SIIT, which resulted in an increase of enrolment from 500 to 700 during the first semester of academic year 2005-2006.

Despite the continuing economic downturn that affected enrolment of other tertiary schools with higher tuition fees, SIIT’s enrolment continually grew due to the opening of more academic programs, such as the Bachelor of Science in Computer Science, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, majors in Biology and Physics for BSEd, plus the two-year Licensed Practical Nursing Course, duly accredited by TESDA. Other schools’ loss became SIIT’s gain because students who could no longer afford their tuition fees had to turn to SIIT as a fallback for their continued studies. In order to keep pace with the rapid advancement in communications and information technology, SIIT pioneered the establishment of an Internet facility in the entire Siargao and Bucas Grande Islands; the islands, which compose the First District of the province of Surigao del Norte, is home to nine municipalities – General Luna, Del Carmen, San Benito, Burgos, San Isidro, Sta. Monica and Dapa, the latter being the center of commerce and industry.

Although the air-conditioned Internet cafe is for the use of SIIT students, it is available to the public during off-peak hours on school days and on Saturdays and legal holidays. Despite the availability of four college annex buildings where the administrative offices and classrooms are located, enrolment growth, projected to increase by at least 30 percent this coming AY 2007-2008 will need more classrooms. Having anticipated such an increase, a new 10-classroom building is targeted to commence construction by early next year, it will be erected side by side with the present main Don Mariano Matugas Building. Meanwhile, blueprints for the renovation and redesign of at least two of the four existing college campuses have been made. Carpentry and masonry jobs are complete to conform with the recommendations of the Regional Quality Assessment Team, such that academic programs with more students like the B. S. Criminology will have its offices and classrooms in just one building or campus; the expected increase in enrolment this June will be due to the opening of a number of one-year and two-year ladderized programs under TESDA.

The program designs are leading to four-year degree academic programs under CHED. Such programs include, among others, the one-year and two-year Security Services leading t

Love's Dying Wish

Love's Dying Wish is the second full-length studio album by Tony Harnell led heavy metal band Starbreaker, released on August 1, 2008. It is the follow-up to their self-titled debut album from 2005; the line-up on this album is the same except Jonni Lightfoot. Tony Harnell has stated in an interview that "the album is a lot more aggressive than the first one". "End of Alone" - 4:24 "Evaporate" - 4:00 "Love's Dying Wish" - 4:07 "Unknown Superstar" - 4:24 "Hide" - 4:18 "Building a Wall" - 4:33 "Beautiful Disaster" - 4:09 "Live Your Life" - 4:00 "Hello, Are You Listening?" - 3:54 "Changes Me" - 4:41 "The Day Belongs to Us" - 4:41 "This Close" - 5:06 Tony Harnell - lead vocals Magnus Karlsson - guitars, piano Jonni Lightfoot - bass John Macaluso - drums, percussion

Television in Lebanon

Television in Lebanon arose as a private initiative and not a state-institution. Lebanon was the first country in the Middle East & the Arab world to have indigenous television broadcasting. Various Arab televisions emulated the Lebanese model. There are two significant television platforms in Lebanon: analogue free satellite. There is a high penetration of cable television, but because of the high prevalence of cable theft the official penetration rate is low, at less than 5%. More than 90% of Lebanese households have access to satellite television. There are 22 free-to-air satellite channels headquartered in Lebanon. There is one government-owned television channel, Tele Liban, established in 1957. Several TV channels are politically affiliated, political parties are an important source of funding. LBCI International, was launched in 1985, was the first private network in Lebanon; some other Lebanese channels include MTV Al Lubnaniya, Future TV, Al Manar TV, NBN, Al Jadeed TV and Orange TV. Domestic channels, in particular LBCI, have been the most popular, as opposed to most other Arab countries where pan-Arab channels dominate.

Despite that, large pan-Arab broadcasters, in particular MBC channels, have proven popular with satellite viewers. While television in the Arab world was a government monopoly, Lebanon was an exception. In 1956, the Lebanese government granted broadcast licenses to two private companies, La Compagnie Libanaise de Télévision and Compagnie de Télévision du Liban et du Proche-Orient. CLT began broadcasting on May 28, 1959, making it the first commercial television station in the Arabic-speaking world. Soon after Télé-Orient, with financing from the American Broadcasting Company, began broadcasting. CLT, licensed to Alex Aridi and Wissam Izzedine, operated two VHF channels, Canal 7 and Canal 9. Canal 9 was a French-language channel. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, media production migrated from Cairo to Beirut. In 1967, CLT became the third television station in the world after the Soviet Union and France to broadcast in color, utilizing the French SECAM technology. Export of taped programming to other Arab countries was profitable during this decade.

Both CLT and Tele Orient sold locally produced programs to television institutions in the Arab world. During the war, rival factions utilized broadcast media for their own purposes. In 1976, Brigadier General El Ahdab staged a coup, demanding the resignation of then-President Suleiman Franjieh. El Ahdab announced the coup on television after his forces overtook CLT, a private television company. In retaliation, supporters of President Franjieh took control of Télé-Orient, this split continued until the election of President Elias Sarkis. Due to the political strife, both CLT and Télé-Orient were facing financial difficulties so in 1977, both stations came to an agreement with the Lebanese government to merge into one national television station, named Télé-Liban. Despite the war, Lebanese telenovelas were shown across the Arab world. One of the most popular television shows of this period was Studio El Fan, a singing competition show. Additionally, media entrepreneurs in Lebanon, sometimes financed by Kuwaitis, began importing and dubbing foreign productions into Arabic.

Nicholas Abu Samah, owner of Filmali, was a pioneer of video dubbing into Arabic. Filmali dubbed a series of anime, such as Arabian Nights: Sinbad's Adventures, Maya the Honey Bee, Grendizer that were exported to national televisions across the Arab world. Télé Liban broadcast a large number of American programs and films in the early eighties, such as Dallas, Fame, Falcon Crest, Flamingo Road, The Love Boat, Happy Days, Solid Gold, Roots. Télé Liban would remain the only TV station in Lebanon until 1985 when the Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation, began broadcasting programs, albeit without a license and thus illegally. LBCI ended Télé Liban's monopoly and became Lebanon's most watched channel due to its advanced technology, innovative programming and coverage of the news. Television production companies continued to dub anime series, such as Hello! Sandybell and Belle and Sebastian, to export them to Arab televisions. After the war, Lebanon emerged as the country with the most liberal media in the region.

In the early nineties, there were 54 television stations operating in the country. In 1994, Lebanon once again legalized private ownerships of radio and television stations, making it the only country in the Arab world to do so at the time; the Audiovisual Media Law of 1994 not only regulated the airwaves, but ended the state's monopoly over broadcast television, in effect since 1977. Two years the government passed a similar law addressing satellite television stations. In 1996, the Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation became the first Arab satellite station to broadcast from the Arab world. MBC was broadcasting from London and ART from Italy. Soon after owned Future Television began broadcasting from Beirut to the Arab world and along with LBC changed viewing patterns across Arab countries, in Arab states of the Persian Gulf. Lebanon offered Gulf viewers a view into a much more open-minded and liberal, Arabic-speaking society—with different dress-codes and values—that was distant enough geographically not to be threatening to their own values.

With Lebanon's private satellite television stations broadcasting unique and innovative programming out of Lebanon, the country gained regional influence disproportionate to its small population and geographic size. The Pan-Arab reach that Lebanese television quickly

Glen Joseph

Glen Robinson is an English actor, director and broadcaster. Joseph trained at the Guildford School of Acting, graduating with first class honours in 2007, he won the Sir John Gielgud Award for Musical Theatre in 2008. For many years Joseph has toured the UK and the World, playing the titular role of Buddy Holly in Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story. Joseph is one of three owners of PROGRESS Wrestling, a professional wrestling company based in London, he is the lead commentator for the company, executive producer. The company was formed by Jim Smallman and Jon Briley in March 2012, with Joseph joining them in May of that year. Joseph works for WWE as a producer for their NXT UK brand. In 2014 Joseph released his debut EP, Under Nashville Skies, which reached the top ten of the iTunes country music chart upon its release. Official website

Pietro degli Antonii

Pietro degli Antonii was an Italian composer. Pietro degli Antonii, son of a trombonist, spent his entire life in Bologna where he was born and died and around 1670 became a member of the prestigious Accademia Filarmonica, of which he was elected chairman several times, he was director of music in three important churches in his home town. With his brother Giovanni Battista degli Antonii and Giovanni Battista Vitali, he is regarded as an important representative of the Bolognese School after Maurizio Cazzati, his main merit is his contribution to the development of the sonata da chiesa and the sonata da camera. His preference for slow, melodious movements based on singing is noteworthy, thus a trio sonata published in 1680 bears the movement names Largo - Lento - Grave - Lento - Grave. In addition to instrumental compositions, he created numerous cantatas. Arie, Balletti, Allemande, e Sarabande a violino, e violone, ò spinetta con il secondo violino à beneplacito... Opera Prima Messa e Salmi Concertati à trè voci, due canti, e basso...

Opera Seconda Balletti, Correnti, et Arie diverse à violino, e violone per camera, et anco per suonare nella spinetta, et altri istromenti... Opera Terza Sonate a violino solo con il basso continuo per l'organo... Opera Quarta. Suonate a violino solo col basso continuo per l'organo... Opera Quinta Cantate da camera a voce sola... Opera Sesta Motetti sacri a voce sola con violini, viole, e violoncello obbligato... Opera Settima Messe Concertate à 3. Voci, due canti, e basso... Opera Ottava Il San Rocco Priggionia e morte di S. Rocco Il Nabal overo L'ingratitudine punita L'innocenza depressa Prologo ed intermedj... per L'Inganno fortunato Atide Sonaten für Violine & B. c. Op. 4 Nr. 1–12 Ensemble Il Coro d'Arcadia Label, Brillant Classics, 2014 Free scores by Pietro degli Antonii at the International Music Score Library Project Pietro Degli Antoni on Classical Archives