Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are bilaterally symmetric coelomates, in the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized via segmentation. There are additional extinct taxa, the Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata, consisting of chordates with a skull, the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, the worlds largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans. Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion, which includes the acorn worms, has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but it now is usually treated as a separate phylum. The Hemichordata, along with the Echinodermata, form the Ambulacraria, the Chordata and Ambulacraria form the superphylum Deuterostomia, composed of the deuterostomes.
Attempts to work out the relationships of the chordates have produced several hypotheses. All of the earliest chordate fossils have found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna. Because the fossil record of early chordates is poor, only molecular phylogenetics offers a prospect of dating their emergence. However, the use of molecular phylogenetics for dating evolutionary transitions is controversial and it has proved difficult to produce a detailed classification within the living chordates. Attempts to produce family trees shows that many of the traditional classes are paraphyletic. While this has been known since the 19th century, an insistence on only monophyletic taxa has resulted in vertebrate classification being in a state of flux. Although the name Chordata is attributed to William Bateson, it was already in prevalent use by 1880, ernst Haeckel described a taxon comprising tunicates and vertebrates in 1866. Though he used the German vernacular form, it is allowed under the ICZN code because of its subsequent latinization, among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, and in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail.
In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the pharynx is the part of the throat immediately behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, a muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. This is a groove in the wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus and it stores iodine, and may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland
The Eurasian magpie or common magpie is a resident breeding bird throughout Europe, much of Asia and northwest Africa. It is one of several birds in the crow family designated magpies, in Europe, magpie is used by English speakers as a synonym for the European magpie, the only other magpie in Europe is the Iberian magpie, which is limited to the Iberian peninsula. The Eurasian magpie is one of the most intelligent birds, the expansion of its nidopallium is approximately the same in its relative size as the brain of chimpanzees and humans. The magpie was described and illustrated by Swiss naturalist Conrad Gesner in his Historiae animalium of 1555, in 1758 Linnaeus included the species in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae under the binomial name Corvus pica. The magpie was moved to a separate genus Pica by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760, Pica is the Classical Latin word for this magpie. The Eurasian magpie is almost identical in appearance to the North American black-billed magpie, an analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences published in 2003 confirmed that the black-billed magpie and the yellow-billed magpie were closely related to each other.
The study found that magpies in Korea are as different from the subspecies as they are to the North America magpie species. These results imply that the species Pica pica is not monophyletic, Magpies were originally known as simply pies. This comes from a root meaning pointed, in reference to either the beak or the tail. Pie as a term for the dates to the thirteenth century. The adult male of the subspecies, P. p. pica, is 44–46 cm in length. The graduated tail is black, glossed green and reddish purple. The legs and bill are black, the iris is dark brown, the plumage of the sexes is similar but females are slightly smaller. The tail feathers of both sexes are quite long, about 12-28 cm long, males of the nominate subspecies weigh 210–272 g while females weigh 182–214 g. The young resemble the adults, but are at first without much of the gloss on the sooty plumage, the young have the malar region pink, and somewhat clear eyes. The tail is shorter than the adults. The subspecies differ in their size, the amount of white on their plumage and the colour of the gloss on their black feathers.
The northwest African race P. p. mauritanica differs from the subspecies in having a patch of blue bare skin behind the eye, no white patch on the rump
Artamidae is a family of passerine birds found in Australia, the Indo-Pacific region, and Southern Asia. It includes 23 extant species in four genera and two subfamilies and Cracticinae, Artamids used to be monotypic, containing only the woodswallows, but it was expanded to include the family Cracticidae in 1994. Some authors, still treat the two as separate families, some species in this family are known for their beautiful song. Their feeding habits vary from nectar sucking to predation on small birds, the Artamids are part of the Malaconotoidea superfamily, consisting of a vast diversity of omnivores and carnivorous songbirds widespread through Australasia. Artamids has been divided over time two subfamilies. With little studies and dispute on the inclusion of Cracticidae to the Artamidae family, jerome Fuchs and colleagues extensively analysed both the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of the Artamid family. The social interactions of Artamids vary from the black butcherbird, which lives alone or in a single pair, to the white-breasted woodswallow.
Their range of habitats varies between species but most will adapt to rain forests, coastal scrubs, playing fields, pastoral land, some species have adapted to urban landscapes where they contend with fragmented and degraded remnants of native vegetation. Artamids are a diverse family showing a notable variation in size, the beaks of artamids are strong and robust, sometimes known as a generalist beak. Like falcons, some of the subfamily Cracticinae possess a sharp projection along the upper mandible and this hook-like tooth is used to catch and fatally sever the bodies of insects and small mammals. Because they possess a syrinx, Artamids, in particular the pied butcherbird, the pied currawong, uniquely among other perching birds, some woodswallows possess special feathers called powder down. The tips of the barbules on powder down feathers disintegrate, forming fine particles of keratin, the plumage of the Artamids is relatively dull, most birds showing a combination of greys, earthy browns and patches of white.
There is seldom sexual dimorphism in plumage, but when it occurs the males are brighter, in many species juveniles have a distinctly duller plumage. Members of the Artamidae, especially the woodswallows, have known to cluster together during the night. Accounts have appeared in literature from the earliest days of ornithological documentation in Australia, the habit of clustering is believed to serve two purposes, retaining body heat during cooler weather and as a social form of camouflage. Another unusual behaviour exhibited by an Artamid is the swooping on humans by magpies, while there is not much information on this behaviour, previous studies have suggested that magpie attacks on humans may be strongly influenced by hormone levels. However, recent investigations indicate that the stress hormone corticosterone may cause magpie aggression, or insects such as cockroaches or spiders eaten by the black butcherbird. The evolution of vertical feeding zones is noted among the Artamidae, being accomplished in extractive foraging is another trait of the Artamidae, although they are opportunistic feeders they are very methodical forages, often following a set routine
Common green magpie
The common green magpie is a member of the crow family, roughly about the size of the Eurasian jay or slightly smaller. It is a green in colour, slightly lighter on the underside and has a thick black stripe from the bill to the nape. Compared to the members of its genus, the white-tipped tail is quite long. This all contrasts vividly with the red fleshy eye rims, when dead, the colour of the bird changes into blue. This bird seeks food both on the ground and in trees, and takes a high percentage of animal prey from countless invertebrates, small reptiles and young birds. It will take flesh from a recently killed carcass, the nest is built in trees, large shrubs and often in tangles of various climbing vines. There are usually 4–6 eggs laid, the voice is quite varied but often a harsh peep-peep. It frequently whistles and chatters
The Australian magpie is a medium-sized black and white passerine bird native to Australia and southern New Guinea. Although once considered to be three species, it is now considered to be one, with nine recognised subspecies. A member of the Artamidae, the Australian magpie is classified in the butcherbird genus Cracticus and is most closely related to the black butcherbird and it is not, related to the European magpie, which is a corvid. The adult Australian magpie is a fairly robust bird ranging from 37 to 43 cm in length, with black and white plumage, gold brown eyes. With its long legs, the Australian magpie walks rather than waddles or hops, described as one of Australias most accomplished songbirds, the Australian magpie has an array of complex vocalisations. It is omnivorous, with the bulk of its diet made up of invertebrates. It is generally sedentary and territorial throughout its range and widespread, it has adapted well to human habitation and is a familiar bird of parks and farmland in Australia and New Guinea.
This species is fed by households around the country, but in spring a small minority of breeding magpies become aggressive and swoop. Magpies were introduced into New Zealand in the 1860s but have subsequently accused of displacing native birds and are now treated as a pest species. Introductions occurred in the Solomon Islands and Fiji, where the birds are not considered an invasive species, the Australian magpie is the mascot of several Australian sporting teams, most notably the Collingwood Magpies and Port Adelaide Magpies. The Australian magpie was first described by English ornithologist John Latham in 1801 as Coracias tibicen and its specific epithet derived from the Latin tibicen flute-player or piper in reference to the birds melodious call. An early recorded name is piping poller, written on a painting by Thomas Watling, one of a group known collectively as the Port Jackson Painter. Tarra-won-nang, or djarrawunang and marriyang were names used by the local Eora and garoogong were Wiradjuri words, and carrak was a Jardwadjali term from Victoria.
Among the Kamilaroi, it is burrugaabu, galalu, or guluu and it was known as Warndurla among the Yindjibarndi people of the central and western Pilbara. Other names used include piping crow-shrike, maggie, flute-bird and organ-bird, the term bell-magpie was proposed to help distinguish it from the European magpie but failed to gain wide acceptance. The bird was named for its similarity in colouration to the European magpie, it was a practice for early settlers to name plants. However, the European magpie is a member of the Corvidae, evidence confirming this was published in a 2013 molecular study, which showed that it was the sister taxon to the black butcherbird. The Australian magpie was subdivided into three species in the literature for much of the twentieth century—the black-backed magpie, the magpie
The MSR test is the traditional method for attempting to measure self-awareness, there has been controversy whether the test is a true indicator. In the classic MSR test, an animal is anaesthetised and marked on an area of the body the animal cannot normally see, when the animal recovers from the anaesthetic, it is given access to a mirror. If the animal touches or investigates the mark, it is taken as an indication that the animal perceives the image as itself. Very few species have passed the MSR test, as of 2016, only great apes, a single Asiatic elephant, dolphins and the Eurasian magpie have passed the MSR test. A wide range of species has been reported to fail the test, including several species, giant pandas, sea lions. Each chimpanzee was put into a room by itself for two days, next, a full-length mirror was placed in the room for a total of 80 hours at periodically decreasing distances. A multitude of behaviours was recorded upon introducing the mirrors to the chimpanzees, the chimpanzees made threatening gestures at their own images, ostensibly seeing their own reflections as threatening.
Gallup expanded the study by manipulating the chimpanzees appearance and observing their reaction to their reflection in the mirror, Gallup anaesthetised the chimpanzees and painted a red alcohol-soluble dye on the eyebrow ridge and on the top half of the opposite ear. When the dye dried, it had virtually no olfactory or tactile cues, Gallup returned the chimpanzees to the cage and allowed them to regain full consciousness. He recorded the frequency with which the chimpanzees spontaneously touched the marked areas of skin, after 30 minutes, the mirror was re-introduced into the room and the frequency of touching the marked areas again determined. The frequency of touching increased to 4-10 with the mirror present, the chimpanzees sometimes inspected their fingers visually or olfactorily after touching the marks. Other mark-directed behaviour includes turning and adjusting of the body to view the mark in the mirror, or tactile examination of the mark with an appendage while viewing the mirror.
An important aspect of the classical mark-test is that the mark/dye is non-tactile, for this reason, animals in the majority of classical tests are anesthetised. Some tests, use a tactile marker, after recovery, they made no mark-directed behaviours either before or after being provided with a mirror. The inspiration for the mirror test comes from an anecdote about Charles Darwin, while visiting the London Zoo in 1838, Darwin observed an orangutan, named Jenny, throwing a tantrum after being teased with an apple by her keeper. This started him thinking about the experience of an orangutan. He watched Jenny gaze into a mirror and noted the possibility that she recognised herself in the reflection, a large number of studies using a wide range of species have investigated the occurrence of spontaneous, mark-directed behaviour when given a mirror, as originally proposed by Gallup. Most marked animals given a mirror initially respond with social behaviour, such as aggressive displays, only a small number of species have touched or directed behaviour toward the mark, thereby passing the classic MSR test
Bornean green magpie
The Bornean green magpie is a passerine bird in the crow family, Corvidae. It is endemic to forests on the southeast Asian island of Borneo. It was formerly included as a subspecies of the Javan green magpie, uniquely among the green magpies, the Bornean green magpie has whitish eyes. It dwells in thick vegetation in the mid and upper storeys of forests, the Bornean green magpie builds an open cup nest of sticks in the canopy. The fascinating nesting behaviors of this bird can be viewed at this link, https, //www. youtube. com/watch. v=eJbkQZQbskU The Bornean green magpie has a rather harsh call, a reminder that they are passerine birds which belong to the crow family Corvidae
The Iberian magpie is a bird in the crow family. It is 31–35 cm long and similar in shape to the Eurasian magpie but is more slender with proportionately smaller legs. It belongs to the genus Cyanopica, other common names include Iberian azure-winged magpie, Cook’s azure-winged magpie and Spanish azure-winged magpie. It has a black top to the head and a white throat. The underparts and the back are a light grey-fawn in colour with the wings and it inhabits various types of coniferous and broadleaf forest, including parks and gardens in the eastern populations. The Iberian magpie occurs in southwestern and central parts of the Iberian Peninsula, in Spain and this taxon is usually treated as conspecific with azure-winged magpie C. cyana, but this population is 9,000 km away from those in eastern Asia. Recent genetic analysis has shown that the Iberian magpie and the magpie are distinct at species level. Often Iberian magpies find food as a group or several groups making flocks of up to 70 birds.
The largest groups congregate after the season and throughout the winter months. Their diet consists mainly of acorns and pine nuts, extensively supplemented by invertebrates and their larvae, soft fruits and berries and this species usually nests in loose, open colonies with a single nest in each tree. There are usually 6–8 eggs that are incubated for 15 days
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. A notable feature of passerines compared to other orders of Aves is the arrangement of their toes, sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines form one of the most diverse terrestrial vertebrate orders, with over 5,000 identified species. It has roughly twice as many species as the largest of the mammal orders and it contains more than 110 families, the second-most of any order of tetrapods. The passerines contain several groups of parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous, the order is divided into three suborders, Tyranni and the basal Acanthisitti. Oscines have the best control of their syrinx muscles among birds, producing a range of songs and other vocalizations. Most passerines are smaller than members of other avian orders. The heaviest and altogether largest passerines are the thick-billed raven and the races of common raven.
The superb lyrebird and some birds-of-paradise, due to long tails or tail coverts, are longer overall. The smallest passerine is the short-tailed pygmy tyrant, at 6.5 cm and 4.2 g, the foot of a passerine has three toes directed forward and one toe directed backward, called anisodactyl arrangement. This arrangement enables the birds to perch upon vertical surfaces, such as trees. The toes have no webbing or joining, but in some cotingas, the hind toe joins the leg at the same level as the front toes. The passeriformes have this toe arrangement in common with hunting birds like eagles, the leg arrangement of passerine birds contains a special adaptation for perching. This enables passerines to sleep while perching without falling off and this is especially useful for passerine birds that develop nocturnal lifestyles. Most passerine birds develop 12 tail feathers, although the superb lyrebird has 16, certain species of passerines have stiff tail feathers, which help the birds balance themselves when perching upon vertical surfaces.
Some passerines, specifically in the family Ploceidae, are known for their elaborate sexual ornaments. A well-known example is the long-tailed widowbird, the chicks of passerines are altricial, blind and helpless when hatched from their eggs. Hence, the chicks require extensive parental care, vinous-throated parrotbill has two egg colours and blue
Pica is the genus of two to four species of birds in the family Corvidae in both the New World and the Old. The genus name Pica is derived from the Latin name for the Eurasian magpie and they have long tails and have predominantly black and white markings. One species ranges widely from Europe through Asia, one occurs in western North America and they are usually considered closely related to the blue and green magpies of Asia, but recent research suggests their closest relatives are instead the Eurasian crows. Two or three species were recognized, the Yellow-billed and one or two black-billed ones. Recent research has cast doubt on the taxonomy of the Pica magpies, P. hudsonia and P. nuttalli are each others closest relatives, but may not be different species. If they are, however, at least the Korean race of P. pica would have to be considered a separate species, too
Red-billed blue magpie
The red-billed blue magpie is a species of bird in the crow family, Corvidae. It is about the size as the Eurasian magpie but has a much longer tail. It is 65–68 cm long and weighs 196–232 g, the head and breast are black with a bluish spotting on the crown. The shoulders and rump are a blue and the underparts are a greyish cream. The long tail is a blue with a broad white tip. The bill is a bright orange-red as are the legs and feet and this red can vary across its range to almost yellow in some birds. The red-billed blue magpie occurs in a broad swathe from the parts of the Indian Subcontinent. It ranges from the Western Himalayas eastwards into Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam in evergreen forest and they nest in trees and large shrubs in a relatively shallow nest. There are usually three to five eggs laid, food is sought both in trees and on the ground. It takes the usual range of food, such as invertebrates, other small animals. It robs nests of eggs and chicks, vocal mimicry is very apparent in this species and its calls are very varied, but the most usual are a grating rattle and a high pitched whistle a little like a flute
Korea is a historical state in East Asia, since 1945 divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northwest and it is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. Korea emerged as a political entity after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Later Silla divided into three states during the Later Three Kingdoms period. Goryeo, which had succeeded Goguryeo, defeated the two states and united the Korean Peninsula. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym Korea, was a highly cultured state that created the worlds first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, following the Yuan Dynastys collapse, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1388.
The first 200 years of Joseon were marked by peace and saw the creation of the Korean alphabet by Sejong the Great in the 14th century. During the part of the dynasty, Koreas isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the Hermit Kingdom, by the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. Despite attempts at modernization by the Korean Empire, in 1910 Korea was annexed by Japan and these circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their incapability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. To date, both continue to compete with each other as the sole legitimate government of all of Korea. Korea is the spelling of Corea, a name attested in English as early as 1614. It is a derived from Cauli, Marco Polos transcription of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo or Koryŏ, Goryeos name was a continuation of the earlier Goguryeo or Koguryŏ, the northernmost of the Samguk, which was officially known by the shortened form Goryeo after the 5th-century reign of King Jangsu.
The original name was a combination of the go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe. The name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk, the name references the Samhan—Ma, and Byeon—who preceded the Three Kingdoms in the southern and central end of the peninsula during the 1st centuries BC and AD. It has been linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria