Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Dorney Lake is a purpose-built rowing lake in England. It is near the village of Dorney, is around 3 km west of Windsor and Eton, close to the River Thames; the lake is owned and financed by Eton College, which spent £17 million developing it. Additional grants, totalling £500,000, were obtained from Sport England, UK Sport, the DCMS and SEEDA in order to build the lake's finish tower; the project was completed after 10 years of construction. Although it is for use by the school, the facilities are hired out for rowing, as well as for canoeing, dragon boating, open water swimming and triathlon; the lake was used as the 2012 Summer Olympic venue for rowing and canoe sprint, as the 2012 Summer Paralympic venue for rowing. For the duration of the Olympics, the lake was referred to as Eton Dorney. To provide for Olympic spectators, the existing facilities were enhanced to include 20,000 additional seats. Construction began in October 2009, following investigations by Oxford Archaeology, of enhancements to Dorney Lake, including a new cut-through between the competition lake and the return lane, a new bridge and an upgraded access road, funded by the Olympic Delivery Authority.
During the Olympic events, Dorney Lake was staffed by around 3,500 personnel including volunteers. A temporary bridge linked the Dorney Lake site to Windsor Racecourse, where a pick-up and drop-off point for Olympic spectators was established. Other access options existed for cyclists. Dorney Lake has hosted the following international rowing events: 2005 Rowing World Cup 2005 Coupe de la Jeunesse 2006 World Rowing Championships 2011 World Rowing Junior Championships 2012 Summer Olympics 2012 Summer Paralympics 2013 Rowing World Cup The lake's dimensions follow the FISA rules for a rowing lake suitable for hosting a World Rowing Championship, World Rowing Cup or Olympic regatta: Stillwater, with consistent water conditions 2,200 metres straight length for racing 8 rowing lanes, each 13.5 metres wide Minimum water depth of 3.5 metres A return channel allowing boats to move to the start, separated from the main lake by an island Since the lake was opened, a number of annual regattas that were held on the River Thames have been transferred to the lake.
These include the Marlow Regatta in June, the Metropolitan Regatta in May/June, the Wallingford Regatta in May. The public are allowed to use the grounds of Dorney Lake; the two-kilometre-long flat, straight paths that run along each side of the main lake make it a popular venue for runners and cross-country skiers practising with roller skis. The picturesque landscape makes it a popular location for dog walkers and people out for fun. Rowing on the River Thames Summerleaze Footbridge Official Dorney Lake website Charity Commission. Dorney Lake Trust Company, registered charity no. 1060013
Gifu is a city located in the south-central portion of Gifu Prefecture and serves as the prefectural capital. The city has played an important role in Japan's history because of its location in the middle of the country. During the Sengoku period, various warlords, including Oda Nobunaga, used the area as a base in an attempt to unify and control Japan. Gifu continued to flourish after Japan's unification as both an important shukuba along the Edo period Nakasendō and as one of Japan's fashion centers, it has been designated a core city by the national government. Located on the alluvial plain of the Nagara River, Gifu has taken advantage of the surrounding natural resources to create both traditional industries and tourism opportunities such as cormorant fishing. Mount Kinka, one of the city's major symbols, is home to a nationally designated forest and Gifu Castle, a replica of Nobunaga's former castle. Gifu hosts many festivals and events throughout the year. Two major rail lines connect Gifu to Japan's national and international transportation infrastructure.
JR Central's Tōkaidō Main Line runs through the city, connecting it with Nagoya, one of Japan's largest cities, the surrounding area. The city has a direct train route to Chubu Centrair International Airport and facilities capable of hosting international events. Gifu has active relationships with six sister cities; as of 1 December 2017, the city has an estimated population of 411,722 in 178,246 households, a population density of about 2,000 persons per km2. The total area of the city was 203.60 square kilometers. Two archaeological sites in the city of Gifu have shown that the area around modern-day Gifu has had residents since pre-history because of Gifu's location in the fertile Nōbi Plain; the Ryomonji and Kotozuka sites have produced large burial mounds that are representative of the late-Yayoi period, when rice cultivation began in Japan. As civilization in Japan grew, permanent settlements began to appear and the village of Inokuchi was established, which would become the modern city of Gifu.
"Control Gifu and you control Japan" was a common phrase during the Sengoku period, since Gifu's central location in Japan made it a desirable location for those trying to unify the country. For over 200 years, the Mino Province was under control of a powerful regional clan. However, during the Sengoku period, Saitō Dōsan, a Toki vassal, rebelled against his clan and took control of Mino Province in 1542 and built Inabayama Castle atop Mount Inaba, from which he began his quest to unify Japan. During Dōsan's reign, his daughter Nōhime married Oda Nobunaga, the heir of the fast rising clan in the neighboring Owari Province, with the hopes of an alliance of the two families' would present a powerful front against their competitors. However, it would be Nobunaga that absorbed Dōsan's Saitō clan in the mid-sixteenth century, as Dōsan had done to his retainer, it was during Nobunaga's reign of power that the area received its modern name. After consulting with a Buddhist priest, Nobunaga renamed the village and the surrounding Mino Province to Gifu in 1567.
He took the first character from Qishan, the legendary mountain from which most of ancient China was unified. The second character comes from Qufu, the birthplace of Confucius. Though he was not from the area, Nobunaga chose to use Dōsan's castle and mountain as his base of operations, which he renamed Gifu Castle and Mount Kinka, respectively. Gifu's economy grew immensely during this period due to its location at the center of Nobunaga's expanding empire. Additionally, Nobunaga established Rakuichi Rakuza, a free market for his citizens to use, in direct response to the commercial monopoly of the area's temples and shrines; the liveliness of the town caused Luís Fróis, a Portuguese Jesuit Missionary and guest of Nobunaga, to describe Gifu as a "bustling Babylon". Following the death of Nobunaga, Gifu's growth continued through the Edo period with the establishment of the Nakasendō as one of Tokugawa's five routes. Although the route did not pass directly through Gifu, the nearby post towns of Kanō-juku and Gōdo-juku provided traffic and were amalgamated into the modern city of Gifu.
The area continued to prosper once Gifu became a central location along the Nakasendō. In the middle of the Meiji period, Gifu was established as a city on July 1, 1889, with an original population of 25,750 people and an area of 10 km². On October 28, 1891, two years the Mino–Owari earthquake occurred, estimated at 8 magnitude on the Richter Scale. About 37 % of the city was lost to fire, resulting in 6,336 buildings affected; as a result, Gifu erected the first Earthquake Memorial Hall in all of Japan, which holds memorial services for the victims on the 28th of every month. Gifu recovered from the earthquake damage by the end of the Meiji period, by 1911 was prosperous enough to establish a municipal street car service throughout the city. In 1940, Gifu absorbed the former post town of Kanō increasing its land area. Kanō had many traditional industries. With the neighboring city of Kakamigahara serving as an aeronautics center for Japan, Gifu was a large industrial center during World War II, including a downtown manufacturing sector.
As a result, Gifu was the target of heavy firebombing by the United States Army Air Forces, culminating in the Gifu Air Raid of July 9, 1945, which resulted in 1,383 casualties
Tauranga is the most populous city in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. It was settled by Māori late in the 13th century and by Europeans in the early 19th century and was constituted as a city in 1963. Tauranga City is the centre of the fifth largest urban area in New Zealand, with an urban population of 141,600; the city lies in the north-western corner of the Bay of Plenty, on the south-eastern edge of Tauranga Harbour. The city extends over an area of 168 square kilometres, encompasses the communities of Bethlehem, on the south-western outskirts of the city. Tauranga is one of New Zealand's main centres for business, international trade, culture and horticultural science; the Port of Tauranga is New Zealand's largest port in terms of gross export efficiency. Tauranga is one of New Zealand's fastest growing cities, with a 14 percent increase in population between the 2001 census and the 2006 census, 11% between the 2006 census and the 2013 census; this rapid population growth has seen Tauranga overtake Dunedin and the Napier-Hastings urban areas to become New Zealand's fifth-largest city.
The earliest known settlers were Māori who arrived at Tauranga in the Takitimu and the Mataatua waka in the 13th century. At 9 am on Friday 23 June 1826 Herald was the first European ship to enter Tauranga Harbour; the Revd. Henry Williams conducted a Christian service at Otamataha Pā. In December 1826 and again on March 1827 the Herald travelled to Tauranga from the Bay of Islands to obtain supplies of potatoes and flax. In 1835 a Church Missionary Society mission station was established at Tauranga by William Wade. Rev. Alfred N. Brown arrived at the CMS mission station in 1838. John Morgan visited the mission in 1838. Europeans trading in flax were active in the Bay of Plenty during the 1830s; the first permanent non-Maori trader was James Farrow, who travelled to Tauranga in 1829, obtaining flax fibre for Australian merchants in exchange for muskets and gunpowder. Farrow acquired a land area of 2,000 square metres on 10 January 1838 at Otumoetai Pā from the chiefs Tupaea, Tangimoana and Te Omanu, the earliest authenticated land purchase in the Bay of Plenty.
In 1840, a Catholic mission station was established. Bishop Pompallier was given land within the palisades of Otumoetai Pā for a presbytery; the mission station closed in 1863 due to land wars in the Waikato district. The Tauranga Campaign took place in and around Tauranga from 21 January to 21 June 1864, during the New Zealand Wars; the Battle of Gate Pa is the best known. The battle of Gate Pā was an attack on the well fortified Pā and its Māori defenders on 29 April 1864 by British forces made up of 300 men of the 43rd Regiment and a naval brigade, it was the single most devastating loss of life suffered by the British military in the whole of the New Zealand Wars. The British casualties were 31 dead including 80 wounded; the Māori defenders abandoned the Pā during the night with casualties estimated at 25 dead and an unknown number of wounded. Under the Local Government Order 2003, Tauranga became a city for a second time, from 1 March 2004. In August 2011, Tauranga received Ultra-Fast Broadband as part of the New Zealand Government's rollout.
Here is a list of suburbs by electoral ward: Tauranga is located around a large harbour that extends along the western Bay of Plenty, is protected by Matakana Island and the extinct volcano of Mauao. Ngamuwahine River is located 19 kilometres southwest of Tauranga. Situated along a faultline and the Bay of Plenty experience infrequent seismic activity, there are a few volcanoes around the area; the most notable of these are White Mauao, nicknamed "The Mount" by locals. Tauranga is the antipode of Jaén, Spain. Tauranga has an maritime temperate climate, it can be described as subtropical due to high summer humidity. During the summer months the population swells as holidaymakers descend on the city along the popular white coastal surf beaches from Mount Maunganui to Papamoa. Tauranga surpassed Dunedin in 2008 as the sixth largest city in New Zealand by urban area, the ninth largest city by Territorial Authority area, it has now surpassed the Napier-Hastings area to become the fifth largest city.
The city was growing at a rate of 1.5% in 2008. Tauranga is set to surpass Dunedin in Territorial Area by the next Census in 2018. In 1976, Tauranga was a medium-sized urban area, with a population of around 48,000, smaller than Napier or Invercargill; the completion of a harbour bridge in 1988 brought Tauranga and The Mount closer and promoted growth in both parts of the enlarged city. In 1996 Tauranga's population was 82,092 and by 2006 it had reached 103,635. In 2006, 17.4% of the population was aged 65 or over, compared to 12.3% nationally. The city hosts five major head offices – Port of Tauranga, Zespri International, Ballance Agri-Nutrients Ltd and Craigs Investment Partners. Tauranga is home to a large number of migrants from the UK, attracted to the area by its climate and quality of life. Tauranga is located in the administrative area of the Tauranga City Council; the council consists of ten councillor
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives the third place a bronze medal. More silver is traditionally a metal sometimes used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones. In 1896, winners' medals were in fact silver; the custom of gold-silver-bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 games and has been copied for many other sporting events. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1928 to 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli with text giving the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was a Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the Athens 2004 Games.
Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In The Open Championship golf tournament, the Silver Medal is an award presented to the lowest scoring amateur player at the tournament. In many sports with an elimination tournament, including those with a third place playoff, silver is the only medal given to a team that loses, whereas gold and bronze are earned by teams winning their final matches. Notable athletes such as Jocelyne Larocque removed their runners-up/silver medals right after receiving them; some countries present civilian decorations known as Silver Medals. These include: Austria′s Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria Italy′s Silver Medal of Military Valor South Africa′s Silver Medal for Merit The Civil Air Patrol′s Silver Medal of Valor in the United States; the Zoological Society of London awards a Silver Medal "to a Fellow of the Society or any other person for contributions to the understanding and appreciation of zoology, including such activities as public education in natural history, wildlife conservation."
The Royal Academy of Engineering awards a Silver Medal "for an outstanding and demonstrated personal contribution to UK engineering, which results in successful market exploitation, by an engineer with less than 22 years in full-time employment or equivalent." Runner-up Medal Designs for all Olympic Games
2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event, held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events; this was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee after two rounds of voting; the Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed for use at the Games.
The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs. The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities; the official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng in reference to the host city. Beijing Olympics was watched by 3.5 billion people worldwide. Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, is the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; the opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, by many accounts "the greatest in the history of Olympics". An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall.
The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia. Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960. Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums.
The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round. Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested. In addition, a number of IOC delegates, athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application; the Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion. On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", equivalen
University of Auckland
The University of Auckland is the largest university in New Zealand, located in the country's largest city, Auckland. It is the highest-ranked university in the country, being ranked 85th worldwide in the 2018/19 QS World University Rankings. Established in 1883 as a constituent college of the University of New Zealand, the university is made up of eight faculties, it has more than 40,000 students, more than 30,000 "equivalent full-time" students. The University of Auckland began as a constituent college of the University of New Zealand, founded on 23 May 1883 as Auckland University College. Stewardship of the University during its establishment period was the responsibility of John Chapman Andrew. Housed in a disused courthouse and jail, it started out with 95 students and 4 teaching staff: Frederick Douglas Brown, professor of chemistry. By 1901, student numbers had risen to 156. From 1905 onwards, an increasing number of students enrolled in commerce studies; the University conducted little research until the 1930s, when there was a spike in interest in academic research during the Depression.
At this point, the college's executive council issued several resolutions in favour of academic freedom after the controversial dismissal of John Beaglehole, which helped encourage the college's growth. In 1934, four new professors joined the college: Arthur Sewell, H. G. Forder, C. G. Cooper and James Rutherford; the combination of new talent, academic freedom saw Auckland University College flourish through to the 1950s. In 1950, the Elam School of Fine Arts was brought into the University of Auckland. Archie Fisher, appointed principal of the Elam School of Fine Arts was instrumental in having it brought in the University of Auckland; the University of New Zealand was dissolved in 1961 and the University of Auckland was empowered by the University of Auckland Act 1961. In 1966, lecturers Keith Sinclair and Bob Chapman established The University of Auckland Art Collection, beginning with the purchase of several paintings and drawings by Colin McCahon; the Collection is now managed by the Centre based at the Gus Fisher Gallery.
The Stage A of the Science building was opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother on 3 May. In 1975-81 Marie Clay and Patricia Bergquist, the first two female professors, were appointed. Queen Elizabeth II opened the new School of Medicine Building at Grafton on 24 March 1970; the Queen opened the Liggins Institute in 2002. The North Shore Campus, established in 2001, was located in the suburb of Takapuna, it offered the Bachelor of Information Management degree. At the end of 2006, the campus was closed, the degree relocated to the City campus. On 1 September 2004, the Auckland College of Education merged with the University's School of Education to form the Faculty of Education and Social Work; the faculty is based at the Epsom Campus of the former college, with an additional campus in Whangarei. Professor Stuart McCutcheon became Vice-Chancellor on 1 January 2005, he was the Vice-Chancellor of Victoria University of Wellington. He succeeded Dr John Hood, appointed Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford.
The University opened a new business school building in 2007, following the completion of the Information Commons. It has gained international accreditations for all its programmes and now completes the "Triple Crown". In May 2013 the University purchased a site for new 5.2-hectare campus on a former Lion Breweries site adjacent to the major business area in Newmarket. It will provide the University with a site for expansion over the next 50 years, with Engineering occupying the first of the new faculties in 2015. In April 2016, Vice-Chancellor Stuart McCutcheon announced that University of Auckland would be selling off its Epsom and Tamaki campuses in order to consolidate education and services at the City and Newmarket campuses; the Epsom Campus is the site of the University of Auckland's education faculty while the Tamaki campus hosts elements of the medical and science faculties as well as the School of Population Health. In mid–June 2018, McCutcheon announced that the University would be closing down and merging its specialist fine arts and music and dance libraries into the City Campus' General Library.
In addition, the University would cut 100 support jobs. The Vice-Chancellor claimed that these cutbacks would save between NZ$3 million and $4 million dollars a year; this announcement triggered criticism and several protests from students. Students objected to the closure of the Elam Fine Arts Library on the grounds that it would make it harder to access study materials; some dissenters circulated a petition protesting the Vice-Chancellor's restructuring policies. Protests were held in April and June 2018. Unlike other New Zealand universities such as the University of Otago and Victoria University of Wellington, the University of Auckland has not yet divested from fossil fuels. In April 2017, more than 100 students from the Auckland University Medical Students Association marched demanding the removal of coal, o