The Maiden's Tower known as Leander's Tower since the medieval Byzantine period, is a tower lying on a small islet located at the southern entrance of the Bosphorus strait 200 m from the coast of Üsküdar in Istanbul, Turkey. After the naval victory at Cyzicus, the ancient Athenian general Alcibiades built a custom station for ships coming from the Black Sea on a small rock in front of Chrysopolis. In 1110 Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus built a wooden tower protected by a stone wall. From the tower an iron chain stretched across to another tower erected on the European shore, at the quarter of Mangana in Constantinople; the islet was connected to the Asiatic shore through a defense wall, whose underwater remains are still visible. During the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the tower held a Byzantine garrison commanded by the Venetian Gabriele Trevisano. Subsequently, the structure was used as a watchtower by the Ottoman Turks during the reign of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror; the tower named Leander's Tower in reference to the legend of Hero and Leander, was destroyed during the earthquake of 1509, burned in 1721.
Since it was used as a lighthouse, the surrounding walls were repaired in 1731 and 1734, until in 1763 it was erected using stone. From 1829 the tower was used as a quarantine station, in 1832 was restored by Sultan Mahmud II. Restored again by the harbour authority in 1945, the most recent restoration began in 1998 for the James Bond movie The World Is Not Enough, steel supports were added around the ancient tower as a precaution after the 17 August 1999 earthquake; the interior of the tower has been converted into a café and restaurant, with views of the former Roman and Ottoman capital. Private boats make trips to the tower several times a day. There are many legends about the construction of its location. According to one legend, an emperor had a much beloved daughter and one day, an oracle prophesied that she would be killed by a venomous snake on her 18th birthday; the emperor, in an effort to thwart his daughter's early demise by placing her away from land so as to keep her away from any snakes, had the tower built in the middle of the Bosphorus to protect his daughter until her 18th birthday.
The princess was placed in the tower, where she was visited only by her father. On the 18th birthday of the princess, the emperor brought her a basket of exotic sumptuous fruits as a birthday gift, delighted that he was able to prevent the prophecy. Upon reaching into the basket, however, an asp, hiding among the fruit bit the young princess and she died in her father's arms, just as the oracle had predicted, hence the name Maiden's Tower; the older name Leander's Tower comes from another story about a maiden: the ancient Greek myth of Hero and Leander. Hero was a priestess of Aphrodite who lived in a tower at the edge of the Hellespont. Leander, a young man from Abydos on the other side of the strait, fell in love with her and would swim every night across the Hellespont to be with her. Hero would light a lamp every night at the top of her tower to guide his way. Succumbing to Leander's soft words, to his argument that Aphrodite, as goddess of love, would scorn the worship of a virgin, Hero allowed him to make love to her.
This routine lasted through the warm summer. But one stormy winter night, the waves tossed Leander in the sea and the breezes blew out Hero's light, Leander lost his way, was drowned. Hero died as well; the name Maiden's Tower might have its origins in this ancient story. Due to the vicinity and similarity between the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, Leander's story was mistakenly attributed to the tower. Today, there is a café at the top of the tower; the tower was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 10 lira banknotes of 1966–1981. The tower was featured in the James Bond film The World Is Not Enough, it was visible in the background in the 1963 Bond film From Russia with Love. The tower was featured in the film Hitman; the tower was a point on the American reality game show The Amazing Race 7. The tower featured in the Turkish drama programme Kurtlar Vadisi; the tower was featured in the game Assassin's Creed: Revelations where it is the location of one Masyaf key that the playable character must collect to complete the game.
The tower was featured prominently in the logo for Istanbul's unsuccessful bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics. List of lighthouses in Turkey List of columns and towers in Istanbul Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang. Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls: Byzantion, Istanbul bis zum Beginn d. 17 Jh. Tübingen: Wasmuth. ISBN 9783803010223. Virtual tour of Maiden's Tower Detailed History and Legends of Maiden's Tower. Directorate General of Coastal Safety
Blaan is an Austronesian language of the southern Philippines, similar to Tboli. There are two major varieties of Blaan. Koronadal Blaan Sarangani Blaan According to the Ethnologue, Koronadal Blaan is spoken in: eastern South Cotabato Province Sarangani Province Sultan Kudarat Province Davao Occidental ProvinceSarangani Blaan is spoken in: the entire area of Sarangani Province South Cotabato Province Davao Occidental Province Blaan belongs to the Bilic microgroup of the Philippine language subgroup, along with Giangan Manobo and Tboli. Blaan has seven vowel phonemes. Unlike most other Philippine languages and Austronesian languages in general, Blaan (as its related language Tboli, permits a variety of consonant clusters at the onset of a syllable; this is evident in the name of the language, /bla'an/. This contraction of the original schwa sound exists in other Austronesian languages, but is seen outside of the Bilic group within the Philippines. Blaan uses word order to indicate the thematic roles of nominal elements in the sentence.
Similar to other Philippine-type Austronesian languages, Blaan uses verbal morphology to indicate voice. Here are some examples of voice/focus types in Blaan: Agent voice/focus Patient voice/focus
The Hanwa Line is a commuter rail line in the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto Metropolitan Area and operated by West Japan Railway Company. The 61.3-kilometre line runs between Osaka and Wakayama and has a 1.7-kilometre branchline in a southern Osaka suburb. The name is taken from the first syllables of Wakayama; the terminus of the line in Osaka is Tennōji Station in Tennōji-ku where most of the commuter trains on the line originate and terminate. However, many intercity limited express and rapid trains extend to the Osaka Loop Line beyond Tennōji; the terminus in Wakayama is Wakayama Station. Some trains from Osaka terminate before Wakayama and some spur off to Kansai Airport Station on the Kansai Airport Line from Hineno Station. Tracks are connected to the Kisei Main Line and some trains continue on from there; the Hagoromo Branch Line called the Hagoromo Line or the Higashi-Hagoromo Branch Line, between Ōtori Station and Higashi-Hagoromo Station, is a part of the Hanwa Line. On the 1.7 km branch, only local shuttle trains operate.
Hanwa Line segment in bold. Stations in brackets are only served by some services. Haruka: Maibara/Kyoto/Shin-Osaka - Tennoji - - - Kansai Airport Kuroshio: Kyoto/Shin-Osaka - Tennoji - - - - Wakayama ~ Shirahama/Shingu Local: Tennoji - WakayamaTrains stop at every station on the line, they are operated between Tennoji and Otori in the non-rush hour. Kishuji Rapid Service: Osaka Loop Line/Tennoji - WakayamaTrains run on the Osaka Loop Line before entering Hanwa Line at Tennoji with stopping at every station between Tennoji and Fukushima via Tsuruhashi and Osaka Nishikujo, Bentencho and Shin-Imamiya stations, they make rapid service stops throughout the Hanwa Line and stop at every station between Hineno and Wakayama except in the morning and night. Kansai Airport Rapid Service: Osaka Loop Line/Tennoji - Hineno - Kansai AirportTrains run in tandem with Kishuji Rapid between the Osaka Loop Line and Hineno before splitting off and making every stop on the Kansai Airport Line, they go loop with stops at every station between Tennoji and Fukushima via Tsuruhashi and Osaka Nishikujo, Bentencho and Shin-Imamiya.
Direct Rapid Service: Osaka Loop Line ← Tennoji ← Wakayama/Kansai AirportTrains run on weekday mornings, make rapid service stops throughout its route and every stop on the Osaka Loop Line. Rapid Service: Tennoji - WakayamaTrains run on the Hanwa Line with extended service to the Kisei Main Line except the non-rush hour. Stations on the Hanwa Line where trains stop: at Tennōji, Mikunigaoka, Ōtori, Izumi-Fuchū, Higashi-Kishiwada, Hineno, Izumi-Sunagawa, Kii and WakayamaRegional Rapid Service: Tennoji - Hineno/WakayamaTrains make rapid service stops from Tennoji to Otori local stops to Wakayama, they run between Tennoji and Hineno in the non-rush hour, in the morning and as the last train for Hineno. B-Rapid Service: Tennoji - WakayamaTrains ran in early mornings and between the mornings and non-rush hours, with rapid service stops from Tennoji to Kumatori local stops to Wakayama; the first train of the service from Wakayama ran to Shin-Osaka via the Osaka Loop Line and the Umeda Freight Line.
Legend: ●: All trains stop ｜: All trains pass ○: Some trains stop ↑: Pass, northbound services only ▲: Stop, northbound services only ▼: Stop, southbound services onlyLocal trains stop at all stations. For limited expresses Haruka and Kuroshio, please see their respective articles. All trains are based at Suita Depots. 223-0/2500 series 225-5000/5100 series 271 series 281 series 283 series 287 series 289 series 51 series 52 series 70 series 72 series 103 series 113 series 117 series 123 series 165 series 205-0 series 205-1000 series 221 series 381 series 485 series KiHa 55 series KiHa 58 series KiHa 65 KiHa 81 series KiHa 82 series MoYo 100 MoTa 300 KuYo 500 KuTa 600 KuTe 700 KuTa 750 KuTa 3000 KuTa 7000 ED16 EF15 RoKo 1000 RoKo 1100 MoKa 2000 ED1151 The line was opened as a double-track electrified line by the Hanwa Electric Railway in 1929. In 1940, the company became the Yamanote Line of Nankai; the Yamanote Line was nationalized in 1944 and renamed the Hanwa Line. When Kansai International Airport opened in 1994, the Hanwa Line became one of the main railway links between the city and the airport.
This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia