The Bosporus or Bosphorus is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey. It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, divides Turkey by separating Anatolia from Thrace, it is the world's narrowest strait used for international navigation, the Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, and, by extension via the Dardanelles, the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Most of the shores of the strait are settled, straddled by the city of Istanbul's metropolitan population of 17 million inhabitants extending inland from both coasts. Together with the Dardanelles, the Bosporus forms the Turkish Straits; the name of the channel comes from the Ancient Greek Βόσπορος, folk-etymologised as βοὸς πόρος, i.e. "cattle strait", from the genitive of boûs βοῦς'ox, cattle' + poros πόρος'passage', thus meaning'cattle-passage', or'cow passage'. This is in reference to the mythological story of Io, transformed into a cow, was subsequently condemned to wander the Earth until she crossed the Bosporus, where she met the Titan Prometheus, who comforted her with the information that she would be restored to human form by Zeus and become the ancestress of the greatest of all heroes, Heracles.

The site where Io went ashore was near Chrysopolis, was named Bous'the Cow'. The same site was known as Damalis, as it was where the Athenian general Chares had erected a monument to his wife Damalis, which included a colossal statue of a cow; the English spelling with -ph-, Bosfor has no justification in the ancient Greek name, dictionaries prefer the spelling with -p- but -ph- occurs as a variant in medieval Latin, in medieval Greek sometimes as Βόσφορος, giving rise to the French form Bosphore, Spanish Bósforo and Russian Босфор. The 12th century Greek scholar John Tzetzes calls it Damaliten Bosporon, but he reports that in popular usage the strait was known as Prosphorion during his day, the name of the most ancient northern harbour of Constantinople; the Bosporus was known as the "Strait of Constantinople", or the Thracian Bosporus, in order to distinguish it from the Cimmerian Bosporus in Crimea. These are expressed in Herodotus's Histories, 4.83. Other names by which the strait is referenced by Herodotus include Chalcedonian Bosporus, or Mysian Bosporus.

The term came to be used as common noun βόσπορος, meaning "a strait", was formerly applied to the Hellespont in Classical Greek by Aeschylus and Sophocles. As a maritime waterway, the Bosporus connects various seas along the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, the Near East, Western Eurasia, connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara; the Marmara further connects to the Mediterranean seas via the Dardanelles. Thus, the Bosporus allows maritime connections from the Black Sea all the way to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean via Gibraltar, the Indian Ocean through the Suez Canal, making it a crucial international waterway, in particular for the passage of goods coming in from Russia; the exact cause and date of the formation of the Bosporus remain the subject of debate among geologists. One recent hypothesis, dubbed the Black Sea deluge hypothesis, launched by a study of the same name in 1997 by two scientists from Columbia University, postulates that the Bosporus was flooded around 5600 BC when the rising waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Marmara breached through to the Black Sea, which at the time, according to the hypothesis, was a low-lying body of fresh water.

Many geologists, claim that the strait is much older if young on a geologic timescale. From the perspective of ancient Greek mythology, it was said that colossal floating rocks known as the Symplegades, or Clashing Rocks, once occupied the hilltops on both sides of the Bosporus, destroyed any ship that attempted passage of the channel by rolling down the strait's hills and violently crushing all vessels between them; the Symplegades were defeated when the lyrical hero Jason obtained successful passage, whereupon the rocks became fixed, Greek access to the Black Sea was opened. The limits of the Bosporus are defined as the connecting line between the lighthouses of Rumeli Feneri and Anadolu Feneri in the north, between the Ahırkapı Feneri and the Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri in the south. Between these limits, the strait is 31 km long, with a width of 3,329 m at the northern entrance and 2,826 m at the southern entrance, its maximum width is 3,420 m between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, minimum width 700 m between Kandilli Point and Aşiyan.

The depth of the Bosporus varies from 13 to 110 m in midstream with an average of 65 m. The deepest location is between Bebek with 110 m; the shallowest locations are off Kadıköy İnciburnu on the northward route with 18 m and off Aşiyan Point on the southward route with 13 m. The smallest section is on a sill located in front of Dolmabahçe Palace, it is around 38 000 square meter. The Southbound flow is 16 000 m3/s and the northbound flow is 11 000 m3/s; some speak about a Black Sea un

Paul Hill (flight director)

Paul Sean Hill was the Director of Mission Operations at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, he was a Flight Director in the Mission Control Center for Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions under the call sign "Atlas". Paul Sean Hill was born in Florida to Lawrence Edwin Hill and Sonya Kaye Robinson. Hill's father, joined NASA in 1959 at the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville and worked on every manned space program from Project Mercury through the International Space Station era. While growing up, Hill migrated from Florida to Dallas and Irving, Texas. Hill attended nine schools in Florida. A third generation "Aggie", Hill attended Texas A&M University, he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1984 and a Master of Science degree in 1985, both in Aerospace Engineering. He had an Air Force Scholarship, he worked in military satellite operations in the Air Force following his university training, attaining the rank of Captain. During his service in the Air Force, Hill commanded mobile satellite communications crews providing missile launch and nuclear detonation detection, was responsible for all facets of covert deployment planning for that system.

He was an undergraduate aerodynamics and aircraft performance instructor. After four years in the Air Force, Hill started work at Johnson Space Center in 1990 as a Space Shuttle and Space Station operations engineer. At that time planning was underway for Space Station Freedom, which evolved into the International Space Station. Hill worked as a Flight Control Engineer for Barrios Technology Incorporated from 1990 to 1991, for Rockwell Space Operations Company from 1991 to 1993, for NASA Johnson Space Center from 1993 to 1996. Hill led development of International Space Station assembly operations and integrated systems procedures, he participated in every formal Space Station design review, three extensive spacecraft redesign activities and wrote many of the initial Space Station activation procedures. He served as Joint Operations Panel Chairman. Hill's responsibilities soon expanded leading to his appointment as a Space Shuttle and ISS Flight Director in 1996, a position in which he served until 2005.

In this post he was responsible for the safe conduct of manned space flight missions. Hill led the flight control team in flight preparation and execution from Mission Control, supported over twenty Shuttle and International Space Station missions as a Flight Director; each NASA Flight Director chooses a call-sign to represent her team. Hill led an independent assessment of the Chandra Space Telescope’s flight readiness for NASA Headquarters. In September 2002, Hill served as an aquanaut on the joint NASA-NOAA NEEMO 4 expedition, an exploration research mission held in Aquarius, the world's only undersea research laboratory, four miles off shore from Key Largo. Hill and his crewmates spent five days saturation diving from the Aquarius habitat as a space analogue for working and training under extreme environmental conditions; the mission was delayed due to Hurricane Isadore, forcing National Undersea Research Center managers to shorten it to an underwater duration of five days. Three days into their underwater mission, the crew members were told that Tropical Storm Lili was headed in their direction and to prepare for an early departure from Aquarius.

Lili degenerated to the point where it was no longer a threat, so the crew was able to remain the full five days. Hill led the Columbia accident investigation team responsible for detecting and locating early debris during re-entry, he led the team that developed on-orbit inspection and repair techniques for the Space Shuttle and was the lead Flight Director for its return to flight on mission STS-114. Interviewed in July 2004, Hill said, "Flying the Shuttle is a dangerous business. But, not a bad thing; that doesn't mean. You can make some changes to make parts of this dangerous endeavor safer, but in the end it's still dangerous."Hill served as Deputy Manager of the EVA Office at Johnson Space Center from 2005 to 2006, as Manager of Shuttle Operations in the Mission Operations Directorate from 2006 to 2007, as Deputy Director of Mission Operations during 2007. In December 2007 he became Director of Mission Operations, in which position he is responsible for Mission Operations support for manned space flight.

Interviewed in January 2011 about the downsizing of the Mission Operations Directorate as the Shuttle program ends, Hill said, "I could not be more proud to be part of this great MOD team and the people that comprise this national treasure... The risk of eliminating it keeps me awake at night, both for the technical capability and the human impact to these people who are carrying the load for the cause." Hill is married to the former Pam Gerber. They have two daughters. Hill enjoys skiing, traveling with his

The Sorrows

The Sorrows are a rock band formed in 1963 in Coventry, England by Pip Whitcher, were part of the British beat boom of the 1960s. They are sometimes referred to as freakbeat; the band was formed in 1963, toured Germany for a month, playing several sets each day. The band's first recording was a version of "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes", recorded in Joe Meek's bathroom, they were signed by Pye subsidiary Piccadilly Records, began working with producer John Schroeder. Their line-up included Fardon, Juckes and Finlay; the Sorrows released their first album, Take a Heart, in 1965 on Piccadilly. The Sorrows played a hard, aggressive version of contemporary R&B. After the band reached some minor chart positions on the UK Singles Chart, Phil Packham and Don Fardon left the group. Fardon had a UK chart hit with "Indian Reservation". Wez Price joined the group on bass guitar, Roger Lomas became lead guitarist, Pip Whitcher did vocals; the band relocated to Italy. Whitcher and Lomas recorded at Air Studios under Mike Sullivan.

Lomas in the early 1980s became a record producer for his own company, ROLO productions, produced 1980s ska bands such as Bad Manners. In 2003 Lomas produced the Grammy Award winning album, Jamaican E. T. for Lee "Scratch" Perry. In 2011, the band was re-formed by Fardon and Packham, they began performing live again; the new line-up comprised Fardon, Nigel Lomas, Marcus Webb and Brian Wilkins. Philip Whitcher - - lead guitar and vocals. Don Fardon - - vocals Philip Packham - - bass guitar Terry Juckes - - rhythm guitar - vocals Bruce Finlay - - drums Philip Whitcher - rhythm guitar and vocals Wesley'Wez' Price - bass - Roger Lomas - lead Guitar. 1966 - 1967 Bruce Finlay - drums Chuck Fryers - Guitar, vocals.. 1967 -1969 Geoff Prior - Bass. 1967 - Chris Smith - lead vocals Hammond organ Don Fardon - lead vocals Phil Packham - Bass guitar and vocals Nigel Lomas - Drums and vocals Marcus Webb - lead guitar Brian Wilkins - guitar and vocals Don Fardon - Lead Vocals. Nigel Lomas - Drums and vocals. Marcus Webb - Lead guitar.

Brian Wilkins, Guitar and vocals. Mark Mortimer - Bass guitar Paul Rollason - Lead Guitar "I Don't Wanna Be Free" / "Come With Me" 1965 "Baby" / "Teenage Letter" 1965 "Take a Heart" / "We Should Get Along Fine" 1965 - UK Singles Chart - No. 21 "Nimm mein Herz" / "Sie war mein Girl" 1965 "You've Got What I Want" / "No No No No" 1966 "Let The Live Live" / "Don't Sing No Sad Songs For Me" 1966 "Let Me In" / "How Love Used To Be" 1966 "Pink, Purple and Red" / "My Gal" 1967 "Gonna Find A Cave"/"Dont Do That", "Doin Alright Tonight" 2014 Take a Heart -, Old Songs, New Songs -.