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"Snail Mail" redirects here. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since the mid-19th century, national postal systems have been established as a government monopoly, with a fee on the article prepaid. Proof of payment is in the form of an adhesive postage stamp, but a postage meter is used for bulk mailing. Modern private postal systems are distinguished from national postal agencies by the terms "courier" or "delivery service". Postal authorities have functions aside from transporting letters. In some countries, a postal and telephone service oversees the postal system, in addition to telephone and telegraph systems; some countries' postal systems allow for savings handle applications for passports. The Universal Postal Union, established in 1874, includes 192 member countries and sets the rules for international mail exchanges; the word mail comes from the Medieval English word male, referring to pack. It is distinct from the word male.

The French have a similar word, for a trunk or large box, mála is the Irish term for a bag. In the 17th century, the word mail began to appear as a reference for a bag that contained letters: "bag full of letter". Over the next hundred years the word mail began to be applied to the letters themselves and the sack as the mailbag. In the 19th century, the British used mail to refer to letters being sent abroad and post to refer to letters for domestic delivery; the word Post is derived from Medieval French poste, which stems from the past participle of the Latin verb ponere.. So in the U. K. the Royal Mail delivers the post, whilst in North America both the U. S. Postal Service and Canada Post deliver the mail; the term email first appeared in the 1970s. The term snail-mail is a retronym to distinguish it from the quicker email. Various dates have been given for its first use. Around the 1800s if news or any type of flyer was to reach the small towns, a carrier traveling from town to town would nail it to a post in front of an official building, where the mayor or sheriff kept their office.

Mail sacks would be added to the post and villagers would come into town to check the Post. The practice of communication by written documents carried by an intermediary from one person or place to another certainly dates back nearly to the invention of writing. However, the development of formal postal systems occurred much later; the first documented use of an organized courier service for the diffusion of written documents is in Egypt, where Pharaohs used couriers for the diffusion of their decrees in the territory of the State. The earliest surviving piece of mail is Egyptian, dating to 255 BCE; the first credible claim for the development of a real postal system comes from Ancient Persia, but the point of invention remains in question. The best-documented claim attributes the invention to the Persian King Cyrus the Great, who mandated that every province in his kingdom would organize reception and delivery of post to each of its citizens, he negotiated with neighboring countries to do the same and had roads built from the city of Post in Western Iran all the way up to the city of Hakha in the East.

Other writers credit his successor Darius I of Persia. Other sources claim much earlier dates for an Assyrian postal system, with credit given to Hammurabi and Sargon II. Mail may not have been the primary mission of this postal service, however; the role of the system as an intelligence gathering apparatus is well documented, the service was called angariae, a term that in time came to indicate a tax system. The Old Testament makes mention of this system: Ahasuerus, king of Medes, used couriers for communicating his decisions; the Persian system worked using stations, whence the message carrier would ride to the next post, whereupon he would swap his horse with a fresh one for maximum performance and delivery speed. Herodotus described the system in this way: "It is said that as many days as there are in the whole journey, so many are the men and horses that stand along the road, each horse and man at the interval of a day's journey; the verse prominently features on New York's James Farley Post Office, although it has been rephrased to Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds.

The economic growth and political stability under the Mauryan empire stimulated sustained development of civil infrastructure in ancient India. The Mauryans developed early Indian mail service as well as public wells, rest houses, other facilities for the public. Common chariots called. Couriers were used militarily by kings and local rulers to deliver information through runners and other carriers; the postmaster, the head of the intelligence service, was responsible for ensuring the maintenance of the courier system. Couriers were used to deliver personal letters. In South India, the Wodeyar dynasty of the Kingdom of Mysore used mail service for espionage purposes thereby acquiring knowledge related to matters that took place at great distances. By the end of the 18th century

Andy Gullahorn

Andrew Hogan "Andy" Gullahorn is an American Christian musician and music producer, who plays a folk rock style of Christian pop. He has released six studio albums, Old Hat in 1999, Room to Breathe in 2005, Reinventing the Wheel in 2007, The Law of Gravity in 2009, Beyond the Frame in 2013, Fault Lines in 2016, he was a winner at the Kerrville Folk Festival in 2010. Andrew Hogan Gullahorn was born in Austin, Texas, on March 26, 1976, the son of Jack Wallace Gullahorn and Patricia Ann Gullahorn, where he was raised with his elder brother Ryan, younger siblings, a brother and sister, Mary, he went to college at Belmont University in Nashville, where he presently resides with his wife, Jill Phillips. On September 18, 2019, he became best friends with Chuck DeGroat, his music recording career started in 1998, with the studio album, Old Hat, released in 1999. The subsequent studio album, Room to Breathe, was released in 2005, he released, Reinventing the Wheel, on November 20, 2007. His fourth studio album, The Law of Gravity, was released on November 17, 2009.

The most recent studio album, Beyond the Frame, was released on August 12, 2013. Gullahorn was chosen as a winner at the Kerrville Folk Festival in 2010. Studio albums Old Hat Room to Breathe Reinventing the Wheel The Law of Gravity Beyond the Frame Fault Lines Everything As It Should Be Official website She Likes to Spoon

Hurwitz problem

In mathematics, the Hurwitz problem, named after Adolf Hurwitz, is the problem of finding multiplicative relations between quadratic forms which generalise those known to exist between sums of squares in certain numbers of variables. There are well-known multiplicative relationships between sums of squares in two variables = 2 + 2, Euler's four-square identity and Degen's eight-square identity; these may be interpreted as multiplicativity for the norms on the complex numbers and octonions respectively. The Hurwitz problem for the field K is to find general relations of the form ⋅ =, with the z being bilinear forms in the x and y: that is, each z is a K-linear combination of terms of the form xiyj. We call a triple admissible for K. Trivial cases of admissible triples include; the problem is uninteresting for K of characteristic 2, since over such fields every sum of squares is a square, we exclude this case. It is believed. Hurwitz posed the problem in 1898 in the special case r = s = n and showed that, when coefficients are taken in C, the only admissible values were n = 1, 2, 4, 8: his proof extends to any field of characteristic not 2.

The "Hurwitz–Radon" problem is that of finding admissible triples of the form. Is admissible; the Hurwitz–Radon theorem states, admissible over any field where ρ is the function defined for n = 2uv, v odd, u = 4a + b, 0 ≤ b ≤ 3, as ρ = 8a + 2b. Other admissible triples include and. Composition algebra Hurwitz's theorem Radon–Hurwitz number

Arhopala dodonaea

Arhopala dodonaea, the pale Himalayan oakblue, is a small butterfly found in India that belongs to the lycaenids or blues family. The butterfly occurs in Pakistan. Afghanistan, Northwest Himalaya - Sikkim, Chitral. William Harry Evans reported that the species was common in 1932. List of butterflies of India Evans, W. H.. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. Haribal, Meena; the Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya and Their Natural History. Gangtok, India: Sikkim Nature Conservation Foundation. Wynter-Blyth, Mark Alexander. Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-8170192329

T-34 (film)

T-34 is a 2019 Russian war film directed by Aleksey Sidorov. The title references the T-34, a World War II-era Soviet medium tank used during the invasion of the Soviet Union; the film narrates the life of a tank commander who gets captured by the Nazis. Three years he begins to plan his ultimate escape, alongside his newly-recruited tank crew, it stars Alexander Petrov as Nikolay Ivushkin, with Viktor Dobronravov, Irina Starshenbaum, Anton Bogdanov, Yuriy Borisov, Semyon Treskunov and Artyom Bystrov. T-34 was released in Russia by Central Partnership on January 1, 2019 and for hire converted into IMAX format; the film was released to positive reviews, with critics praising the production quality and visual effects. It was successful commercially, grossing 2.2 billion rubles, against a production budget of 600 million rubles, after a week in cinemas. It is in second place on Russia's biggest blockbusters list with over 8.5 million viewers and 2 billion rubles, is the second-highest grossing Russian film of all time, behind Going Vertical In December 1941, just outside Moscow, Junior Lieutenant Nikolay Ivushkin is driving a ramshackle truck and trailer with a young Red Army private beside him.

A German Panzer III tank blocks their way. They escape unscathed. Nikolay takes command of a damaged T-34 tank, he and his new crew try to delay the Germans' advance. They withstand withering fire, their T-34 survives many hits. By the end of the battle, most of the Russian defenders have been killed. With half his own tank crew dead, Lieutenant Ivushkin and driver Stepan Vasilyonok are captured. Three years Standartenführer Klaus Jäger —, the German tank commander Ivushkin fought back in 1941 — is sent to a concentration camp by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to pick out a Soviet POW tank crew that will be used for training the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend. Jäger recognizes. Jäger wants to use Nikolay so that his novice German tankers can face a real up-to-date T-34 tank handled by a veteran Russian crew; the Nazi gets Anya, to convince Nikolay to accept the idea. Nikolay agrees reluctantly. Nikolay picks out three other tankers from ranks of the POWs – driver Vasilyonok, loader Serafim Ionov, gunner Demyan Volchok -- to crew a T-34/85 that the Germans just captured.

At first the men resist, thinking Nikolay is a collaborator. The Germans first order the Soviet tankers to clear out the rotting and burned bodies from the captured T-34; as they remove the bodies, they unexpectedly find 4 armor-piercing and 2 high-explosive shells. They ask permission to bury their comrades, they hide the ammunition on the bodies of the dead. The Russians bury them — and the live shells — under a pile of rocks on the edge of the new tank training range; as the men repair the captured T-34, Nikolay develops a bond with Anya. The Soviet POW crew is allowed outside the POW camp into the tank training area, they go directly back to the rock uncover the six live projectiles. Back at the camp, Standartenführer Jäger gives a presentation to officers of the German high command, extolling the virtues of his upcoming realistic training exercise. Not trusting the Soviet tankers, the Germans lay land mines all around the edges of the training grounds to prevent their escape, they limit the fuel put in the T-34.

Anya sneaks into Jäger's office and steals maps so that the Soviet tankers can escape to Czechoslovakia. She walks out of the POW camp, using a pass, waits at a bus stop with some German women; the training exercise begins. The Germans watch as their novice tanks advance on the "unarmed" T-34/85; the Soviets set a fire to make a thick smoke screen to mask their movements. The Russians destroy the first German tank, they move nearer to the German officers' high observation tower and fire a high-explosive round. This kills most of the Nazis present. Jäger and general Heinz Guderian narrowly escape; the T-34 boldly breaks out of the camp's main gate. On the way out, they drive their tank over many Nazi generals' staff cars; the Russians rejoice. The tankers pick up Anya at the bus stop outside the camp, they realize they are deep inside German-held territory and plot a course to bring them back to the Red Army's lines. In the first town they come to, Nikolay and his hungry crew find badly needed fuel, new clothing, fresh food.

They burn their ragged prisoner clothes. The Germans scramble to figure out how to locate and recapture the T-34. Before dawn, knowing that the Germans will be hunting them, Nikolay puts Anya out of their tank and tells her to make her way east on foot through the forests; the Soviets drive on towards the mountain pass into Czechoslovakia. Jäger meanwhile takes to the sky in a Fieseler Storch to find Nikolay's T-34, he takes command of four German Panther tanks and sets up an ambush in a small town. Still in the dark, the T-34 enters the town and stumbles into the platoon of German tanks. Nikolay, through cunning, disposes of one Nazi tank, he sends out Volchok, armed only with a grenade, to take over one of the other Panzers. Driver Vasilyonok crashes their T-34 through building walls before unexpectedly colliding with one of the other Panzers; the Russians manually turn their damaged turret and get a shot off just as the Germans are about to fire. Jäger has arrived on the scene and he lines up his Panther to destroy Nikolay.

However, Volchok manages to fire a shell out of the German tank he

Antonio Gaona (general)

Antonio Gaona was a general in the Mexican army of the 19th century. He served under Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna during the Texas revolution and Mexican–American War. Antonio Gaona was born in Cuba in 1793, he joined the Regiment Nuevo España in the early 1800s and was promoted to general in 1832. During the Texas Revolution, General Antonio Gaona joined Santa Anna on the 1836 invasion of Texas, which first journeyed to San Antonio de Bexar, besieged the meager Texan forces garrisoned at the Alamo fort. Gaona arrived in San Antonio on March 8th 1836, too late for the Battle of the Alamo. Gaona and the bulk of his troops were traveling in the rear of the Mexican convoy, along with General Vicente Filisola, who were transporting the provisions and heavy armaments. On March 24, 1836, he was ordered by Santa Anna to take 800 men and sweep around from the north towards Mina, now called Bastrop and follow to Nacogdoches by way of the Old San Antonio Road. Gaona would close the trap on Sam Houston's army.

Gaona searched for the Texas army, following the right bank of the Brazos River on its southernly course. However, the Texans would remain elusive and Gaona would see no major fighting. In early April, his orders were urgently changed and Gaona was ordered to abandon his occupation of Bastrop and to promptly join up with Santa Anna's forces in San Felipe; however in his haste to reinforce Santa Anna, he lost his way somewhere between Bastrop and San Felipe. Gaona reached Old Fort on April 19, thus his men would not arrive in time to participate in the battle of San Jacinto. Gaona was ordered by Filisola to return to San Antonio and to cross back into Mexico. In Mexico, Gaona was appointed as the commander of the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa, he was forced to surrender the fort to the French fleet on November 1838, during the Pastry War. He served in the Mexican–American War, where he was captured at the Battle of Napoluca on January 6, 1848, he died in 1848. Timeline of the Texas Revolution Mexican–American War Edmondson, J.

R. The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts, Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 1-55622-678-0 Hardin, Stephen L. Texian Iliad – A Military History of the Texas Revolution, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0292730861, OCLC 29704011 Lindley, Thomas Ricks, Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions, Lanham, MD: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 1556229836 Lord, Walter, A Time to Stand, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0803279027 Todish, Timothy J..