Tights are a kind of cloth garment, most sheathing the body from the waist to the toe tips with a tight fit, hence the name. They come in absolute opaque, opaque and fishnet styles or a combination of them, such as the original concept of the American term pantyhose with sheer legs and opaque panty. Wearing of tights has a history going back several centuries, when they were worn by men. Today, they are worn by women and girls. In recent years, they have been sometimes offered as men's fashion. Athletic tights are considered unisex. Leggings covered only the legs, not the lower torso; when made of fine silk, this hosiery was considered to be a stocking. When nylon fibers were developed and introduced in the 1940s, these stockings were referred to as nylons; when the separate legs were woven together with a panty that covered the lower torso up to the waist in a single, integrated format, the term pantyhose was coined, since it was a one piece construction of a panty with a pair of separate hose, one for each leg.
This joining together eliminated any need for garters for holding up each separate leg covering. In American English, the difference between pantyhose and tights is determined in the weight of the yarn used and the density or tightness of weaving to which the garment is knitted. Anything up to forty denier in the leg or overall is known as pantyhose and anything over that can be classified as tights, as for example'running tights' and'cycling tights'. In the United Kingdom, the word "tights" is used in all cases when referring to both pantyhose and "leggings", for footed or footless tights of heavier opaque material. Tights can be sheer yet solid in colour, whereas leggings are or opaque, not sheer. Thus, the almost-opaque tights are sometimes labelled as semi-opaque and are not considered suitable as pants due to being too revealing or immodest. There are many sub-classifications of tights or pantyhose. Although most tights are nylon or cotton, lycra is included in modern blends to improve fit.
Athletic tights are absolute opaque and footless, although they may have a "stirrup" that goes under the foot to hold the cuff down near the ankle. In both historic and modern times, the wearing of tight hosiery by males has sometimes been associated with an accompanying garment fitted at the groin over the male genitalia. In the 15th century, some men wore an elaborate and decorative cod piece to accentuate their genital endowment, as a symbol of their virility. In modern times, male ballet dancers wear a dance belt beneath their tights both to provide support to the genitalia and to promote a smooth, regular appearance since tights are so thin and skin tight as to be revealing of the detailed contours of the male genitalia. Derived from the hose worn by European men several centuries ago, tights were made as close fitting as possible for practical reasons when riding horseback. For men of nobility, the material would be made of silk or fine wool rather than the coarser fabrics used by the lower classes.
At the time of King Henry VIII of England, such was the male fashion for displaying a well turned leg that the king padded the calf area under his hose. Portrait paintings of him and other nobility portray the wearing of a cod piece covering the groin. Tights are most worn with a skirt or dress by women. In the world of theater tights are common in Renaissance-era costumes, dance in ballet; the term "tights" has been used to try to ridicule certain traditional British uniform. Most famously the Serjeants-at-Arms at the Palace of Westminster, after a protester got past the security, were described in the media as "middle aged men in tights." For horseback riding, "tights" in some equestrian circles can refer to fitting riding pants of light material that extend all the way down to the rider's ankle and worn with a'paddock' style boot. Such pants are worn as an undergarment in winter. In warm climates they can be worn all year round; these "riding tights" are cheaper to buy than jodhpurs or breeches which are a type of riding pant made of heavier material and which extends only to mid calf length and are intended to be worn with tall riding boots.
Tights can describe the leg coverings worn in bicycling in cold weather and in other athletic activities by runners. These tights are a thicker spandex-blend, are footless, it has been advocated by some sport scientists that the wearing of tights can reduce muscle tissue vibration. Tights are popular use of dancers in ballet. Modern dancers may wear tights. Athletic tights received some publicity during the 2005–2006 basketball season, when players started wearing the ankle-length tights under their uniform shorts. A prominent NBA player, Kobe Bryant, was one of the first to wear tights, the style was subsequently adopted by several other NBA players, as well as some college and high school players; the style sparked controversy, leading to proposals to prohibit wearing tights with basketball uniforms. In colder temperatures outdoors, American football players sometimes wear spandex tights next to their skin beneath their normal padded stretchy fitted pants; because the fabric used in tights is made of interwoven fabric such as nylon or cotton, there are pores in the fabric where modern manufacturers have been able to place other items which benefit the skin.
They can use microencapsulation techniques to place substances such as mois
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean in Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands; the term entered English in the late 15th century from French. It derives from the Italian Levante, meaning "rising", implying the rising of the sun in the east, is broadly equivalent to the term Al-Mashriq, meaning "the east, where the sun rises". In the 13th and 14th centuries, the term levante was used for Italian maritime commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean, including Greece, Syria-Palestine, Egypt, that is, the lands east of Venice; the term was restricted to the Muslim countries of Syria-Palestine and Egypt. In 1581, England set up the Levant Company to monopolize commerce with the Ottoman Empire; the name Levant States was used to refer to the French mandate over Syria and Lebanon after World War I.
This is the reason why the term Levant has come to be used more to refer to modern Syria, Palestine, Israel and Cyprus. Some scholars misunderstood the term thinking. Today the term is used in conjunction with prehistoric or ancient historical references, it has the same meaning as "Syria-Palestine" or Ash-Shaam, the area, bounded by the Taurus Mountains of Turkey in the North, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia in the east. It does not include Anatolia, the Caucasus Mountains, or any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper. Cilicia and the Sinai Peninsula are sometimes included; the term Levant was used to describe the region from the 18th to the mid-19th centuries, has had steady but lower usage since the late 19th century. Both the noun Levant and the adjective Levantine are now used to describe the ancient and modern culture area called Syro-Palestinian or Biblical: archaeologists now speak of the Levant and of Levantine archaeology; the Levant has been described as the "crossroads of western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, northeast Africa", the "northwest of the Arabian plate".
The populations of the Levant share not only the geographic position, but cuisine, some customs, history. They are referred to as Levantines; the term Levant, which appeared in English in 1497 meant the East in general or "Mediterranean lands east of Italy". It is borrowed from the French levant "rising", referring to the rising of the sun in the east, or the point where the sun rises; the phrase is from the Latin word levare, meaning'lift, raise'. Similar etymologies are found in Greek Ἀνατολή, in Germanic Morgenland, in Italian, in Hungarian Kelet, in Spanish and Catalan Levante and Llevant, in Hebrew. Most notably, "Orient" and its Latin source oriens meaning "east", is "rising", deriving from Latin orior "rise"; the notion of the Levant has undergone a dynamic process of historical evolution in usage and understanding. While the term "Levantine" referred to the European residents of the eastern Mediterranean region, it came to refer to regional "native" and "minority" groups; the term became current in English in the 16th century, along with the first English merchant adventurers in the region.
The English Levant Company was founded in 1581 to trade with the Ottoman Empire, in 1670 the French Compagnie du Levant was founded for the same purpose. At this time, the Far East was known as the "Upper Levant". In early 19th-century travel writing, the term sometimes incorporated certain Mediterranean provinces of the Ottoman empire, as well as independent Greece. In 19th-century archaeology, it referred to overlapping cultures in this region during and after prehistoric times, intending to reference the place instead of any one culture; the French mandate of Syria and Lebanon was called the Levant states. Today, "Levant" is the term used by archaeologists and historians with reference to the history of the region. Scholars have adopted the term Levant to identify the region due to it being a "wider, yet relevant, cultural corpus" that does not have the "political overtones" of Syria-Palestine; the term is used for modern events, states or parts of states in the same region, namely Cyprus, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine and Turkey are sometimes considered Levant countries.
Several researchers include the island of Cyprus in Levantine studies, including the Council for British Research in the Levant, the UCLA Near Eastern Languages and Cultures department, Journal of Levantine Studies and the UCL Institute of Archaeology, the last of which has dated the connection between Cyprus and mainland Levant to the early Iron Age. Archaeologists seeking a neutral orientation, neither biblical n
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
The monokini, designed by Rudi Gernreich in 1964, consisting of only a brief, close-fitting bottom and two thin straps, was the first women's topless swimsuit. His revolutionary and controversial design included a bottom that "extended from the midriff to the upper thigh" and was "held up by shoestring laces that make a halter around the neck." Some credit Gernreich's design with initiating, or describe it as a symbol of, the sexual revolution. Gernreich designed the monokini as a protest against a repressive society, he didn't intend to produce the monokini commercially, but was persuaded by Susanne Kirtland of Look to make it available to the public. When the first photograph of a frontal view of Peggy Moffitt wearing the design was published in Women's Wear Daily on June 3, 1964, it generated a great deal of controversy in the United States and other countries. Gernreich sold about 3000 suits; the first was worn publicly on June 22, 1964 by Carol Doda in San Francisco at the Condor Nightclub, ushering in the era of topless nightclubs in the United States, the second at a beach in Chicago in July 1964 by artist's model Toni Lee Shelley, arrested.
Some manufacturers and retailers refer to modern monokini swimsuit designs as a topless swimsuit, topless bikini, or unikini. Gernreich may have chosen his use of the word monokini in the mistaken belief that bikini was a compound of bi- and -kini. But, a faulty back-formation, decomposing the word as the Latin prefix bi-, kini, denoting a two-piece swimsuit, but in fact the bikini swimsuit design was named by its inventor Louis Réard after the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific, five days after Operation Crossroads, the first peace-time test of nuclear weapons, took place there. Réard hoped his design would have a explosive effect. Austrian-American fashion designer Rudi Gernreich had strong feelings about society's sexualization of the human body and disagreed with religious and social beliefs that the body was shameful. Gernreich grew up in Austria where its citizens were advocates of exercising nude, a rejection of the over-civilized world, his father Siegmund Gernreich was a stocking manufacturer who committed suicide when Gernreich was 8.
In 1939, his mother took him and they fled the country to escape Hitler, who among other things had banned nudity. In Los Angeles, Gernreich became an advocate of sexual liberation, he co-founded in 1950 the first homosexual social group advocating for gay rights that became the Mattachine Society. He thought government restraints on nudity were oppressive. Gernreich developed a reputation as an avant-garde designer who broke many of the rules, his swimsuit designs were unconventional. In its December 1962 issue, Sports Illustrated remarked, "He has turned the dancer's leotard into a swimsuit that frees the body. In the process, he has ripped out the boning and wiring that made American swimsuits seagoing corsets." That month he first envisioned creating a topless swimsuit. Gernreich had predicted in a September 1962 issue of Women’s Wear Daily that "Bosoms will be uncovered within five years." At the end of 1963, editor Susanne Kirtland of Look called Gernreich and asked him to submit a design for the suit to accompany a trend story along futuristic lines.
He said, "It was my prediction. For the sake of history, I didn't want Pucci to do it first. Gernreich found the design more difficult than the expected, his initial designs looked like trunks or boxer shorts. He felt the swimsuit ought to just be bikini bottoms, but realized that this wouldn't constitute a unique design, he designed a Balinese sarong that began just under the breasts, but Kirtland didn't feel the design was bold enough and needed to make more of a statement. Gernreich chose a design that ended around mid-torso and added two straps that rose between the breasts and were tied around the neck; the first two initial attempts to cut the design failed. When a photo shoot was arranged on Montego Bay in the Bahamas, all five models hired for the session refused to wear the design; the photographer persuaded a local prostitute to model it. Gernreich did not intend to produce the swimsuit commercially, it had more meaning to Gernreich as an idea than as a reality. Gernreich had Moffitt model the suit in person for Diana Vreeland of Vogue, who asked him why he conceived of the design.
Gernreich told her he felt it was time for "freedom-in fashion as well as every other facet of life," but that the swimsuit was just a statement. He said, “ drop their bikini tops already,” he said, “so it seemed like the natural next step.” She told him, ``, it's an actuality. You must make it." Gerenrich said. But, just wait. In a couple of years topless bikinis will be a reality and regarded as natural." To avoid letting others sensationalize the swimsuit and to retain some control of the design, Gernreich asked William Claxton, the husband of Gernreich's sole model Peggy Moffitt, to take pictures of his wife in the yellow wool swimsuit. Claxton and Gernreich wanted to publish their own pictures for the fashion press and news media, Gernreich gave pictures of Moffit modeling the monokini to a selected handful of news organizations. Moffitt was resistant to the idea of posing topless, she said, "I didn't want to do it. I am a puritanical descendent of the Mayflower. I carried; when I did give in, I did so with a lot of rules.
I would not show myself on the runway that way. I’d do it only with Bill. Since Rudi would never eve
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance, although these two categories are not always separate. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, many other forms of athletics. Theatrical dance called performance or concert dance, is intended as a spectacle a performance upon a stage by virtuoso dancers, it tells a story using mime and scenery, or else it may interpret the musical accompaniment, specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas.
Most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers; such dance has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. A solo dance may be undertaken for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men and children may or must participate. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC.
It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next. The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in early recorded history; the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones. Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with shamanic rituals. During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts, it deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture.
It categorizes dance into four types – secular, abstract, interpretive – and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional and ethnic dance. Dance is though not performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music; some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the jig, tango and salsa; some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque dance. Rhythm and dance are linked in history and practice; the American dancer Ted Shawn wrote.
A musical rhythm requires two main elements. The basic pulse is equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern; the tango, for example, is danced in 24 time at 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one 24 measure; the basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so coun
A leotard is a unisex skin-tight one-piece garment that covers the body from the crotch to the shoulder. The garment was first made famous by the French acrobatic performer Jules Léotard. There are sleeveless, long-sleeved leotards. A variation is the unitard, which covers the legs. Leotards are worn by acrobats, dancers, figure skaters, actors and circus performers both as practice garments and performance costumes, they are worn together with ballet skirts on top and tights or sometimes bike shorts as underwear. As a casual garment, a leotard can be worn with a belt. Leotards are entered by pulling the sleeves over the shoulders. Scoop-necked leotards have wide neck openings and are held in place by the elasticity of the garment. Others snaps. Leotards are used for a variety of purposes, including yoga, dance, as pajamas, for additional layered warmth under clothing, for recreational and casual wear, they may form a part of children's dressing up and play outfits and can be worn as a top. Leotards are worn in figure skating, postwar modern dance, acrobatic rock'n'roll, traditional ballet and gymnastics by young children.
Practice leotards are sleeveless. Female competition garments for gymnastics and skating are always long-sleeved, while male competition leotards may be sleeved or sleeveless, the latter more common in gymnastics, the former in figure skating. Leotards come in many styles — either with a full seated bottom or as a thong or T-front thong for maximum comfort and avoidance of visible panty lines when worn under leggins or tights. Many full-back leotards are cut high enough above the legs. For this reason, underwear is omitted, or special underwear, cut high on the waist, is worn. Many dance studios forbid underwear. Gymnastics judges can deduct points for visible underwear. For example, in the movie Stick It, a competitor had her score deducted for a technicality of showing a bra strap; the first known use of the name leotard came only in many years after Léotard's death. Léotard himself called the garment a maillot, a general French word for different types of tight-fitting shirts or sports shirts.
In the early 20th century, leotards were confined to circus and acrobatic shows, worn by the specialists who performed these acts. The 1920s and 1930s saw leotards influencing the style of swimsuits, with women's one-piece swimsuits today still being similar in appearance to leotards. Leotards are worn by professional dancers such as the showgirls of Broadway. Stage use of the leotard coordinates the garment with stockings or tights. In the 1950s, traditionally-styled leotards continued to be worn by stage performers and circus actors, but leotards began to be used as simple and functional exercise garments in institutional settings like schools and in fitness training; these were always black and worn together with thick tights. Between 1950 and 1970, leotards remained as such in appearance until a style change in the 1970s, with more colorful leotards appearing on the scene, most in ballet and exercise. During the 1970s and 1980s, leotards were extensively used as clothing for aerobic exercises displaced in the 1990s by Lycra pants similar to those used in cycling uniforms and in the 2000s they were replaced by trousers and leggings.
It continues to be worn by women cyclists and athletes in competitions. By the late 1970s leotards had become common both as exercise and street wear, popularized by the disco craze, aerobics fashion craze of the time; these leotards were produced in a variety of nylon and spandex materials, as well as the more traditional cotton used for uni-colored leotards and tights. Exercise videos by celebrities such as Jane Fonda did much to popularize the garment; the dancewear company Danskin flourished during this period, producing a wide variety of leotards for both dance and street wear. Other companies, such as Gilda Marx, produced leotards during this time period ceased production when they ceased to be in fashion. By the late 1980s leotards for exercise wear had become little more than bikini bottoms with straps over the shoulders worn with cropped shirts. From the mid 1980s to mid 90s leotards were popularly worn as tops with jeans skinny jeans as part of everyday wear. By the mid 1990s leotards had been completely replaced for exercise wear by the sports bra and shorts.
Leotards are a versatile garment that can either dressed down. The illustration of Taylor Dayne shows a stage costume, embellished with sequins and sparkles. Among exercise garments, leotards may be seen along with other types of garments, such as T-shirts, crop tops and tights. For females, the standard gymnastic competition uniform is a leotard. Traditionally, competition leotards have always had long sleeves. Practice leotards and those worn in podium training sessions are sleeveless. Leotards may not be cut too low. In the 1970s leotards were made fr