François Mansart was a French architect credited with introducing classicism into Baroque architecture of France. The Encyclopædia Britannica cites him as the most accomplished of 17th-century French architects whose works "are renowned for their high degree of refinement and elegance". Mansart, as he is known, made extensive use of a four-sided, double slope gambrel roof punctuated with windows on the steeper lower slope, creating additional habitable space in the garrets that became named after him—the mansard roof. François Mansart was born to a master carpenter in Paris, he was not trained as an architect. He is thought to have learned the skills of architect in the studio of Salomon de Brosse, the most popular architect of Henry IV's reign. Mansart was recognized from the 1620s onward for his style and skill as an architect, but he was viewed as a stubborn and difficult perfectionist, tearing down his structures in order to start building them over again. Only the richest could afford to have him work for them, as Mansart's constructions cost "more money than the Great Turk himself possesses".
The only surviving example of his early work is the Château de Balleroy, commissioned by a chancellor to Gaston, Duke of Orléans, started in 1626. The duke himself was so pleased with the result that he invited Mansart to renovate his Château de Blois; the architect intended to rebuild this former royal residence but his design was stymied and only the north wing was reconstructed to Mansart's design, cleverly using classical orders. In 1632, Mansart designed the Church of St. Mary of the Angels using the Pantheon as an inspiration. Most of Mansart's buildings were subsequently demolished; the best preserved example of his mature style is the Château de Maisons, which uniquely retains the original interior decoration, including a magnificent staircase. The structure is symmetrical, with much attention given to relief, it is thought to have inspired the 18th-century Neoclassicism. In the 1640s, Mansart worked on the convent and church of the Val-de-Grâce in Paris, a much coveted commission from Anne of Austria.
His alleged profligacy led to his being replaced with a more tractable architect, who followed Mansart's design. In the 1650s, Mansart was targeted by political enemies of the prime minister Cardinal Mazarin, for whom Mansart worked. In 1651, they published "La Mansarade", a pamphlet accusing the architect of wild extravagance and machinations. After Louis XIV's accession to the throne, Mansart lost many of his commissions to other architects, his designs for the remodeling of Louvre and for the royal mausoleum at Saint-Denis were never executed, in the case of the Louvre because he would not submit detailed plans. Some of his plans were subsequently reused by Jules Hardouin Mansart. Mansart died in Paris in 1666. Perrault, Charles, "François Mansart", Les hommes illustres qui ont paru en France pendant ce siècle - avec leur portraits au naturel, 1, Paris, pp. 87–88
Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu
Grégory Baugé is a French professional racing cyclist. He is a nine-time world champion in track cycling. Bauge first took up sport at the age of eight, his father enrolled him in the Aubergenville cycling school. At that time he took part in mountain biking and trial cycling. In 2000 he joined a cycling club in Yvelines. Aware of his qualities and encouraged by his father, he left road cycling to concentrate on track cycling. in July 2001, he participated in the French National cadet sprint championships where he was beaten in the final by Guillaume Blot. In November 2001 he joined the Creteil Athletic Union, permanently dedicated himself to the track; the following year, at 17, he entered the National Institute for Sport and Physical Education in Paris. He joined the France junior sprint team in 2002. With Mickaël Murat and Francois Pervis, he became World Champion in the Junior team sprint discipline. With his coach Gerard Quintyn, he competed at the Athens Olympics in 2004. Bauge specialised in the opening lap of the team sprint.
At the 2008 Olympics, he won the silver medal in the team sprint. In January 2012 it was announced that Baugé had received a backdated 12-month suspension for missing doping tests; this meant. This elevated Britain's Jason Kenny to gold medal position in the Sprint event at the 2011 World Championships, as well as giving the German Team Sprint team the gold medal in the same meet. Baugé regained the World Championship Sprint title by beating defending champion Jason Kenny in the final of the 2012 event. Baugé went on to win two Olympic silver medals, in the team sprint, in the individual sprint. Grégory Baugé at Cycling Archives Grégory Baugé at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Interview
Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson is an English actress and model. Born in Paris and brought up in Oxfordshire, Watson attended the Dragon School and trained as an actress at the Oxford branch of Stagecoach Theatre Arts; as a child artist, she rose to prominence after landing her first professional acting role as Hermione Granger in the Harry Potter film series, having acted only in school plays previously. Watson appeared in all eight Harry Potter films from 2001 to 2011, earning worldwide fame, critical accolades, around $60 million. Watson continued to work outside of the Harry Potter films, appearing in the 2007 television adaptation of the novel Ballet Shoes and lending her voice to The Tale of Despereaux. Following the last Harry Potter film, she took on starring and supporting roles in My Week with Marilyn, The Perks of Being a Wallflower and The Bling Ring, made an appearance as an exaggerated version of herself in This Is the End, portrayed the title character's adopted daughter in Noah.
In 2017, she starred as Belle in a live-action adaptation of the musical romantic fantasy film Beauty and the Beast. Her other roles include Regression and The Circle. From 2011 to 2014, Watson split her time between working on film projects and continuing her education, studying at Brown University and Worcester College and graduating from Brown with a bachelor's degree in English literature in May 2014, her modelling work has included campaigns for Lancôme. As a fashion consultant, she helped create a line of clothing for People Tree, she was honoured by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts in 2014, winning for British Artist of the Year. That same year, she was appointed as a UN Women Goodwill ambassador and helped launch the UN Women campaign HeForShe, which calls for men to advocate gender equality. Watson was born in Paris, the daughter of English lawyers Jacqueline Luesby and Chris Watson. Watson lived in Maisons-Laffitte near Paris until the age of five, her parents separated.
Watson has stated. After moving to Oxford with her mother and brother, she attended the Dragon School in Oxford, remaining there until 2003. From the age of six, she wanted to become an actress, trained at the Oxford branch of Stagecoach Theatre Arts, a part-time theatre school where she studied singing and acting. By the age of ten, Watson had performed in various Stagecoach productions and school plays, including Arthur: The Young Years and The Happy Prince, but she had never acted professionally before the Harry Potter series. Following the Dragon School, Watson moved near Oxford. While on film sets and her peers were tutored for up to five hours a day. In June 2006, she took GCSE school examinations in ten subjects, achieving eight A* and two A grades. In May 2007, she took AS levels in English, Geography and History of Art; the following year, she dropped History of Art to pursue the three A levels, receiving an A grade in each subject. Watson took a gap year after leaving high school, to film Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows beginning in February 2009, but said she intended to continue her studies and confirmed that she had chosen Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island.
In March 2011, after 18 months at the university, Watson announced that she was deferring her course for "a semester or two", though she attended Worcester College, Oxford during the 2011–12 academic year as a "visiting student". Watson told Ellen DeGeneres just before graduation that it took five years to finish instead of four because, due to her acting work, she "ended up taking two full semesters off". On 25 May 2014, she graduated from Brown University with a bachelor's degree in English literature. In 2013, she became certified to teach meditation; as part of this certification, she attended a week-long meditation course at a Canadian facility, in which residents are not allowed to speak, in order "to figure out how to be at home with myself". She told Elle Australia that an uncertain future meant finding "a way to always feel safe and at home within myself; because I can never rely on a physical place." In 1999, casting began for Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, the film adaptation of British author J. K. Rowling's best-selling novel.
Casting agents found Watson through her Oxford theatre teacher, producers were impressed by her confidence. After eight auditions, producer David Heyman told Watson and fellow applicants Daniel Radcliffe and Rupert Grint that they had been cast for the roles of the school friends Hermione Granger, Harry Potter and Ron Weasley, respectively. Rowling supported Watson from her first screen test; the release of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in 2001 was Watson's debut screen performance. The film broke records for opening-day sales and opening-weekend takings and was the highest-grossing film of 2001. Critics praised the performances of the three leads singling out Watson for particular acclaim. Watson was nominated for five awards for her performance in Philosopher's Stone, winning the Young Artist Award for Leading Young Actress. A year Watson again starred as Hermione in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, the second instalment of the series. Reviewers praised the lead actors' performances.
The Los Angeles Times said Watson and her peers had matured between films, while The Times
Philippe Jaroussky is a French countertenor. He began his musical career with the violin, winning an award at the Versailles conservatory, took up the piano before turning to singing. Jaroussky was inspired to sing by the Martinique-born countertenor Fabrice di Falco, he received his diploma from the Early Music Faculty of the Conservatoire de Paris. Since 1996, he has studied singing with Nicole Fallien, he cofounded the ensemble Artaserse in 2002, has often performed with the Ensemble Matheus under Jean-Christophe Spinosi and with L'Arpeggiata under Christina Pluhar. On 29 July 2016 he performed David Bowie's "Always Crashing in the Same Car" in the David Bowie Prom at the Royal Albert Hall, London. According to La Terrasse, "this young singer with the tone of an angel and the virtuosity of the devil has come into the limelight in only a few years as the great new French vocal talent." He received the 2007 best French lyrical artist award. Jaroussky was awarded "The Best Singer of the Year" at the Echo Klassik Awards, 2008 and 2016.
He received an Echo Klassik Award in 2012 for the Album Duetti, which he recorded together with Max Emanuel Cencic. Alessandro Scarlatti: Sedecia, Re di Gerusalemme. Lesne, Harvey, Padmore. Il Seminario Musicale, Gérard Lesne. Virgin Veritas Claudio Monteverdi: L'incoronazione di Poppea. Laurens, Schofrin, Oro. Ensemble Elyma, Gabriel Garrido. K617 Pierre Menault: Vêpres pour le Pére la Chaize. Greuillet, Lombard, van Dyck. Ensemble La Fenice, Jean Tubéry. K617 Giovanni Battista Bassani: La morte delusa. Galli, del Monaco, Sarragosse. Ensemble La Fenice, Jean Tubéry. Opus 111 Antonio Vivaldi: Catone in Utica. Edwards, Cangemi, Faraon. La Grande Écurie, Jean-Claude Malgoire. Dynamic Antonio Vivaldi: La Verità in cimento. Rolfe-Johnson, Laurens, Mingardo. Ensemble Matheus, Jean-Christophe Spinosi. Naïve – Opus 111 Solo recital: Benedetto Ferrari: Musiche varie. Ensemble Artaserse. Ambroisie George Frideric Handel: Agrippina. Gens, Smith, Grégoire, di Falco. La Grande Écurie, Jean-Claude Malgoire. Dynamic Solo recital: Un concert pour Mazarin.
Ensemble La Fenice, Jean Tubéry. Virgin Classics, 2004 Claudio Monteverdi: Selva morale e spirituale. Spiritualità e liturgia / I salmi vespertini / Vespro dei Martiri / L'eloquenza divina. Ensemble Elyma, Gabriel Garrido. Ambronay Edition Antonio Vivaldi: Orlando furioso. Larmore, Cangemi. Ensemble Matheus, Jean-Christophe Spinosi. Naïve – Opus 111 Claudio Monteverdi: L'Orfeo. van Rensburg, Gerstenhaber, Thébault, Gillot, Kaïque. La Grande Écurie, Jean-Claude Malgoire. Dynamic Solo recital: Antonio Vivaldi: Virtuoso cantatas. Ensemble Artaserse. Virgin Veritas Antonio Vivaldi: Griselda. Lemieux, Kermes, Davies. Ensemble Matheus, Jean-Christophe Spinosi. Naïve – Opus 111 Solo recital: Beata Vergine, Motets à la Vierge entre Rome et Venise, Legrenzi, Antonio Rigatti, Giovanni Paolo Caprioli, Sances, Ensemble Artaserse. Virgin Classics Solo recital: Vivaldi Heroes. Ensemble Matheus, Jean-Christophe Spinosi. Virgin Classics Solo recital: Carestini, the story of a castrato. Le Concert d'Astrée, Emmanuelle Haïm.
Virgin Classics, 2007 J. S. Bach: Magnificat – G. F. Handel: Dixit Dominus. Dessay, Spence, Naouri. Le Concert d'Astrée, Emmanuelle Haïm. Virgin Classics, 2007 Antonio Vivaldi: Nisi Dominus and Stabat Mater. Philippe Jaroussky, Lemieux. Ensemble Matheus, Jean-Christophe Spinosi. Naïve Handel: Faramondo, in role of Adofo. Il Barocchisti under direction of Diego Fasolis. Virgin Classics, 2009 Solo recital: Opium – Mélodies françaises. Philippe Jaroussky, Jerôme Ducros. Virgin Classics, 2009 – songs by Debussy, Fauré, César Franck, Ernest Chausson, André Caplet, Saint-Saëns, Paul Dukas, Guillaume Lekeu, Cécile Chaminade, Gabriel Dupont, Vincent d'Indy Via Crucis. Claudio Monteverdi, Benedetto Ferrari, Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber, Giovanni Legrenzi, Luigi Rossi, Tarquinio Merula, L'Arpeggiata, dir. Christina Pluhar, Philippe Jaroussky, Núria Rial, Enzo Gragnaniello, Barbara Furtuna. Jean-Philippe Guissani, Giovanni Antonio, Pandolfi Mealli, Roccu Mambrini, Toni Casalonga, Nando Acquaviva, Lorenzo Allegri, Virgin Classics, 2010 Solo recital: Johann Christian Bach.
La dolce fiamma. Forgotten castrato arias. Le Cercle de l'Harmonie, dir. Jérémie Rhorer, Virgin Classics 2009. – awarded the Diapason d'Or de l'Année 2010 in France Solo recital: Caldara in Vienna. Philippe Jaroussky / Concerto Köln, Emmanuelle Haïm, Virgin Classics, 2010. Vivaldi Ercole su'l Termodonte. Diana Damrau, Vivica Genaux, Romina Basso, Patrizia Ciofi, Joyce DiDonato, Rolando Villazón, Philippe Jaroussky, Topi Lehtipuu, dir. Fabio Biondi, Europa Galante, Virgin Classics, 2
Paris metropolitan area
The Paris metropolitan area is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Paris and its surrounding suburbs. Created and used from 1996 by France's national INSEE statistical bureau to match international demographic standards, the aire urbaine is a statistical unit that describes the suburban development around centres of urban growth: it is composed of a couronne périurbaine ) surrounding a more densely built and densely populated pôle urbain, a single or group of densely-built unité urbaine communes. From 2011, the INSEE classified its largest aires urbaines into aires métropolitaines and grandes aires urbaines. From Paris became France's largest metropolitan area. In France, the'Paris metropolitan area' term's use is limited to demographic and statistical studies, and, to date, it is unused in economical statistics, but in recent years the media has begun using it to describe the electoral tendencies of France's largest cities. In 2010 the government passed a law that invited France's largest city'metropoles' to work together as an intercommunitary entities, but the lack of response by the following year moved the government to make the cooperation for many of France's largest cities obligatory, Paris became a case study all on its own.
This latter initiative created the "Métropole du Grand Paris", a Paris-centred intercommunal cooperation effort enacted from January 1, 2016. The territory it covers is much smaller than the INSEE'Paris metropolitan area' statistical area: it includes Paris, its neighbouring three départements, a few bordering communes in the departments beyond; as of 2010, the INSEE statistical Paris metropolitan area, with its 17,174 km², extends beyond Paris' administrative Île-de-France region, a region commonly referred to as the région parisienne. The area had a population of 12,405,426 as of the January 2013 census, making it the largest urban region in the European Union. Nearly 19% of France's population resides in the region; the Paris metropolitan area expands at each population census due to the rapid population growth in the Paris area. New communes surrounding. At the 1968 census, the earliest date for which population figures were retrospectively computed for French aire urbaines, the Paris metropolitan area had 8,368,459 inhabitants in an area that only encompassed central Île-de-France.
By the 1999 census the Paris metropolitan area was larger than Île-de-France and had 11,174,743 inhabitants in 14,518 km². By the 2012 census it had reached 12,341,418 inhabitants in 17,174 km², an area larger than Île-de-France; the table below shows the population growth of the Paris metropolitan area, i.e. the urban area and the commuter belt surrounding it.: Grand Paris Metropolitan Areas of France Île-de-France Document about the functioning of Paris Metropolitan Area Document about the extension of Paris Metropolitan Area
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine