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Maitrayaniya Upanishad

The Maitrayaniya Upanishad is an ancient Sanskrit text, embedded inside the Yajurveda. It is known as the Maitri Upanishad, is listed as number 24 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads; the Maitrayaniya Upanishad is associated with the Maitrayanas school of the Yajurveda. It is a part of the "black" Yajurveda, with the term "black" implying "the un-arranged, motley collection" of content in Yajurveda, in contrast to the "white" Yajurveda where Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and Isha Upanishad are embedded; the chronology of Maitrayaniya Upanishad is contested, but accepted to be a late period Upanishadic composition. The Maitrayaniya Upanishad consists of seven Prapathakas; the first Prapathaka is introductory, the next three are structured in a question-answer style and discuss metaphysical questions relating to Atman, while the fifth to seventh Prapathaka are supplements. However, several manuscripts discovered in different parts of India contain lesser number of Prapathakas, with a Telugu language version showing just four, another Burnell version showing just one section.

The content and structure of the Upanishad is different in various manuscript recensions, suggesting that the Upanishad was extensively interpolated and expanded over a period of time. The common kernel of the Upanishad across different recensions, states Max Muller, is a reverence for soul, that can be summarized in a few words as, " is the Self – the immortal, the fearless, the Brahman"; the Maitri Upanishad is an important ancient text notable, in its expanded version, for its references to theories found in Buddhism, elements of the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hinduism, as well as the Ashrama system. The text is notable for its practice of Anyatrapyuktam, being one of the earliest known Sanskrit texts that embedded quotes with credits and frequent citations to more ancient Sanskrit texts; the etymological root of the Maitrayaniya Upanishad are unclear. This has led to a variety of names and spellings for this Upanishad. Maitra and Maitri are related words which mean "kindly, good will, friend of all creatures".

The root for the Upanishad is the name of an ancient Indian scholar, sometimes spelled Maitri or Maitreya, giving the text the alternate name of Maitri or Maitra Upanishad. The ancient scholar is credited with a school of thought, thus giving the text the name Maitrayaniya Upanishad. Other names for this text include Maitrayani Upanishad, Maitrayana Upanishad, Maitrayaniya-brahmana Upanishad, Sriyagussakhayam Maitrayaniya-brahmana Upanishad and Maitrayaniyopanishad; the Maitrayaniya Upanishad was composed in late 1st millennium BCE after Atharva Veda texts such as the Mundaka Upanishad and Prashna Upanishad, but its precise chronology is unclear and contested. The chronology is difficult to resolve because all opinions rest on scanty evidence, an analysis of archaism and repetitions across texts, driven by assumptions about evolution of ideas, on presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies. Olivelle includes Maitri Upanishad among the list of principal Upanishads that were composed last around the start of the common era.

Mahony suggests an earlier date, placing Prashna along with Maitri and Mandukya Upanishads, as texts that emerged about early fourth century BCE. Jayatilleke states, "Buddhism is not far removed in time from, though it is prior to, the Maitri Upanishad". Nakamura states that "although Buddhistic influence can be seen in the Maitri Upanishad, the particular terms and modes of expression of Mahayana Buddhism do not yet appear". Phillips, in contrast, lists Maitri Upanishad before and about the time the first Buddhist Pali canonical texts were composed. Ranade posits a view similar to Phillips, placing Maitri's chronological composition in the fifth group of ancient Upanishads and last of the Principal Upanishads. Cowell too considers Maitri Upanishad as late era Upanishad, with its sections comparatively modern, because of the structural and style differences within texts, inconsistencies in Poona manuscript, Calcutta manuscript, Eckstein manuscript, Burnell manuscript and other manuscripts, because some version of the manuscripts insert quotes from Vaishnavism.

Deussen states that the Upanishad is chronologically significant because its author takes for granted the concepts and ideas found in Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hinduism, which must have been established by the time Maitri Upanishad was composed. The extant recension of the text consists seven Prapāṭhakas, of which several sections are Khilas added later; the last two are called as khila by medieval era Indian scholar Ramatirtha. Others consider the last three sections as appendices. Other discovered manuscript versions of the Maitri Upanishad present different number of sections, ranging from 1 to 4, without any appendices. There are differences in style and content among the discovered manuscripts when the text contains the same number of sections; the text is a prose style Upanishad, with a motley collection of different sized paragraphs. The first section has four paragraphs, the second has seven, the third presents five paragraphs, while the fourth section contains six; as appendices, the fifth lesson has two paragraphs, while the sixth Prapathaka is the longest section with thirty eight paragraphs.

The last supplementary section, or the seventh Prapāṭhaka has eleven paragraphs some

Savin Hill station

Savin Hill is a rapid transit station in Boston, Massachusetts. It serves the Ashmont Branch of the MBTA's Red Line, it is located at 121 Savin Hill Avenue adjacent to Sydney Street in the Savin Hill area of the Dorchester neighborhood. Opened in 1845 as a commuter rail station, Savin Hill was converted to rapid transit in 1927 and rebuilt in 2004–05 for handicapped accessibility; the Old Colony Railroad opened from Plymouth to South Boston in November 1845. A station was built at Savin Hill, located just north of the modern location. In December 1872, the Old Colony opened its Shawmut Branch to Milton, which added local service to Savin Hill. Around that time, the station was moved to its modern location just south of Savin Hill Avenue; the new station featured a brick building on the west side of the tracks and a wooden building on the east side. The station was served only by local trains on the outer tracks, while express trains used the inner tracks. After just 54 years, commuter rail service on the Shawmut Branch ended in September 1926.

The Boston Elevated Railway, which had bought the line, began converting it into the Dorchester Extension, a rapid transit extension of the Cambridge-Dorchester Tunnel line. Savin Hill, located on the Old Colony mainline, was rebuilt as a rapid transit station as part of the extension; the commuter rail platforms and station buildings were removed. Savin Hill reopened on November 5, 1927 along with Columbia and Fields Corner as part of the first phase of the extension. In 1934, the Boston Elevated Railway requested the addition of a busway on the west side of the station. Construction on the busway and a pedestrian overpass to the platform began in August and finished in December 1934. Fare control was relocated to the platform level; when the bus routes were diverted away from the station in 1962, the busway was converted to a parking lot. Savin Hill station was further modified during the remainder of the 20th century with the removal of the waiting room in the 1970s and a longer platform extension in the late 1980s to allow 6-car trains.

By the end of the century, however, it still contained the most original structure of any of the pre-war stations on the line. However, like the rest of the stations on the branch, Savin Hill was not handicapped accessible, placing it in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; the MBTA broke ground for the Red Line Rehabilitation Project - a $67 million reconstruction of Shawmut, Fields Corner, Savin Hill stations - in October 2003. Construction began in March 2004; the 1927-built station was closed on May 9, 2004, was razed to make way for the new ADA-compliant station which involved adding elevators for full accessibility. A bus shuttle was run from JFK/UMass station during the 14-month closure, which ended with the opening of the new station on July 31, 2005; the closure was scheduled to last 10 months, but was delayed by inclement weather and slow procurement of structural steel. Trains on the Braintree Branch of the Red Line and the Old Colony and Greenbush commuter rail lines run past Savin Hill on parallel tracks without stopping.

Nearby JFK/UMass, a busy transfer station, received a Braintree Branch platform in 1988 and a commuter rail platform in 2001. However, Savin Hill serves the local neighborhood and is therefore served by only Ashmont Branch trains. In January 2012, the state's Central Transportation Planning staff released a conceptual plan for widening the Southeast Expressway which would involve rearranging Savin Hill station. In this scenario, a second commuter rail track would be added and both placed in a shallow cut-and-cover tunnel under the southbound lanes, while the Braintree Branch tracks would be placed in a deeper tunnel; the Ashmont Branch tracks and station would remain in place. Savin Hill is not directly served by any MBTA Bus routes. However, route 18 runs on Dorchester Avenue about one-tenth of a mile from the station; this route is the successor to streetcar service which once ran on Dorchester Avenue from South Station to River Street in Milton. The next station to the south, Fields Corner, is a major bus transfer station.

Until the 1960s, four bus routes including the 18 terminated at Savin Hill. However, the M. T. A. Desired to build a parking lot at the Savin Hill busway location. In September and December 1962, the 13 and 14 routes were rerouted away from Savin Hill to keep buses off local streets, while the 12 and 18 were combined into the modern 18 route. MBTA - Savin Hill Savin Hill Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Sydney Street entrance from Google Maps Street View

2019 World Athletics Championships – Women's 10,000 metres

The women's 10,000 metres at the World Athletics Championships was held at the Khalifa International Stadium in Doha, Qatar, on 28 September 2019. At the beginning, none of the favorites wanted to lead the race, so leading duties fell on Alina Reh to keep the pace honest, 9:29.69 for the 3000 metres. A lap #3 Kenyan Rosemary Wanjiru accelerated; the field strung out. Her teammates Hellen Obiri and Agnes Tirop followed. If it was a sacrificial tactic, the Ethiopian team took the bait. Letesenbet Gidey, Netsanet Gudeta and Senbere Teferi came forward in chase of the breakaway; the only other athlete to join the lead group was Sifan Hassan, who took a little more than a lap to bridge the gap from the back of the pack. The Kenyan team shared the leading duties, pushing the pace down to 15:32:70. Gudeta couldn't keep up with the fast pace dropping out; the Kenyan efforts kept driving the train until 4 laps to go when World leader Gidey accelerated to the lead. The Kenyans struggled to keep up, again late to bridge the gap, Hassan went around the Kenyan team to catch Gidey just before the bell.

Running around lapped runners, Hassan extended the gap to win by 3.5 seconds in 30:17.62. Tirop held on for bronze. Hassan was running only her second 10,000 ever, her only other experience at the distance was a 34:28 road 10K from 2012. The first 5 were the fastest 5 times of the season. Excepting Teferi, it was personal bests for the first 11 total in the race. 42 year old Sinead Diver's personal best turned out to be the W40 Masters World Record. After setting the world record in the Mile, the 1500 was the primary target for Hassan. A week she completed the double a week later. Hassan had attempted doubles at the Olympics and previous two World Championships picking up a bronze medal in the 5000 in 2017. With a lack of success at 800 metres and the 5000 scheduled on same nights as the 1500, the odd 10,000/1500 double has never been accomplished at this level. Only Paavo Nurmi has gold medals in both events and his were in different Olympiads. Before the competition, the records were as follows: The event schedule, in local time, was as follows: The final was started at 21:10