Community of Madrid
The Community of Madrid is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. It is located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and its capital is the city of Madrid, which is the capital of the country. The Community of Madrid is bounded to the south and east by Castile–La Mancha and to the north and west by Castile and it was formally created in 1983, based on the limits of the province of Madrid, until conventionally included in the historical region of New Castile. The Community of Madrid is the third most populous in Spain with 6,369,167 inhabitants mostly concentrated in the area of Madrid. It is the most densely populated autonomous community, Madrids economy is of roughly equal size to Catalonias, which remains Spains largest. Madrid thus has the highest GDP per capita in the country, some notable discoveries of the region the bell-shaped vase of Ciempozuelos. During the Roman Empire, the region was part of the Citerior Tarraconese province, except for the south-west portion of it and it was crossed by two important Roman roads, the via xxiv-xxix (joining Astorga to laminium and via xxv, and contained some important conurbations.
The city of Complutum became an important metropolis, whereas Titulcia, during the period of the Visigothic Kingdom, the region lost its importance. The population was scattered amongst several small towns, Alcalá de Henares was designated the bishopric seat in the 5th century by orders of Asturio, archbishop of Toledo, but this event was not enough to bring back the lost splendor of the city. The centre of the peninsula was one of the regions of the Al-Andalus until the 11th century when it became important. The Muslim governors created a system of fortresses and towers all across the region with which they tried to stop the advance of the Christian kingdoms of the north. The fortress of Mayrit was built somewhere between 860 and 880 AD, as a walled precinct where a military and religious community lived, and it soon became the most strategic fortress in defense of the city of Toledo above the fortresses of Talamanca de Jarama and Qal-at-Abd-Al-Salam. In 1083, king Alfonso VI of Castile conquered the city of Madrid, Alcalá de Henares fell in 1118 in a new period of Castilian annexation.
The feudal and ecclesiastical lords came into constant conflict with the different councils that had granted the authority to repopulate. Specifically, Alcalá de Henares was under the hands of the archbishopric of Toledo, Castilian monarchs showed a predilection for the center of the peninsula, with abundant forests and game. El Pardo was a region visited frequently by kings since the time of Henry III, the Catholic Monarchs started the construction of the Royal Palace of Aranjuez. In the 16th century, San Lorenzo de El Escorial was built, besides its growing political importance, it became a cultural center with the foundation of the University of Alcalá de Henares in 1508. In 1561, King Philip II made Madrid the capital of the empire, the surrounding territories became economically subordinated to the town itself, even beyond the present day limits of the Community of Madrid
Las Rozas de Madrid
Las Rozas de Madrid is one of the larger townships and municipalities in the autonomous community of Madrid, with an area of between 58.8 and 59.14 km². It is located some 17 –20 km northwest of the city of Madrid itself, Las Rozas is the beginning of this freeway, near the fork road M-505 to El Escorial, which marks the southern boundary of this comarca or rural district. The municipality is served by four RENFE railway stations– Las Rozas, Las Matas, El Pinar, a fifth stop, at Peñascales was closed. The municipality shares borders with Torrelodones to the north, Villanueva del Pardillo and Galapagar to the west, Las Rozas has one of the highest average per capita incomes in the Community of Madrid. The provisioning for local services has at times been outpaced by the high birth. However, by 2010 the community was served in all health, education. Various theories exist, for example, The clearing by Romans for military exercises, according to some historians Las Rozas could be the old Miacum, the name associated with the city of Madrid, dating from about the third century.
Las Rozas is situated near the river Guadarrama and along the ancient road between Segovia and Titulcia, the part of this ancient road near Las Rozas is now approximately the A6/M505 route. In the winter of 1936 the pro-Franco troops advanced for the west of Madrid from their bases at Brunete, Villaviciosa de Odón and Campamento. In the middle of a fog with freezing temperature, Francos nationalists, supported by the air force. The inhabitants of Las Rozas took refuge in other places of the nearby Sierra such as the caves in Hoyo de Manzanares and these roceños who fled were nicknamed cucos. When the war was over, the Church of San Miguel and of the 270 houses of the settlement,92 were severely damaged and only 13 were intact. The Ministerio de la Gobernación created the Dirección General de Regiones Devastadas for the reconstruction of towns destroyed by the war, Las Rozas can be reached from the Autopista del Noroeste, from N-VI National Road form Madrid to A Coruña M-50 and M-505. This freeway is one of the first in Spain, put on service in early 1967, then,22 km from Las Rozas, to Northwest, in Collado Villalba, this freeway, become to Tollway.
There are 7 bus lines connect the town with Moncloa 621,624,622,623,626,628,629. There is another bus line that connects Las Rozas with Aluche, passing through Majadahonda, Las Rozas has three main train stations, Las Rozas, near the Old Town in the south of the municipality, Las Matas in the North, and El Pinar. The Lines 8 +9 run from Atocha in the south of Madrid and Chamartín in the north of Madrid via El Tejar, El Pinar and Las Matas to end-stations El Escorial and Cotos Ski station. Line 10 runs runs from Atocha, but via a circular route to Principe Pio in the west of Madrid via Las Rozas, Pinar
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography. Sometimes the word countries is used to both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it refers only to states. The word country comes from Old French contrée, itself derived from Vulgar Latin contrata and it most likely entered the English language after the Franco-Norman invasion during the 11th century. Areas much smaller than a state may be called by names such as the West Country in England, the Black Country, Constable Country. In many European countries the words are used for sub-divisions of the territory, as in the German Bundesländer. The modern Italian contrada is a word with its meaning varying locally, the term country is frequently used to refer to sovereign states. There is no agreement on the number of countries in the world. There are 206 sovereign states, of which 193 states are members of the United Nations, all are defined as states by declarative theory of statehood and constitutive theory of statehood.
The latest proclaimed state is South Sudan in 2011, the Kingdom of Denmark, a sovereign state, comprises Metropolitan Denmark and two nominally separate countries—the Faroe Islands, and Greenland—which are almost fully internally self-governing. The Kingdom of the Netherlands, a state, comprises four separate countries, Aruba, Curaçao. The degree of autonomy of non-sovereign countries varies widely, some are possessions of sovereign states, as several states have overseas territories, with citizenry at times identical and at times distinct from their own
Fuenlabrada is a city and municipality in the Madrid Metropolitan Area, Spain. It is to the southwest of the region,22.5 km from the capital, the name probably has its origin in Fuente Labrada. By 1975, the municipality had already reached a population of 18,442, foreign workers have settled in the city, most of them coming from Latin America, the Maghreb and Romania. Famous people from Fuenlabrada include Spain and Atletico Madrid striker Fernando Torres, the first news about Fuenlabrada came out 200 years after its founding because of an ambitious project promoted by Philip II of Spain, the Topographic Relations of Philip II. It is all about the relations of all the villages of Spain. With the many pieces of information gathered by that questionnaire an accurate report of Fuenlabrada was created in the 16th century, roads The city is linked with the M-50, A-42, M-506, M-407 and M-409 highways. It is connected as well to the towns of Humanes de Madrid and Moraleja de Enmedio through the M-413 and M-405 local roads.
Metro Fuenlabrada has good connections with Madrid, Móstoles, Alcorcón and Leganés through the Madrid Metro line 12, including five stations. Railway Fuenlabrada is connected to Madrid via the Cercanías Madrid line C-5, primary and Secondary education Fuenlabrada has 33 kindergarten and daycare centers,50 primary schools and 15 secondary schools. The UNED has a branch here, the city is home to ACB basketball team Baloncesto Fuenlabrada, currently relegated to the second tier division. It is one of the foremost teams, having competed in the top division of Spanish basketball for several years. Their home games are played at Fernando Martín sports centre, which has a capacity of 5,700, CF Fuenlabrada is the local football team, playing in 2ª División B. Their current coach is famous former striker Fernando Morientes and they play as home team at the Fernando Torres stadium, inaugurated by the footballer himself on September 1,2011. The stadium has a capacity of 2,500, Fernando Torres, born in Fuenlabrada on March 20,1984 Roberto, born in Fuenlabrada on February 10,1986 Official website of Fuenlabrada
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
A Mediterranean climate /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate, is the climate typical of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean climate is characterised by dry summers and mild, moist winters, Mediterranean climate zones are associated with the four large subtropical high pressure cells of the oceans, the Azores High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, and South Pacific High. These climatological high pressure cells migrate by latitude according to the angle of the Sun, shifting north-eastward in the summer. These semi-permanent high pressure systems play a role in the formation of the worlds subtropical and tropical deserts as well as the Mediterranean Basins climate. The Azores High is associated with the Mediterranean climate found in the Mediterranean Basin, the Sahara Desert, the South Atlantic High is similarly associated with the Namib Desert and Kalahari Desert, and the Mediterranean climate of the western part of South Africa. Under the Köppen climate classification, hot climates and cool dry-summer climates are often referred to as mediterranean.
Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group, temperate climates or C zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months. The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern, Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level, the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat, a represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while b indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C. Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates usually occur on the sides of continents. Under Trewarthas system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, during summer, regions of mediterranean climate are dominated by subtropical high pressure cells, with dry sinking air capping a surface marine layer of varying humidity and making rainfall unlikely.
In many Mediterranean climates there is a strong character to daily temperatures in the warm months. The majority of the regions with mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters, however winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly between different regions with a mediterranean climate. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season, in contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around. In North America, areas with Csc climate can be found in the Olympic, Cascade and these locations are found at high altitude nearby lower altitude regions characterized by a warm-summer mediterranean climate or hot-summer mediterranean climate. A rare instance of this occurs in the tropics, on Haleakalā Summit in Hawaii. In South America, Csc regions can be found along the Andes in Chile, the town of Balmaceda is one of the few towns confirmed to have this climate. Small areas with a Csc climate can be found at elevations in Corsica
People's Party (Spain)
The Peoples Party is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain. It is one of the four parties of modern Spanish politics. The new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic, in 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of Founding Chairman. The PP was until November 2011 the largest opposition party in the Congress of Deputies, with 153 out of 350 deputies, and its youth organization is New Generations of the Peoples Party of Spain. In the elections of November 2011, the PP won a majority, the PP is a member of the center-right European Peoples Party, and in the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group. The PP is a member of the Centrist Democrat International, the PP was one of the founding organizations of the Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The party has its roots in the Peoples Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga, although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an extremely gradual transition to democracy.
However, he underestimated the publics distaste for Francoism. Additionally, while he attempted to convey a reformist image, the number of former Francoists in the party led the public to perceive it as both reactionary and authoritarian. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, in the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted within the AP over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fragas wing won the struggle, prompting most of the disenchanted reactionaries to leave the party, the AP joined with other moderate conservatives to form the Democratic Coalition. In the March 1979 general election, the CD received 6.1 percent of the vote, at the APs Second Party Congress in December 1979, party leaders re-assessed their involvement in the CD. Many felt that the creation of the coalition had merely confused the voters, Fraga resumed control of the party, and the political resolutions adopted by the party congress reaffirmed the conservative orientation of the AP.
In the early 1980s, Fraga succeeded in rallying the various components of the right around his leadership and he was aided in his efforts to revive the AP by the increasing disintegration of the UCD. In the general held in October 1982, the AP gained votes both from previous UCD supporters and from the far right. It became the opposition party to the Spanish Socialist Workers Party. Whereas the APs parliamentary representation had dropped to 9 seats in 1979, the increased strength of the AP was further evidenced in the municipal and regional elections held in May 1983, when the party drew 26 percent of the vote. A significant portion of the electorate appeared to support the APs emphasis on law, subsequent political developments belied the partys aspirations to continue increasing its base of support
Clamart is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 8.7 km from the center of Paris, the town is divided into two parts, separated by a forest, bas Clamart, the historical centre, and petit Clamart with urbanization developed in the 1960s replacing pea fields. The canton of Clamart includes only a part of the commune, the other part of the commune belongs to the canton of Le Plessis-Robinson. The city name is famous in French gastronomy, a specialty with peas as a side-dish, is called à la Clamart. Close to Paris and its marketplace, Clamarts peas were the first of the season. On 22 August 1962 the French President Charles de Gaulle was the target of an assassination attempt organised by the French Air Force Lieutenant-Colonel, as de Gaulles black Citroën DS19 sped through Petit-Clamart it was met by a barrage of submachine-gun fire. De Gaulle and his entourage, which included his wife, survived the attempt without any casualties or serious injuries while the perpetrators were subsequently all arrested.
The leader of the attempt, Jean Bastien-Thiry, was executed by firing squad after his 1963 conviction. Clamart is served by Clamart station on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail line, there are several bus lines connecting Clamart to neighbouring towns. Clamart has multiple primary schools, and attendance is determined by ones residence, junior high schools, Collège Alain Founier Collège Maison Blanche Senior high school, Lycée Jacques Monod Henri Matisse lived in Clamart before the First World War. Jean Arp lived in Clamart in the 1930s, yasser Arafat died in the Hôpital dinstruction des armées Percy in 2004. Jean Bastien-Thiry, leader of 1962 assassination attempt against Charles de Gaulle, nikolai Berdyaev died here in 1948. Hatem Ben Arfa was born here in 1987, theofan and theologian of Eastern Orthodox Church, lived here in 1931. Beauford Delaney, an American born artist, moved to the town in 1953
Getafe is a city in the south of the Madrid metropolitan area and one of the most populated and industrialised cities in the area. It is home to one of the oldest Spanish military air bases, within the city is the Cerro de los Ángeles, or Hill of the Angels, a site considered the geographical center of the Iberian Peninsula. Getafe is located 13 km south of Madrids city centre, within an area of Spains Meseta Central in the Manzanares River basin. Getafes proximity to Madrid fostered industrial development during the 20th and 21st centuries, the citys industrialisation led to an increase in population, reaching 170,115 in 2011. Due to its industrial and social networks, the majority of work or study within the city. The increase in population led to the construction of access roads, an increase in available public services. During the Middle Ages, a number of villages were located in the area of Getafe. One of the villages was Alarnes, which was very close to the current urban center. In 1326, the villagers united themselves into one town, situated on the road that linked Madrid with Toledo.
This new town was called Xatafi, a name came from the Arab word jata. It is assumed that the name Xatafi referred to the royal road, the towns name evolved over time, from Xetafe to Jetafee to Jetaphe to Jetafe to Getafe. The history of Getafe can be split into three clearly defined eras, in the first era, which lasted from Prehistory until 1326, there existed distinct villages in the area, though Getafe itself did not exist as a municipality. The second era lasted from the 14th century until the 20th century, during which Getafe was established as a town, the presence of humans in the area of Getafe dates back to the Lower Paleolithic period. Various stone tools and bracelets from this period have been excavated from the banks of the Manzanares River, the Romans dominated the Iberian Peninsula from the 2nd century BCE until the 5th century AD. In the 3rd century AD, the Romans constructed a villa called La Torecilla, the area was subsequently overrun by a series of Germanic tribes, including Suebi and Visigoths, and the Indoeuropean Alans.
The area currently encompassed by the Getafe municipal district was invaded by the Moors in the 8th century, King Alfonso VI conquered the villages of the area in 1085. In 1326, the inhabitants of the villages moved closer to the road connecting Madrid and Toledo, in effect creating a new town. In that same century, the hermitage of La Magdalena was built
Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo.
With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile