Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Sovereign-class cruise ship
The Sovereign class is Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd's third generation of cruise ships being operated by Royal Caribbean International and Pullmantur Cruises. The three ships of the class were built in Saint-Nazaire, France at the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyards; the first modern "megaships" to be built, they were the first series of cruise ships to include a multi-story atrium with glass elevators. They had a single deck devoted to cabins with private balconies instead of oceanview cabins; the first ship, the Sovereign of the Seas launched in 1988, was the world's largest passenger ship in service, breaking the record held by the SS Norway (originally designed as an ocean liner. Sovereign held this distinction until 1990 when Norway succeeded her after being refurbished with the addition of two more decks. In 1991, Royal Caribbean International launched a modified sister ship, the Monarch of the Seas. In 1992, the line launched the Majesty of the Seas; these ships were among the largest modern cruise ships to sail during the late 1980s and early 1990s.
During that time, other major cruise lines followed suit, building ships that included many of the same features and similar dimensions as the Sovereign class. Carnival Cruise Lines launched the Fantasy class in 1990, comparable in size to the Sovereign class and featuring a multi-story atrium with glass elevators. Princess Cruises countered by launching two ships in 1990 and 1991 to compete with the Sovereign class, the Crown Princess and the Regal Princess, they featured an atrium and two decks devoted to cabins with private balconies instead of windowed "oceanview" cabins. Since newer and larger ships have exceeded the size of the Sovereign-class ships.'They are less than half the size of the Freedom-class ships and about a third the size of Oasis-class ships. In 2007, Monarch of the Seas became the first major cruise liner in the world to be captained by a woman, the Swede Karin Stahre Janson, who remained the only one until 2010 when the British captain Sarah Breton took charge of MS Artemis of P&O Cruises.
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd transferred Sovereign of the Seas and Monarch of the Seas from Royal Caribbean International to their Pullmantur Cruises subsidiary in 2008 and 2013, respectively. Plans to transfer Majesty of the Seas to Pullmantur in 2016 had been announced in November 2014, however in July 2015, Royal Caribbean reversed those plans, instead stating that Majesty of the Seas would stay with Royal Caribbean International and be receiving a massive overhaul and upgrade in early 2016 to bring her up to today's standards
DNV GL is an international accredited registrar and classification society headquartered in Høvik, Norway. The company has about 14,500 employees and 350 offices operating in more than 100 countries, provides services for several industries including maritime, renewable energy, oil & gas, food & beverage and healthcare, it was created in 2013 as a result of a merger between two leading organizations in the field - Det Norske Veritas and Germanischer Lloyd. DNV GL is the world's largest classification society, providing services for 13,175 vessels and mobile offshore units amounting to 265.4 mill gt, which represents a global market share of 21%. It is the largest technical consultancy and supervisory to the global renewable energy and oil & gas industry - 65% of the world's offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV GL's technical standards. Prior to the merger, both DNV and GL have independently acquired several companies in different sectors, such as Hélimax Energy, Garrad Hassan, Windtest and KEMA, which now contribute to DNV GL's expertise across several industries.
In addition to providing services such as technical assessment, risk management and software development, DNV GL invests in research. Remi Eriksen took over as Group President and CEO of DNV GL on August 1, 2015, succeeding Henrik O. Madsen. DNV GL's history dates back to 1864, when Det Norske Veritas was established in Norway to head technical inspection and evaluation of Norwegian merchant vessels. On the other hand, Germanischer Lloyd was founded in Hamburg around the same period in 1867 by a group of 600 ship owners, ship builders and insurers. DNV GL celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2014. On December 20, 2012, the two companies announced the merger, approved by competition authorities in South Korea, the US, the EU and China, thus allowing the merger contract between DNV and GL to be signed on September 12, 2013; the independent Det Norske Veritas Foundation owned 63.5% of DNV GL shares and Mayfair Vermögensverwaltung 36.5%.until December 2017, when Mayfair sold its shares to the Det Norske Veritas Foundation.
Together with Bureau Veritas and American Bureau of Shipping, DNV GL is one of the three major companies in the classification business with 300 offices in 100 different countries. But the company is a key player in strategic innovation and risk management for several other industries including renewable energy and gas, electric power generation and distribution, aviation, finance and beverage, healthcare and information technology; every year, DNV GL invests in R&D which amounts to 5% of its total revenue. Since 1864, DNV GL has always maintained a department dedicated to research that enhances and develops services and standards for various industries. Many of the innovations and findings by DNV have been used as a basis for international standards. At present, the main research programs include arctic operations, biological hazards, future energy solutions and information processes, maritime technology and transport systems, as well as multifunctional materials. DNV GL is organised into five business areas: DNV GL - Maritime: Classification, risk-management and technical advisory to the maritime industry on safety, enhanced performance, fuel efficiency, etc.
As a classification society, DNV GL sets standards for ships and offshore structures - known as Class Rules. They comprise safety and environmental requirements that vessels and other offshore mobile structures in international waters must comply with. DNV GL is authorized by 130 maritime administrations to perform certification or verification on their behalf. DNV GL - Oil & Gas: Technical advisor to the global oil and gas industry, services in technical and marine assurance and advisory, risk management and offshore classification. DNV GL works with upstream oil and gas companies to identify and control risk, improve safety and performance, assure reliability of a project's development and operation; the company develops industry standards and best practices through joint industry projects, bringing together a number of industry players to address specific technical challenges. As an example, about 65% of the world's offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV GL's technical standards.
DNV GL - Energy: Counselling and certification services to the global energy sector, including: renewable energy, energy efficiency, power production and distribution. DNV GL operates the world's largest high power and voltage test laboratory, working as an independent, accredited certifier of electricity transmission & distribution components. DNV GL is the leading independent advisor and certifier to the renewable industry, notably within wind energy, its services include wind turbine type certification, design consultancy, energy yield assessments, site assessments, solar plants and turbine design and solar forecasting, front-end engineering. In addition, DNV GL's energy arm has advisory services in energy efficiency, renewable integration, clean conventional power generation, renewable plant operations improvement services and distribution grids, energy storage and cyber security. DNV GL - Business Assurance: Certification, training/education services that support customer products and organizations over a wide spectrum of fields.
DNV GL is an accredited certification body. They certify the compliance of companies according to a third party standard, such as ISO 9001
Allure of the Seas
Allure of the Seas is an Oasis-class cruise ship owned and operated by Royal Caribbean International. As of 2018 the Oasis class were the largest passenger ships in service, Allure is 50 millimetres longer than her sister ship Oasis of the Seas, though both were built to the same specifications. Designed under the name "Project Genesis", she was ordered from Aker Finnyards in February 2006 and her construction began at the Perno shipyard, Finland, in February 2008, she was named in May 2008 after a contest was held to name her sister. The keel of Allure of the Seas was laid on 2 December 2008, shortly after the shipyard had been acquired by STX Europe. Upon her launch in November 2009, she became the world's largest passenger ship, taking the place of Oasis of the Seas, she was eclipsed by her sister ship, Harmony of the Seas, upon its launch in June 2015. Harmony of the Seas has an overall length of 362.12 metres. The keel of Allure of the Seas was laid on 2 December 2008 at the STX Europe Turku shipyard, during a ceremony involving Royal Caribbean and STX representatives.
She was launched on 20 November 2009, with further outfitting taking place while afloat in the shipyard. Allure of the Seas was declared complete and formally delivered to Royal Caribbean on 28 October 2010, she left the Turku shipyard on 29 October 2010 at 05:45 UTC, heading directly to her home port of Port Everglades, near Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. The ship is equipped with telescoping funnels to pass under bridges such as the Storebælt Bridge, which she passed on 30 October 2010. While media has reported that there was only 30 centimetres of clearance, the truth is that at the mean water level it was closer to 2–3 metres and the much-advertised squat effect, whereby vessels traveling at speed in a shallow channel will be drawn deeper into the water, did not have significant effect on the draft of the vessel. On 11 November 2010 at 14:30 UTC, Allure of the Seas arrived at her home port of Port Everglades, Florida, she was greeted by thousands of spectators waiting on the shore. The ship was formally named by her godmother, the fictional character Princess Fiona, in a ceremony on 28 November 2010.
In February 2014, Allure of the Seas entered dry dock at Grand Bahama island for seven days to replace a damaged gearbox in one of her Azipods. As the dry dock facility was not large enough to accommodate an Oasis-class ship, a unique solution had to be devised to allow the replacement, known as "Project Atlantis". During her time in dry dock, the crew used the downtime to make numerous repairs and refurbishments to the guest facilities, including the installation of new carpets. Allure of the Seas sailed year-round in the Caribbean region out of Port Everglades from its homeporting in 2010 through 2014, she changed port to Barcelona and sailed the Mediterranean between May and October 2015, becoming the largest cruise ship and the first Oasis-class ship to spend a full season in that region. Afterward, she returned to Port Everglades. Allure of the Seas will change its home port in November 2018 to the Port of Miami, where Royal Caribbean will construct a new cruise terminal, she will be joined by the fourth Oasis-class vessel, Symphony of the Seas, both will sail year-round from the port offering seven-night Western and Eastern Caribbean cruises.
In March 2019, Allure of the Seas was named the "Number 2 Best Cruise Ship Overall" in the 9th annual Cruise Critic Cruisers' Choice Awards. The classified length of Allure of the Seas is the same as that of her sister, 360 metres, though she is reported to be 50 millimetres longer than Oasis of the Seas. According to the shipyard, this is not intentional and such small differences in length may occur due to the temperature of the steel in a ship as big as this; the gross tonnage of Allure of the Seas is 225,282 and her displacement is equal to that of Oasis of the Seas, estimated to be around 100,000 metric tons less than that of an American Nimitz-class aircraft carrier. Her steel hull alone weighs 54,000 tons; the ship features a two-deck dance hall, a theatre with 1,380 seats, an ice skating rink, 7 distinct "neighborhoods", 25 dining options, including a Starbucks coffee shop at sea. Many of the ship's interiors were extensively decorated by muralist Clarissa Parish. Before beginning service from Port Everglades, Allure of the Seas was fitted with an 80 kW solar array by BAM Energy Group which powers the shopping district.
The system cost US$600,000 and covers an area of 2,000 m2. It uses Uni-Solar BIPV laminates designed to withstand marine conditions. Official website
MS Freedom of the Seas
MS Freedom of the Seas is a cruise ship operated by Royal Caribbean International. She is the namesake of Royal Caribbean's Freedom class, can accommodate 3,634 passengers and 1,300 crew on fifteen passenger decks. Freedom of the Seas was the largest passenger ship built from 2006 until construction of the Royal Caribbean International's Oasis-class ships in late 2009; as of November 2018, she is the 13th largest passenger ship in the world by gross tonnage, at 155,889 GT. The Freedom of the Seas was built at the Aker Yards Turku Shipyard, which built the ships of the Voyager class as well as the other ships of the Freedom class. Upon its completion, it became the largest passenger ship built, taking that honor from Cunard's Queen Mary 2. Freedom of the Seas is 2.4 metres narrower than QM2 at the waterline, 6 metres shorter, has 1.5 metres less draft, is 8.3 metres less tall and 10 miles per hour slower. Freedom however is the larger ship in terms of gross tonnage, its gross tonnage as verified by Det Norske Veritas, a Norwegian marine classification society, was 154,407 GT, compared with QM2's 148,528 GT.
Freedom of the Seas had the highest gross tonnage of any passenger ship yet built until the 2009 completion of Oasis of the Seas. The ship has four bow thrusters; when at sea Freedom of the Seas consumes 12,800 kg of fuel per hour. The ship has an interior promenade 445 feet long called the "Royal Promenade"; the ship has three swimming areas: an interactive water park, a dedicated adult pool, the main pool. The 13th deck has a sports area with a rock climbing wall, the FlowRider surf simulator, a miniature golf course and a full size basketball court. Other items include a casino and a three-deck-high broadway-style theater. Many of the ship's interiors were extensively decorated by muralist Clarissa Parish; the ship docked at Blohm und Voss in Hamburg, Germany on 17 April 2006 to repair a damaged bearing in one of the three Azipod propulsion units and some minor modifications prior to her official handover to Royal Caribbean International on 24 April 2006. She visited Oslo, Norway before sailing for Southampton, England.
The ship sailed on its first transatlantic crossing on 3 May 2006. Freedom of the Seas arrived in New York Harbor USA for her official naming ceremony on 12 May 2006, broadcast live on NBC's The Today Show from Cape Liberty Cruise Port in Bayonne, New Jersey, thereafter traveled to Boston for the weekend of May 19–22; the ship's godmother was selected as Katherine Louise Calder, a Portland, Oregon foster care provider. She began operations out of Miami with her first cruise and maiden voyage on 4 June, sailing to western Caribbean locations. On 4 May 2009, Freedom of the Seas moved her home port from the Port of Miami-Dade to Port Canaveral; the ship underwent her first dry dock refurbishment in late March 2011. In January 2015, the ship underwent another 24-day dry dock. During the dry dock some new interior passenger cabins were added. In winter 2016, Freedom of the Seas repositioned to Port Everglades, from where she undertook cruises in the Caribbean. After homeporting in Barcelona in the spring and summer of 2017, Freedom of the Seas returned to Port Everglades.
In May 2018, she commenced sailing Southern Caribbean sailings out of San Juan, Puerto Rico until April 2021. Freedom of the Seas Official Website BBC News "Final polish at Germany's Blohm + Voss shipyard" Aftenposten Norway "World's largest cruise ship in Oslo" BBC News "Massive cruise ship arrives in UK" BBC News "Huge cruise ship leaves UK shores"
Saint-Nazaire is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France, in traditional Brittany. The town has a major harbour on the right bank near the Atlantic Ocean; the town is at the south of the second-largest swamp in France, called "la Brière". Given its location, Saint-Nazaire has a long tradition of shipbuilding; the Chantiers de l'Atlantique, one of the largest shipyards in the world, has constructed notable superliners such as SS Normandie, SS France, RMS Queen Mary 2 and MS Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship in the world as of 2018. Saint-Nazaire was a small village until the industrial area but became a large town in the second half of the 19th century, thanks to the construction of railways and the growth of the seaport. Saint-Nazaire progressively replaced Nantes as the main haven on the Loire estuary; the town was one of the most damaged in France during World War II. As a major submarine base for the Germans, Saint-Nazaire was subject to a British raid in 1942 and it was bombed by the Allies until 1945.
Being one of the Atlantic pockets, Saint-Nazaire was one of the last territories in Europe to be liberated from the Germans, on 11 May 1945. Archaeologists believe that Saint-Nazaire is built upon the remnants of Corbilo, an Armorican Gaulish city populated by the Namnetes tribe, the second-largest Gaulish city, after Massilia. Archeology suggests that the area has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic period, as evidenced by the presence of monuments like the tumulus of Dissignac, the dolmen located in the centre of the present-day city, ancient bronzes found in the vicinity. According to the 15th-century chronicler Alain Bouchart, Brutus of Troy, the mythical ancestor of the Bretons, travelled to Saint-Nazaire to set foot upon the new homeland of his people. Historical accounts note that at the end of the Roman Empire, some Britons colonized the Loire estuary and the peninsula containing Guérande; the farthest extent of the Breton language in the Loire region is Donges, to the east of Saint-Nazaire.
According to the late-6th-century writer Gregory of Tours, the Roman Church sheltered the remains of the martyr Nazarius in a local basilica. According to legend, the Breton chief Waroch II sent an emissary to seize these relics; the plot was foiled. Waroch, interpreting this as a miracle, was deterred and the village thenceforth took the name of Sanctus Nazarius de Sinuario. After this point, the history of Saint-Nazaire, like much of Europe during the Dark Ages, is not well documented. Battles occurred, such as in 1380 when Jehan d'Ust defended the city in the name of John V, Duke of Brittany against the Castilian fleet during the Hundred Years' War. After this time, Saint-Nazaire became the seat of a parish extending from Penhoët to Pornichet, part of the Viscountcy of Saint-Nazaire. Like the whole of Brittany, Saint-Nazaire formed part of the Duchy of Brittany until 1532, when it was annexed by France. In 1624, the city was threatened by the Calvinists. In 1756, a fort was built on the order of the governor of Brittany to protect the town, which by had 600 inhabitants.
Until the French Revolution, Saint-Nazaire belonged to the province of Brittany. At the beginning of the 19th century, the port only consisted of one simple harbor; as the town was so far inland, its main economy was not based on commercial fishing but on its strategic location as the lowest possible navigation point for large ships and on supplying pilots for navigation further up the Loire. In 1800, the parish of Saint-Nazaire had 3,216 inhabitants; the modern Saint-Nazaire was created by the administration of Napoleon III. The population of 3,216 in 1800 shows its battered history, with a local, of Lower Brittany, minor representation from most other areas of France. From this point forward the population of Saint-Nazaire experienced exponential growth, reflected in its nickname of "Little Breton California", or "Liverpool of the West". In 1802, a road was built to develop the port, which extended by 1835 to a breakwater with a navigational lighthouse at its end; the development included new basins for ships to unload to barges that carried goods further up the river.
This development moved the town into the area of the city, now called the district of "Little Morocco". This development made the town the base for the passenger steamships of the Nantes–Saint-Nazaire line, as well as making the town the alternate port for ships which could not access Nantes. In 1856, the first wet dock was dug in "Halluard City", making it possible for ships to moor and turn; this led to the construction of the town's first railway connection. In 1857, the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans railroad company of Orléans connected Saint-Nazaire to Nantes. In 1862, the first transatlantic telegraph lines were installed from France to South America, coming ashore at Saint-Nazaire. 1862 saw the construction of major shipbuilding facilities, including those of Chantier Scott, which launched the first French metal-hulled ships. In 1868, Saint-Nazaire became a sub-prefecture of the town of Savenay. A second dock basin was created at Penhoët in 1881, to allow the handling of larger ships, but a lock gate built to access it cut the town in two, thus creating Old Saint-Nazaire and an artificial island called "Little Morocco".
In early 1870, Nantes-born Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau joined the bar in Saint-Nazaire. In September he became, in spite of his youth, secretary to the municipal commission tempo
Symphony of the Seas
Symphony of the Seas is an Oasis-class cruise ship owned and operated by Royal Caribbean International. As of 22 January 2019, she is the largest passenger ship in the world by gross tonnage, at 228,021 GT, surpassing her sister Harmony of the Seas. Symphony of the Seas was built in the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard in France, she is the fourth ship in its Oasis-class series. 29 October 2015 – keel laid 9 June 2017 – float out 15 to 18 February 2018 – sea trials 23 March 2018 – formally turned over to Royal Caribbean International 24 March 2018 – ship left Saint-Nazaire for Malaga under the command of Rob Hempstead, arriving on 27 March 29 March 2018 – ship arrived in first homeport of Barcelona 31 March 2018 – first passenger cruise 7 April 2018 – official maiden voyage 9 November 2018 – arrived at new Royal Caribbean terminal in PortMiami. Symphony of the Seas measures 361.011 metres in length and has a gross tonnage of 228,081 across 18 decks. She is able to accommodate 5,518 passengers at double occupancy up to a maximum capacity of 6,680 passengers, as well as a 2,200-person crew.
Facilities include a children's water park, a full-size basketball court, ice-skating rink, two 43-foot rock-climbing walls. There is a'central park' which contains over 20,000 tropical plants. Alexa and Ocean PenaVega were chosen as the "Godfamily" of the ship, marking the first time in the industry that a family was a ship sponsor; the christening ceremony took place in Miami in November 2018. During her first season Symphony of the Seas will sail from Barcelona, Spain, on seven-night Western Mediterranean cruises. On 28 October 2018, she repositioned to the Port of Miami in Florida, United States. In November 2018, she began Caribbean cruises. Symphony of the Seas arrived in Miami on November 9, 2018, she will sail an Eastern Caribbean itinerary from Miami to Philipsburg, Sint Maarten, she will sail on a Western Caribbean itinerary to Roatán, Honduras. In May 2019 Nassau will be replaced with Coco Cay, Bahamas. Official website