Theodore Samuel Williams was an American professional baseball player and manager. He played his entire 19-year Major League Baseball career as a left fielder for the Boston Red Sox from 1939 to 1960. Nicknamed "The Kid," "The Splendid Splinter," "Teddy Ballgame," and "The Thumper," Williams is regarded as one of the greatest players in baseball history. Williams was a nineteen-time All-Star, a two-time recipient of the American League Most Valuable Player Award, a six-time AL batting champion, a two-time Triple Crown winner, he finished his playing career with a.344 batting average, 521 home runs, a.482 on-base percentage, the highest of all time. His career batting average is the highest of any MLB player whose career was played in the live-ball era, ranks tied for 7th all-time. Born and raised in San Diego, Williams played baseball throughout his youth. Joining the Red Sox in 1939, he emerged as one of the sport's best hitters. In 1941, Williams posted a.406 batting average, making him the last MLB player to bat over.400 in a season.
He followed this up by winning his first Triple Crown in 1942. Williams was required to interrupt his baseball career in 1943 to serve three years in the United States Navy and Marine Corps during World War II. Upon returning to MLB in 1946, Williams won his first AL MVP Award and played in his only World Series. In 1947, he won his second Triple Crown. Williams was returned to active military duty for portions of the 1952 and 1953 seasons to serve as a Marine combat aviator in the Korean War. In 1957 and 1958 at the ages of 39 and 40 he was the AL batting champion for the fifth and sixth time. Williams retired from playing in 1960, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility. Williams managed the Washington Senators/Texas Rangers franchise from 1969 to 1972. An avid sport fisherman, he hosted a television program about fishing, was inducted into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame. Williams' involvement in the Jimmy Fund helped raise millions in dollars for cancer care and research.
In 1991 President George H. W. Bush presented Williams with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award bestowed by the United States government, he was selected for the Major League Baseball All-Time Team in 1997 and the Major League Baseball All-Century Team in 1999. Williams was born in San Diego on August 30, 1918, named Theodore Samuel Williams after former President Theodore Roosevelt as well as his father, Samuel Stuart Williams, he amended his birth certificate, removing his middle name, which he claimed originated from a maternal uncle, killed in World War I. His father was a soldier and photographer from New York, while his mother, May Venzor, a Mexican-American from El Paso, was an evangelist and lifelong soldier in the Salvation Army. Williams resented his mother's long hours working in the Salvation Army, Williams and his brother cringed when she took them to the Army's street-corner revivals. Williams' paternal ancestors were a mix of Irish; the maternal, Mexican side of Williams' family was quite diverse, having Spanish and American Indian roots.
Of his Mexican ancestry he said that "If I had my mother's name, there is no doubt I would have run into problems in those days, the prejudices people had in Southern California". Williams lived in San Diego's North Park neighborhood. At the age of eight, he was taught how to throw a baseball by Saul Venzor. Saul was one of his mother's four brothers, as well as a former semi-professional baseball player who had pitched against Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Joe Gordon in an exhibition game; as a child, Williams' heroes were Pepper Martin of the St. Louis Cardinals and Bill Terry of the New York Giants. Williams graduated from Herbert Hoover High School in San Diego, where he played baseball as a pitcher and was the star of the team. During this time, he played American Legion Baseball being named the 1960 American Legion Baseball Graduate of the Year. Though he had offers from the St. Louis Cardinals and the New York Yankees while he was still in high school, his mother thought he was too young to leave home, so he signed up with the local minor league club, the San Diego Padres.
Throughout his career, Williams stated his goal was to have people point to him and remark, "There goes Ted Williams, the greatest hitter who lived." Williams played back-up behind Vince DiMaggio and Ivey Shiver on the Pacific Coast League San Diego Padres. While in the Pacific Coast League in 1936, Williams met future teammates and friends Dom DiMaggio and Bobby Doerr, who were on the Pacific Coast League's San Francisco Seals; when Shiver announced he was quitting to become a football coach at the University of Georgia, the job, by default, was open for Williams. Williams posted a.271 batting average on 107 at bats in 42 games for the Padres in 1936. Unknown to Williams, he had caught the eye of the Boston Red Sox's general manager, Eddie Collins, while Collins was scouting Bobby Doerr and the shortstop George Myatt in August 1936. Collins explained, "It wasn't hard to find Ted Williams, he stood out like a brown cow in a field of white cows." In the 1937 season, after graduating from Hoover High in the winter, Williams broke into the line-up on June 22, when he hit an inside-the-park home run to help the Padres win 3–2.
The Padres ended up winning the PCL title. Meanwhile, Collins kept in touch with Padres general manager Bi
The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or the American League, is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which aspired to major league status, it is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League. At the end of every season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion. Through 2018, American League teams have won 66 of the 114 World Series played since 1903, with 27 of those coming from the New York Yankees alone; the New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics and the Boston Red Sox. A minor league known as the Western League which existed 1885 to 1899, with teams in Great Lakes states, the newly organized Western League developed into a rival major league after the previous American Association disbanded after ten seasons as a competitor to the older National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, founded in 1876.
In its early history of the late 1880s, the minor Western League struggled until 1894, when Ban Johnson became the president of the league. Johnson led the Western League into elevation as claiming major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League of Professional Baseball Clubs in 1901; the American League was founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin at the former Republican Hotel by five Irishmen. George Herman Ruth, noted as one of the most prolific hitters in Major League Baseball history, spent the majority of his career in the American League with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees; the American League has one notable difference versus the rival National League, in that in modern times since 1973 it has had the designated hitter rule. Under the rule, a team may use a batter in its lineup, not in the field defensively, replacing the pitcher in the batting order, compared to the old rule that made it mandatory for the pitcher to bat. In the last two decades, the season schedule has allowed occasional interleague play.
Until the late 1970s, league umpires working behind home plate wore large, balloon-style chest protectors worn outside the shirt or coat, while their brethren in the National League wore chest protectors inside the shirt or coat. In 1977, new umpires had to wear the inside chest protector, although those on staff wearing the outside protector could continue to do so. Most umpires made the switch to the inside protector, led by Don Denkinger in 1975 and Jim Evans the next year, although several did not, including Bill Haller, Lou DiMuro, George Maloney, Jerry Neudecker, who became the last MLB umpire to use the outside protector in 1985. In 1994, the league, along with the National League, reorganized again, into three divisions and added a third round to the playoffs in the form of the American League Division Series, with the best second-place team advancing to the playoffs as a wild-card team, in addition to the three divisional champions. In 1998, the newly franchised Tampa Bay Devil Rays joined the league, the Arizona Diamondbacks joined the National League: i.e. each league each added a fifteenth team.
An odd number of teams per league meant that at least one team in each league would have to be idle on any given day, or alternatively that odd team out would have had to play an interleague game against its counterpart in the other league. The initial plan was to have three five-team divisions per league with inter league play year-round—possibly as many as 30 interleague games per team each year. For various reasons, it soon seemed more practical to have an number of teams in both leagues; the Milwaukee Brewers agreed moving from the AL Central to the NL Central. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers were moved from the AL East to the AL Central, making room for the Devil Rays in the East. Following the move of the Houston Astros, in the NL for 51 years since beginning as an expansion team in 1962, to the American League in 2013, both leagues now consist of 15 teams, a far cry from their original 8 for the first half-century of the 20th century. For the first 96 years, American League teams faced their National League counterparts only in exhibition games or in the World Series.
Beginning in 1997, interleague games have been played during the regular season and count in the standings. As part of the agreement instituting interleague play, the designated-hitter rule is used only in games where the American League team is the home team. There were eight charter teams in 1901, the league's first year as a major league, the next year the original Milwaukee Brewers moved to St. Louis to become the St. Louis Browns; these franchises constituted the league for 52 seasons, until the Browns moved to Baltimore and took up the name Baltimore Orioles. All eight original franchises remain in the American League, although only four remain in the original cities; the eight original teams and their counterparts in the "Classic Eight" were: original Baltimore Orioles (went b
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
Robert Joseph Cox is an American former professional baseball third baseman and manager in Major League Baseball. He first led the Atlanta Braves from 1978 to 1981, managed the Toronto Blue Jays from 1982 to 1985, he rejoined the Braves in 1986 as a general manager. He moved back to the manager's role during the 1990 season and stayed there until his retirement following the 2010 season; the Atlanta Braves have since retired the number 6 in commemoration of Bobby Cox. He led the Atlanta Braves to the World Series championship in 1995, he holds the all-time record for ejections in Major League Baseball with 158, a record held by John McGraw. Cox ranks fourth on the baseball all-time managerial wins list; as a player, Cox signed with the Los Angeles Dodgers, but was never able to make the Dodgers' major league team. He was acquired by the Braves, but never appeared in an MLB game for them either. Instead, he was traded to the New York Yankees on December 7, 1967. Cox played two seasons at third base, for the Yankees.
Because of bad knees, Cox became the second in a string of four stopgap players between Clete Boyer and Graig Nettles. Prior to managing in the States, Cox played from 1967 to 1970 for the Cardenales de Lara and Leones del Caracas clubs of the Venezuelan Winter League, he managed the Cardenales during three consecutive seasons from 1974–75 through 1976–77. In between, he managed in the Yankees minor league system. Cox began his managerial career in the Yankees farm system in 1971. In 1976, he led the Syracuse Chiefs to the Governors' Cup title; this team featured such future major leaguers as Ron Guidry, Mickey Klutts, Terry Whitfield and Juan Bernhardt. Overall, Cox had a successful six-year tenure as a minor league manager, compiling a record of 459 wins and 387 defeats with two league championships, he spent the 1977 season as the first base coach on Billy Martin's staff with the World Series–winning Yankees before beginning his MLB managerial career. Cox replaced Dave Bristol as the manager of the Atlanta Braves prior to the 1978 season, inheriting a team that had finished last in the league during the previous two seasons and, in 1977, compiled a worse record than the first-year Seattle Mariners of the American League.
Building from the ground up, the Braves finished last in both 1978 and 1979. Entering 1980, Cox made one of the unusual moves for which he is known, moving power-hitting first baseman–catcher Dale Murphy, who had developed a throwing block as a catcher that hindered his ability to play, to center field. Murphy won two National League Most Valuable Player Awards and five Gold Gloves, became one of the premier players of the 1980s. In 1980, the Braves finished fourth with their first record above.500 since 1974. However, Cox was undone by the 1981 baseball strike when the Braves finished fifth and owner Ted Turner fired him. Asked at a press conference, on his short list for manager, Turner replied, "It would be Bobby Cox if I hadn't just fired him. We need someone like him around here." The Braves won the National League West division title in 1982 and finished second in both 1983 and 1984 under Cox's successor Joe Torre. Cox finished with a record of 323 losses in the regular season. Cox joined the Toronto Blue Jays in 1982, who improved over the four years of his management.
In 1985, Cox's fourth season with the club, the Blue Jays finished in first place in the American League East. That season, the American League Championship Series was expanded to a best-of-seven format after sixteen seasons of a best-of-five format; this change made the difference when Cox's Blue Jays became only the fifth team to lose a playoff series after leading 3 games to 1 to the Kansas City Royals. He finished his stint as manager with 292 losses regular season record. After the Blue Jays' elimination, Cox returned to the Braves as general manager. After going through two managers over the course of less than five years with disastrous results in attendance and outlook, Cox fired Russ Nixon in June 1990, appointed himself as the manager. Cox had spent the prior four seasons accumulating talented players, including Tom Glavine, Steve Avery, John Smoltz, David Justice, he was responsible for drafting Chipper Jones with the first overall pick in the 1990 draft. In 1991, the Braves, along with the Minnesota Twins, became the first teams to go from last place to first place from one year to the next.
The two teams met in the 1991 World Series. It was the second World Series; the first was in 1987. In 1992, Cox's Braves held a 3–1 lead in the National League Championship Series against the Pittsburgh Pirates before losing games 5 and 6, although they did win Game 7 on Francisco Cabrera's ninth-inning, two-out, pinch-hit, two-run single, they went on to lose the World Series to his former club the Toronto Blue Jays. In 1993, the Braves had the best record in baseball after a pennant race where they overcame a ten-game deficit in August to beat the San Francisco Giants. By going 51–17 over the last two and a half months of the season, they won the division by a game. However, they lost the National League Championship Series in six games to the Philadelphia Phillies. In 1995, the Atlanta Braves won Cox's only World Series championship, over the Cleveland Indians, their division title in 1995 marked the first time since 1989 that neither Pennsylvania team won the National League East. In May 1995, Cox was arrested on simple battery charge after his wife called police and alleged Cox struck her.
Joseph Elliott Girardi is an American former professional baseball catcher and manager. Girardi played in Major League Baseball for the Chicago Cubs, the Colorado Rockies, the New York Yankees and the St. Louis Cardinals. During a 15-year playing career, Girardi won three World Series Championships with the Yankees in the 1990s, served as the catcher for Dwight Gooden’s no-hitter and David Cone’s perfect game. After his playing career ended, Girardi became a manager, in 2006, he managed the Florida Marlins and was named the National League Manager of the Year, though he was fired after the season. Girardi managed the Yankees from 2008 to 2017, he serves as an analyst for MLB Network. Girardi, the fourth son of Jerry, a former blue collar worker and United States Air Force veteran, Angela Girardi, was born in Peoria and grew up in East Peoria, Illinois, he attended East Peoria's Neil Armstrong grade school. He attended Academy of Our Lady/Spalding Institute in Peoria, where he played quarterback for the football team and catcher for the baseball team.
Girardi enrolled at Northwestern University in Evanston, where he attended from 1983 through 1986. He played for the Northwestern Wildcats baseball team. Girardi was named an Academic All-American and earned a bachelor of science degree in industrial engineering, he was the first freshman to be elected president of a fraternity at Northwestern. The Chicago Cubs drafted Girardi in the fifth round of the 1986 Major League Baseball draft, he spent four seasons in the Cubs minor leagues system before making his major league debut. In 1986, Girardi batted.309 in 68 games with the Peoria Chiefs of the Midwest League. In 1989, he played for the Águilas del Zulia in the Venezuelan Winter League. Girardi made his Major League debut for the Cubs on April 4, 1989. During his rookie year with the Cubs, Girardi batted.248 with a home run and 14 RBI in 59 games played. In 1990, he played in 133 games, batting.270 with a home run and 38 RBI. In 1991, he played in only 21 games, batting.191 with 6 RBI. In 1992, he played in 91 games, batting.270 with a home run and 12 RBI.
The Cubs left Girardi unprotected in the 1992 expansion draft and the Colorado Rockies chose him. During his first year with the Rockies in 1993, he played in 86 games batting.290 with five triples, three home runs, 31 RBI. In 1994, he played in 93 games batting.276 with four triples, four home runs, 34 RBI. In 1995, he played in 125 games batting.262 with a career-high 8 home runs and 55 RBI. After the 1995 season, the New York Yankees acquired Girardi from the Rockies in exchange for pitcher Mike DeJean. Girardi took the place of Mike Stanley. On May 14, 1996, Girardi caught Dwight Gooden's no-hitter. Girardi played in 124 games during the 1996 season, batting.294 with 45 RBIs. In Game 6 of the 1996 World Series against the Atlanta Braves, Girardi hit an RBI triple off of Greg Maddux that led the Yankees winning the World Series; when the Yankees made 25-year-old prospect Jorge Posada the backup catcher, Girardi became his mentor. The two catchers split time for the Yankees through 1999. In 1997 Girardi played in 112 games batting.264 with 50 RBIs.
During the World Series-winning 1998 season, he played in 78 games batting.276 with three home runs and 31 RBIs. On July 18, 1999, Girardi caught David Cone's perfect game. During the World Series-winning 1999 season, Girardi played in 65 games batting.239 with two home runs and 27 RBIs. In 2000 Girardi left the Yankees and returned to the Cubs, where he was named to that year's All-Star team, as an injury replacement for Mike Piazza. During the 2000 season, Girardi played in 106 games batting.278 with 40 RBIs. In 2001, he played in 78 games batting.253 with 25 RBIs. On June 22, 2002, Girardi was asked to speak to the hometown crowd after the Cubs' nationally televised matchup with the St. Louis Cardinals was cancelled by Commissioner Bud Selig, after Cardinals pitcher Darryl Kile was found dead earlier that day. Taking to the field microphone behind home plate, an emotional Girardi fought back tears as he said that "due to a tragedy in the Cardinal family" there would be no game that day, he never specified what had happened, instead asking fans to be respectful of the matter as they found it out on their own and to pray.
Overall, during 2002, Girardi batted.226 with 26 RBI in 90 games played. In 2003, Girardi played for the Cardinals, he appeared in 16 games, batting.130 with one RBI. Girardi retired at the end of the season. After a spring training stint with the Yankees in 2004, Girardi retired and became a commentator for the YES Network, he hosted the youth-oriented Yankees on Deck, received good reviews and was offered a larger role on 2005 Yankee broadcasts. But he rejected that offer, as well as an offer by Florida Marlins to become the bench coach with a guarantee to become the team's manager in 2006, although he subsequently got that job. Instead, he became the Yankees' bench coach, he managed a game during a loss to the Kansas City Royals. Girardi remained the host of Kids on Deck in 2005. During games, YES promoted Kids on Deck by showing Girardi sitting in the dugout during breaks in the game. Girardi was a broadcaster for the third and fifth games of the 2006 World Series for Fox as part of the network's pregame and postgame team, along with host Jeanne Zelasko and regular analyst Kevin Kennedy.
After fielding managerial offers for the 2007 season, Girardi instead came to terms with the YES network to re
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
Brian Gerald Snitker is an American professional baseball player and manager. He has served as the manager of the Atlanta Braves of Major League Baseball since 2016. Snitker has been in the Braves organization in different roles since becoming a minor league player in 1977. Snitker played right field for the 1971 Macon High School baseball team in Illinois; the team's surprising run to the state championship tournament was documented in Chris Ballard's 2012 book "One Shot at Forever: A Small Town, an Unlikely Coach, a Magical Baseball Season."As a youth, Snitker played American Legion Baseball, an experience that he said in a 2018 interview, "Gave me the platform to be seen because there are always scouts at American Legion games. It had a big part on my development as a player and helping me get a jump on a professional career."Snitker is a graduate of the University of New Orleans. Snitker joined the Braves organization in the minor leagues as a player in 1977, playing through 1980, he played catcher and some first base in the minor leagues, batting.254/.316/.390 with 23 home runs in 780 at bats.
Snitker has been manager of the Anderson Braves, Macon Braves, Durham Bulls, Myrtle Beach Pelicans, Greenville Braves, Mississippi Braves and Richmond Braves, all in the Braves farm system. He was the Atlanta Braves' bullpen coach in 1985 and 1988-1990. A few of his honors during his fifteen-year run as a minor league manager are winning two championships with the Myrtle Beach Pelicans in 1999 and 2000, in those same years he won the Carolina League Manager of the Year. From 2007 to 2013, Snitker served as the Braves' third-base coach, he was named to that position on October 3, 2006, replacing Fredi González, who left to join the Florida Marlins as manager. When González was named Braves manager for the 2011 season after Bobby Cox's retirement, Snitker was kept on as third base coach. On October 14, 2013, Snitker was named the manager of the Gwinnett Braves. On May 17, 2016, Snitker was named Atlanta's interim manager, replacing Fredi González, fired. On October 11, 2016, the Braves named Snitker their full-time manager for the 2017 season.
The team announced on October 2017, that Snitker would return as manager for the 2018 season. On October 15, 2018, the Braves gave Snitker a two-year contract extension with a club option for 2021. On November 13, 2018, Snitker was awarded the National League Manager of the Year Award for the 2018 season; as of October 8, 2018 Snitker and his wife, Veronica have two children. In the 2011 MLB Amateur Draft, Snitker's son Troy, was drafted by the Braves in the 19th round and traded to the Pittsburgh Pirates in March 2013. After retiring as a player, Troy joined the Houston Astros organization as a coach. Snitker's mother Catherine died in March 2019. MLB.com Brian Snitker managerial career statistics at Baseball-Reference.com Career statistics and player information from The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet