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Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award

The Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award is an annual Major League Baseball award given to one outstanding player in the American League and one in the National League. Since 1931, it has been awarded by the Baseball Writers' Association of America; the winners receive the Kenesaw Mountain Landis Memorial Baseball Award, which became the official name of the award in 1944, in honor of the first MLB commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, who served from 1920 until his death on November 25, 1944. MVP voting takes place before the postseason, but the results are not announced until after the World Series; the BBWAA began by polling three writers in each league city in 1938, reducing that number to two per league city in 1961. The BBWAA does not offer a clear-cut definition of what "most valuable" means, instead leaving the judgment to the individual voters. First basemen, with 34 winners, have won the most MVPs among infielders, followed by second basemen, third basemen, shortstops.

Of the 25 pitchers who have won the award, 15 are right-handed. Walter Johnson, Carl Hubbell, Hal Newhouser are the only pitchers who have won multiple times, Newhouser winning consecutively in 1944 and 1945. Hank Greenberg, Stan Musial, Alex Rodriguez, Robin Yount have won at different positions, while Rodriguez is the only player who has won the award with two different teams at two different positions. Barry Bonds has won the most and the most consecutively. Jimmie Foxx was the first player to win multiple times. Frank Robinson is the only player to win the award in both the National Leagues; the award's only tie occurred in the National League in 1979, when Keith Hernandez and Willie Stargell received an equal number of points. There have been 18 unanimous winners; the New York Yankees have the most winning players with 22, followed by the St. Louis Cardinals with 17 winners; the award has never been presented to a member of the following three teams: Arizona Diamondbacks, New York Mets, Tampa Bay Rays.

In recent decades, pitchers have won the award. When Justin Verlander won the AL award in 2011, he became the first pitcher in either league to be named the MVP since Dennis Eckersley in 1992. Verlander became the first starting pitcher to win this award since Roger Clemens accomplished the feat in 1986; the National League went longer without an MVP award to a pitcher. After Bob Gibson won in 1968, no pitcher in that league was named MVP until Clayton Kershaw in 2014. Before the 1910 season, Hugh Chalmers of Chalmers Automobile announced he would present a Chalmers Model 30 automobile to the player with the highest batting average in Major League Baseball at the end of the season; the 1910 race for best average in the American League was between the Detroit Tigers' disliked Ty Cobb and Nap Lajoie of the Cleveland Indians. On the last day of the season, Lajoie overtook Cobb's batting average with seven bunt hits against the St. Louis Browns. American League President Ban Johnson said a recalculation showed that Cobb had won the race anyway, Chalmers ended up awarding cars to both players.

The following season, Chalmers created the Chalmers Award. A committee of baseball writers were to convene after the season to determine the "most important and useful player to the club and to the league". Since the award was not as effective at advertising as Chalmers had hoped, it was discontinued after 1914. In 1922 the American League created a new award to honor "the baseball player, of the greatest all-around service to his club". Winners, voted on by a committee of eight baseball writers chaired by James Crusinberry, received a bronze medal and a cash prize. Voters were required to select one player from each team and player-coaches and prior award winners were ineligible. Famously, these criteria resulted in Babe Ruth winning only a single MVP award before it was dropped after 1928; the National League award, without these restrictions, lasted from 1924 to 1929. The BBWAA first awarded the modern MVP after the 1931 season, adopting the format the National League used to distribute its league award.

One writer in each city with a team filled out a ten-place ballot, with ten points for the recipient of a first-place vote, nine for a second-place vote, so on. In 1938, the BBWAA raised the number of voters to three per city and gave 14 points for a first-place vote; the only significant change since occurred in 1961, when the number of voters was reduced to two per league city. "Esurance MLB Awards" Best Major Leaguer "Players Choice Awards" Player of the Year Baseball America Major League Player of the Year Baseball Digest Player of the Year Best Major League Baseball Player ESPY Award The Sporting News Most Valuable Player Award Sporting News Player of the Year List of Major League Baseball awards Baseball awards a A player is considered inactive if he has announced his retirement or not played for a full season. B A unanimous victory indicates. C Torre is a member of the Hall of Fame, but not as a player, he was inducted in 2014 as a manager. D Hernandez and Stargell both received 216 points in the 1979 voting.

Most Valuable Player MVP Awards & Cy Youn

German post offices abroad

The German post offices abroad were an extraterritorial network of German post offices in foreign countries with a significant German commercial interest to provide mail service where the local services were deemed unsafe or unreliable, such as China, Ottoman Empire and Zanzibar. The system ended during or shortly after World War I; the cancellation mark of the mail processed by the German system in the early period are the only means of identifying the point of use. Stamps are identified by overprints of the place of issuance when not for postal use. German abroad stamps started appearing in the late 19th century and reached their heyday at the beginning of the 20th century. Stamps from German post offices abroad are popular with collectors and some can be valuable. In a 2006 auction, a 40 Pfennig Germania hand-stamped "China" stamp from 1900 realized 100,152 Euros. Other countries maintained postal offices abroad. In the latter part of the 19th century and into the 20th century and having extraterritorial post offices were a perceived indication of a nation's international power.

References SourcesMichel-Katalog Deutschland Spezial. Schwaneberger Verlag GmbH. 1997. ISBN 3-87858-129-7. Retrieved 6 December 2008

Crinodendron patagua

Crinodendron patagua, the patagua or lily of the valley tree, is an evergreen tree that grows in Chile from 33° to 36° South latitude, up to 1200 m above sea level in elevation. It prefers ravines. An endangered associate tree is the Chilean wine palm, Jubaea chilensis, whose distribution was much wider prehistorically; this tree reaches a height up to 10 m. Leaves are simple, oblong with serrate margin, it produces white flowers with bell-shaped corolla of five petals, the fruit is a capsule, orange-colored when mature. It is used for honey production purposes and is important in that matter; the tannin contained in bark is used for tanning leather. The wood is used in furniture, it is used for reforestation. It is easy to cultivate, it can be planted by seeds and fast-growing and tolerates frosts, it has been introduced as ornamental in New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Scotland and some parts of England, although it does not flower as in the United Kingdom as the ornamental and more cultivated Crinodendron hookerianum, red or pink-flowered.

Etymology: Crinodendron and patagua. Named Tricuspidaria dependens Ruiz et Pav. Adriana Hoffman. 1998. Flora Silvestre de Chile. Fundación Claudio Gay. Santiago. C. Donoso. 2005. Árboles nativos de Chile. Guía de reconocimiento. Valdivia, Chile C. Michael Hogan Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis,, ed. N. Stromberg Juan Ignacio Molina. 1782. Crinodendron patagua in Encyclopedia of Chilean Flora, Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili. 179, 353 "Crinodendron patagua in Scotland". Dendrological Plant Image Gallery. Retrieved 2009-06-27

Maximianus (poet)

Maximianus or Maximian was a Latin elegiac poet of the 6th century, called "in some sort, the last of the Roman poets". Nothing is known of Maximianus's life save. In it, he claims Etruscan descent; some scholars, have maintained that the poetry represents the utterances of one or more personae and that nothing therein, including the name Maximianus, is to be taken as reliable information about the poet. Maximianus's poetry divided into six separate elegies, deals with the contrast between the infirmities of age and the vigor and amours of youth; some scholars have noted a connection with the topos of the senex amans found in classical comedy and in Ovid. The first, longest, elegy presents in detail the miseries of the "prison", the "living death", old age; the second tells of the poet's long love for Lycoris. The fifth recounts his abortive tryst with a Greek girl during his embassy in the East, along with her reaction to his impotence; the sixth, consisting of only twelve lines, again expresses the horror of approaching death.

Throughout, "the imminence of death and the sadness of growing old are seen as representing the end of pagan culture and its joy in living". Despite its erotic content, Maximianus's verse was part of the corpus of texts used in the 11th and 12th centuries to teach schoolboys the rudiments of Latin, though its use for this purpose was criticized by Alexander of Villedieu: quamvis haec non sit doctrina satis generalis, proderit ipsa tamen plus nugis Maximiani; because of this use of the poetry in elementary education, echoes of and references to it are found in a wide variety of medieval writers, including Hugh of Saint Victor, Giraldus Cambrensis, Geoffrey of Vinsauf, Nigel Wireker, Alain de Lille, Walter of Châtillon. A Middle English poem entitled "Le Regret de Maximian" was based on Maximianus's first elegy, Chaucer's use of the Latin poet's work has been investigated by various scholars. Montaigne would quote the first elegy several times in his last essay, "On Experience". Although one or more printed editions of the work had appeared in the 15th century, it was the 1501 edition by the Neapolitan teenager Pomponius Gauricus that attracted the most attention among Renaissance scholars.

Gauricus, suppressing the distich in which the name Maximianus appears and altering the reference to Boethius, published the verse as the work of the first-century-BC poet Cornelius Gallus, whose elegies had been thought to be lost. This enthusiastic error caused Maximianus's poetry to be misattributed to Gallus for hundreds of years. Gauricus appears responsible for the division of the verse, which in all the manuscripts appears as a continuous poem, into six elegies—a division, followed by subsequent editors; the first published English translation, by Hovenden Walker, was titled The Impotent Lover: Accurately Described in Six Elegies upon Old Age, with the Old Doting Letcher's Resentments on the Past Pleasures and Vigorous Performances of Youth. A full English translation with commentary was published by the American poet A. M. Juster in 2018. Maximiani Elegiae, ed. E. Baehrens, Poetae Latini Minores V Massimiano: Elegie, ed. Tullio Agozzino, Biblioteca Silva di Filologia The Elegies of Maximianus, ed. and trans.

A. M. Juster ISBN 978-0-8122-4979-8 Maximiani Elegiarum Liber at the Latin Library Helen Waddell on Maximianus: The Wandering Scholars, pages 17–18 Review of A. M. Juster's edition and translation at The Medieval Review


King Tirian is a fictional character from C. S. Lewis's fantasy series The Chronicles of Narnia, he is the protagonist of The Last Battle, in which he is the last King of Narnia, who has to defend his kingdom against subversion and invasion. He is well respected by the Narnians, a skilled swordsman, he is descended from Prince Caspian, is the son of King Erlian. His closest friend is Jewel the Unicorn. Troubles in Narnia cause King Tirian to doubt the purported return of Aslan. Enraged at Calormene treatment of a talking beast, he and Jewel slay the men, but are filled with guilt at this act and surrender to the Calormene enclave and Shift. There is sentenced to death by Shift, he prays for Aslan or the friends of Narnia to come save Narnia, Eustace and Jill come to his rescue. He leads an assault upon the Calormenes at the stable and, on the verge of defeat, wrestles their leader Rishda Tarkaan into the stable to meet Tash. There he finds himself in Aslan's Country, meets High King Peter, King Edmund, Lord Digory, Lady Polly and Queen Lucy, bears witness to the end of Narnia

Rock Star: Supernova

Rock Star: Supernova is the second season of the reality television show Rock Star. The show, hosted by Dave Navarro and Brooke Burke, featured 15 contestants competing to become the lead vocalist for a newly formed supergroup featuring Mötley Crüe drummer Tommy Lee, former Metallica bassist Jason Newsted, former Guns N' Roses guitarist Gilby Clarke. On September 13, 2006, Lukas Rossi was crowned the winner and became the frontman of Rock Star: Supernova; as the show's name implies, the new group was to be called Supernova. With this judicial ruling, the band announced their official name would be "Rock Star Supernova"; the show began online on the Rock Star web site on MSN on Monday, July 3 with an Internet exclusive weekly episode and premiered on 5 July 2006 on CBS in the United States and Global in Canada. Votes could be cast by text message on Verizon Wireless, it was one of two prominent programs in the "Rock Reality Show" mini movement of the summer of 2006, the other being VH1's Supergroup.

Unlike in the first season, the behind-the-scenes episodes were not televised in the U. S.. However, these "In the Mansion" reality episodes did air on television in Canada on Global, in Australia on Foxtel channel FOX8, in Asia on STAR World; the following is a list of songs performed by each finalist during the competition. They are listed in elimination order, so the first one mentioned was in first place in the competition and the number represents the week in which the song was performed; each week one finalist is asked to perform an encore performance of the song they performed the night before, noted below as an "Encore Performance". The three finalists who have the lowest total votes for the week are asked to perform another song of their choice, this song is noted as a "Bottom Three Performance". Additionally, beginning in Week Seven, one finalist is chosen to debut a new Supernova song with the members of Supernova; this is noted below as a "Special Performance". Lukas Rossi's victory makes him the second Canadian to win the Rock Star competition.

Performance episode All 15 contestants performed cover songs. Most of the rockers were praised for their performances, but there was one notable bad performance in Chris Pierson's performance of "Roxanne" by The Police, they were judged by Dave Navarro, Tommy Lee, Jason Newsted, Gilby Clarke, the album's producer Butch Walker. Elimination episode At the beginning of the episode, Supernova wanted to see an encore of one rocker, Dilana. Phil and Matt were placed in the bottom three based on votes from around the world. Magni and Zayra were in the bottom three at some time during voting, they each performed one cover song of their choosing. Elimination was based on their previous performance. Subsequently, Matt was chosen by the band to be eliminated. Despite praising his previous nights performance of "Yellow" by Coldplay, Supernova claimed that Matt's elimination was based on his song choice. Performance episode The 14 contestants again performed cover songs, their judges were the same, with the exception of the album's producer Butch Walker, absent.

Jill, who performed Violet by Hole was accused by Dave of imitating Courtney Love by wearing a wedding dress as she did for the song's video. Elimination episode This week, due to his strong performance, Toby was awarded the encore. Zayra and Chris found themselves in the bottom three based on the worldwide vote, while Jenny was singled out as the only other contestant to have at some point been in the bottom three during the voting period; each one performed the cover song of their choice and based on that performance as well as their previous performances the band chose Chris to be eliminated. Supernova pointed out the fact that Chris was in the bottom three two weeks in row and cited that as a reason as to why he was eliminated; the next week, both Gilby and Dave said they at first felt they had made a mistake by not eliminating Zayra. In The Mansion episode The 13 remaining contestants received lessons from vocal coach Lis Lewis. During song selection, an argument arose between Jill and Patrice over the song "Helter Skelter".

Josh frustrated others by taking Nirvana's "Come as You Are" without checking to see if it was all right with the other members. Performance episode The 13 contestants each performed a cover song. An accompanying note said that on one of the songs, the contestant would be backed by a member of Supernova; this song turned out to be Phil's choice, "White Rabbit" by Jefferson Airplane, Jason Newsted played bass on his performance. Phil was praised for his performance, Dave pointing out how he added some intensity. Lukas, Dilana, Zayra and Jill all earned praise from the judges that night. All the judges said. Elimination episode This week, after Tommy noted the great performances from Dilana and Jill, Magni was awarded this week's encore. Based on the worldwide vote, the three rockers with the fewest votes were Dana, J