A papal legate or Apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters, the legate is appointed directly by the pope. The term legation is applied both to a mandate and to the territory concerned. In the High Middle Ages, papal legates were often used to strengthen the links between Rome and the parts of Christendom. More often than not, legates were learned men and skilled diplomats who were not from the country they were accredited to. The Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as legate to England in the early 13th century. Papal legates often summoned legatine councils, which dealt with church government, during the Middle Ages, a legatine council was the usual means that a papal legate imposed his directives. There are several ranks of papal legates in diplomacy, some of which are no longer used, a nuncio performs the same functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges.
Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party and this highest rank is normally awarded to a priest of cardinal rank. It is an investiture and can either be focused or broad in scope. The legate a latere is the ego of the Pope. The legatus natus would act as the representative in his province. Although limited in their jurisdiction compared to legati a latere, a legatus natus were not subordinate to them, literally sent legate, possessing limited powers for the purpose of completing a specific mission. This commission is normally focused in scope and of short duration, some administrative provinces of the Papal states in Italy were governed by a Papal Legate. This has been the case in Benevento, in Pontecorvo and in Viterbo, in four cases, including Bologna, this post was awarded exclusively to Cardinals, the Velletri post was created for Bartolommeo Pacca. The title could be changed to Apostolic Delegate, as happened in Frosinone in 1827, Papal diplomacy Nuncio – an envoy whose diplomatic status is recognized by the receiving state – usually a titular archbishop.
Papal apocrisiarius List of papal legates to England Other Pontifical legate Catholic Encyclopedia, Legate WorldStatesmen - Italy to 1860 - Papal State Maseri, de Legatis et Nunciis Apostolicis Iudiciis Ecclesiasticis Civilibus et Criminalibus Oneribusque Civitatum Cameralibus et Communitativis. Commentatio Canoncia de Legatis et Nuntiis Pontificum, die englische Legation des Cardinals Guido Fulcodi, des spaeteren P. Clemens IV
Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, refers to the leader of an administrative area. A prefects office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, the words prefect and prefecture are used, more or less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages, especially Romance languages. They did have authority in their prefecture such as controlling prisons. The Praetorian prefect began as the commander of a generals guard company in the field. From the Emperor Diocletians tetrarchy they became the administrators of the four Praetorian prefectures, Praefectus urbi, or praefectus urbanus, city prefect, in charge of the administration of Rome. Praefectus vigilum, commander of the Vigiles, Praefectus aerarii, nobles appointed guardians of the state treasury. Praefectus aerarii militaris, prefect of the military treasury Praefectus annonae, Praefectus alae, commander of a cavalry unit. Praefectus cohortis, commander of a cohort, Praefectus fabrum, officer in charge of fabri, i. e. well-trained engineers and artisans.
Praefectus legionis agens vice legati, equestrian acting legionary commander, Praefectus orae maritimae, official in charge with the control and defense of an important sector of sea coast. Praefectus socium, Roman officer appointed to a function in an ala sociorum. For some auxiliary troops, specific titles could even refer to their peoples, less important provinces though were entrusted to prefects, military men who would otherwise only govern parts of larger provinces. The most famous example is Pontius Pilate, who governed Judaea at a time when it was administered as an annex of Syria, septimius Severus, after conquering Mesopotamia, introduced the same system there too. Praefectus urbi, a prefect of the era who guarded the city during the annual sacrifice of the Latin. His former title was custos urbi, especially in Medieval Latin, præfectus was used to refer to various officers—administrative, judicial, etc. —usually alongside a more precise term in the vernacular. The term is used by the Roman Catholic Church, which based much of its canon law terminology on Roman law, the Roman Curia has the nine Prefects of all the Congregations as well as the two of the Papal Household and of the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.
The title attaches to the heads of some Pontifical Council, who are titled president. For example, the president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue is the prefect of the Commission for Religious Relations with Muslims, traditionally these Curial officials are Cardinals, hence often called Cardinal-Prefect or Cardinal-President. There was a custom that those who were not cardinals when they were appointed were titled Pro-Prefect or Pro-President, these officials would be appointed prefect or president after their elevation to the Sacred College
A military chaplain ministers to military personnel and, in most cases, their families and civilians working for the military. In some cases they work with local civilians within a military area of operations. They may liaise with local leaders in an effort to understand the role of religion as both a factor in hostility and war and as a force for reconciliation and peace. Military chaplains normally represent a religion or faith group but work with military personnel of all faiths, some countries, like the Netherlands and Belgium, employ humanist chaplains who offer a non-religious approach to chaplain support. In the United Kingdom, the Ministry of Defence employs chaplains, naval chaplains called to service with the Royal Marines undertake a commando course at Commando Training Centre Royal Marines, Lympstone and if successful serve with a front-line Royal Marines unit. British Army chaplains undertake seven-weeks training at The Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre Amport House, in the United States, the term, nomination, is not generally applied to the process of becoming a military chaplain.
Individuals volunteer, and if they are accepted, they are commissioned as military officers in the Chaplain Corps. Neither the government as a whole nor the military in particular will be put into the position of determining whether an individual is a bona fide priest, rabbi, etc. Although ordination is normally required for service, some equivalent status is accepted for individuals from religious groups which do not have ordination. The Geneva Conventions are silent on whether chaplains may bear arms, the Conventions do state that chaplains are non-combatants, they do not have the right to participate directly in hostilities. It is generally assumed that during World War II, chaplains were unarmed, crosby describes an incident where a US chaplain became a trained tank gunner and was removed from the military for this entirely illegal, not to mention imprudent action. Fraser asks, if the shot, what would the harvest be. Apart from three ringing cheers from the whole battalion, other nations, notably Norway and Sweden, and Australia, make it an issue of individual conscience.
Since 1909 US chaplains on operations have been accompanied by an armed chaplain assistant, perhaps on this occasion it was felt that an unarmed uniformed man would draw unwelcome attention. Captured chaplains are not considered prisoners of war and must be returned to their home nation unless retained to minister to prisoners of war, serving chaplains have died in action. The US Army and Marines lost 100 chaplains killed in action during World War II, the third highest casualty rate behind the infantry, many have been decorated for bravery in action. In 2006, training materials obtained by U. S, among the training materials, there included an insurgent sniper training manual that was posted on the Internet. Among its tips for shooting U. S. troops, there read, Killing doctors, Military chaplains are often supervised by a chaplain general or chief of chaplains, on the staff of the leader of the nations military forces
A preacher usually identifies a person who delivers sermons or homilies on religious topics to an assembly of people. Less common are preachers who preach on the street, or those whose message is not necessarily religious, Preachers are common throughout most cultures. They can take the form of a Christian minister on a Sunday morning, a Muslim preacher in general is referred to as a dā‘ī, while those giving sermons on a Friday afternoon are described as a khatib. The sermon or homily has been an important part of Christian services since Early Christianity, lay preachers sometimes figure in these traditions of worship, for example the Methodist local preachers, but in general preaching has usually been a function of the clergy. The Franciscans are another important preaching order, Travelling preachers, usually friars, were an important feature of late medieval Catholicism, among some Chinese churches, preacher is different from pastor. A preacher refers to the clergy in the Protestant church who are not officially recognised as a pastor until they can prove their capability of leading the church.
Preacher is the author of the Book of Ecclesiastes according to the King James Version, Preacher is one translation of the Hebrew word קהלת. There is much debate about the identity of this Preacher, many believe it is Solomon, media related to Preachers at Wikimedia Commons Child preacher List of Christian preachers List of Dais Maggid Preachers kid Prison minister Francis, Keith A. Gibson, William, et al. The Oxford Handbook of the British Sermon 1689-1901,2012 OUP, ISBN0199583595,9780199583591, google books
Saint Peter, known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn pronunciation, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Hippolytus of Rome, a 3rd-century theologian, gave him the title of Apostle of the Apostles, according to Catholic teaching, Peter was ordained by Jesus in the Rock of My Church dialogue in Matthew 16,18. He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a saint and as founder of the Church of Antioch. The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis and his brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples, originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration.
According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesuss inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, according to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peters Basilica. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope. Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, the Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peters preaching and eyewitness memories. Peters original name was Shimon or Simeon and he was given the name Peter, New Testament Greek Πέτρος derived from πέτρα, which means rock. In the Latin translation of the Bible this became Petrus, a form of the feminine petra. Another version of this name is Aramaic, , after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.
The English and German Peter, French Pierre, the Italian Pietro, the Spanish and Portuguese Pedro, the Syriac or Aramaic word for rock is kepa, which in Greek became Πέτρος, meaning rock. He is known as Simon Peter and Kepha, both Cephas and Kepha mean rock. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus ministry, Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida and he was named Simon, son of Jonah or John
Before the establishment of patriarchs, metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church. They presided over synods of bishops, and were granted privileges by canon law. The Early Church structure generally followed the Roman imperial practice, with one bishop ruling each city, the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province, called suffragans. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops, the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds even if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see and it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, and determine the agenda. It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council, no provincial council can be called if the metropolitan see is vacant.
As of April 2006,508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops,27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, see Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, similarly, a metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province. The metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province, a major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only slightly from that regarding a patriarchal Church, there are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops, in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are generally designated as archbishops.
In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence, some Eastern Orthodox Churches have functioning metropolitans on the middle level of church administration. In Romanian Orthodox Church there are six regional metropolitans who are the chairmen of their respective synods of bishops, for example, Metropolitan of Oltenia has regional jurisdiction over four dioceses. On the other hand, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches title of metropolitan is only honorary, in Serbian Orthodox Church, honorary title of metropolitan is given to diocesan bishops of some important historical sees. For example, diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral is given the title of metropolitan. Diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Dabar-Bosnia is given the title of metropolitan. Non-canonical Eastern Orthodox Churches generally use metropolitan title according to traditions of usage in Churches from which they were split
He is a layman, in the sense of not being ordained as a deacon or priest, and usually lives in a religious community and works in a ministry appropriate to his capabilities. A brother might practice any secular occupation, the term brother is used as he is expected to be as a brother to others. Brothers are members of a variety of communities, which may be contemplative, monastic. Some religious institutes are composed only of brothers, others are so-called mixed communities that are made up of brothers and it is common in many Christian groups to refer to other members as brother or sister. In particular, the Christian Shakers use the title for all adult members. As monasticism developed in the days of Christianity, most monks remained laymen. Guided by the Rule of St. Benedict, the lifestyle they followed was either agricultural or that of a desert hermit. Various forces and trends through the Middle Ages led to the situation where monks were no longer following this manner of living, they were focusing primarily on the religious obligations of intercessory prayer, especially for donors to the monasteries.
This was encouraged by a spiritual reliance among the membership of the Catholic Church upon the prayers of monastics to achieve salvation. Called donates or oblati, they were not considered to be monks, in other communities, a separate labor force of lay brothers or conversi was cultivated in order to handle the temporal business of the abbey. These men were professed members of the community but were restricted to roles of manual labor. A rigid class system emerged from this arrangement in which the clerics exercised complete control over the lay brothers, in its worst form, this class system resulted in a master-slave relationship between clerics and lay brothers. This inequality between two groups of vowed religious men was not addressed by the leadership of the Catholic Church until the Second Vatican Council. In the 17th century, education of the poorer classes began to be seen as a means of providing charity, which had always been a mandate of Christianity. A leading figure of this approach was St.
Jean Baptiste de la Salle, a canon of Reims cathedral, thus the establishment of a recognized status of brother as other than an agricultural laborer came to emerge in the structures of the Church. The social devastations of the 18th and 19th centuries saw the emergence of various similar congregations of men. Members of such orders are almost exclusively known as brother regardless of status, in the Anglican Communion, the term Brother is used to refer to non-ordained members of a religious order, such as the Little Brothers of Francis. Since the Second Vatican Council many brothers have moved toward professional and academic ministries, especially in the areas of nursing, peace, Brothers in communities with priests and seminarians often undertake advanced studies and enjoy equal standing with ordained members
The concepts of multifaith, generic and/or humanist chaplaincy are gaining increasing support, particularly within healthcare and educational settings. School chaplains are a fixture in religious and, more recently, in religious schools the role of the chaplain tends to be educational and liturgical. In secular schools the role of the chaplain tends to be that of a mentor, Chaplains provide care for students by supporting them during times of crisis or need. Many chaplains run programs to promote the welfare of students and parents including programs to help deal with grief. Chaplains build relationships with students by participating in extra activities such as breakfast programs, lunchtime groups. School chaplains can liaise with external organisations providing support services for the school, with stagnant incomes and rising prices putting pressure on independent school budgets, cutting the post of school chaplain can seem an easy saving. In Australia chaplains in schools have, been funded by the federal government.
Australian chaplains assist school communities to support the spiritual, Chaplaincy services are provided by non denominational companies. As of August 2013 there are 2339 chaplains working in Australian secular schools, similarly, in Scotland the focus of school chaplaincy is on welfare and building positive relationships joining students on excursions and sharing meals. Chaplains are non-denominational and act as a link between the community and society. Like Australian chaplains it is expected that they will not proselytise, in Ireland chaplaincy takes a very different approach in which chaplains are expected to teach up to four hours of class instruction per week and are usually Catholic. Chaplaincy duties include visiting homes, religious services and celebrations, Chaplains often oversee programs on campus that foster spiritual, ethical and political and cultural exchange, and the promotion of service. Each day communities respond to disasters or emergencies. Most often, these incidents are managed effectively at the local level, there are some incidents that may require a collaborative approach that includes personnel from,1.
A combination of specialties or disciplines,3, Chaplain Fellowship Disaster Response certifies first responder chaplain for crisis and disaster response. At the scene of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, for example, New York City Fire Department Chaplain Fr. Judge was killed by flying debris from the South Tower when he re-entered the lobby of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, environmental chaplaincy is an emerging field within chaplaincy. Environmental chaplains provide spiritual care in a way that honors humanitys deep connection to the earth, environmental chaplains may bear witness to the Earth itself and represent the merging of science and spirituality
Nuncio is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, and is the head of the mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature. The Holy See is legally distinct from the Vatican City or the Catholic Church, a nuncio is usually an archbishop. A papal nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary. A nuncio performs the functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, the representative of the Holy See in some situations is called a Delegate or, in the case of the United Nations, Permanent Observer. In the Holy See hierarchy, these usually rank equally to a nuncio, in addition, the nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy See and the Church in that particular nation, supervising the diocesan episcopate and has an important role in the selection of bishops.
The name nuncio is derived from the ancient Latin word, before 1829, Internuncio was the title applied instead to the ad interim head of a mission when one Nuncio had left office and his replacement had not yet assumed it. A legate a latere is a papal representative or a representative for a special purpose. Apostolic delegates have the ecclesiastical rank as nuncios, but have no formal diplomatic status. Archbishop Pio Laghi, for example, was first apostolic delegate, pro-nuncio, to the United States during the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Apostolic delegates are sent to regions such as the West Indies and the islands of the Pacific. Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any change of class shall not affect his precedence and this article is without prejudice to any practice accepted by the receiving State regarding the precedence of the representative of the Holy See. A Holy See Representative is accredited to an organisation where other states dispatch a Permanent Representative
A vicar general is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority and possesses the title of local ordinary. The title normally occurs only in Western Christian churches, such as the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, the title for the equivalent officer in the Eastern churches is protosyncellus. The term is used by religious orders of men in a similar manner. In the Catholic Church, a bishop must appoint at least one vicar general for his diocese. The vicar general by virtue of office is the agent in administration. Vicars general must be priests, auxiliary bishops, or coadjutor bishops—if a coadjutor bishop exists for a diocese, other auxiliary bishops are usually appointed vicars general or at least episcopal vicars. A vicar general is an ordinary and, as such, acquires his powers by virtue of office. He is to possess a doctorate or at least a licentiate in law or theology or be truly expert in these fields. These might include issues concerning religious institutes or the faithful of a different rite and these too must be priests or auxiliary bishops.
The equivalent officer in the Eastern Churches is called the syncellus, priests appointed as vicars general or episcopal vicars are freely appointed or removed by the diocesan bishop, and are appointed for a fixed duration. They lose their office when the term expires, or when the see falls vacant. Auxiliary bishops may be removed from the office of vicar general, an auxiliary bishop who is an episcopal vicar, or a coadjutor bishop who is vicar general, may only be removed from office for a grave reason. A coadjutor bishop has the right of succession, so if the see falls vacant he becomes the bishop immediately. These offices should not be confused with the vicar forane or dean/archpriest, the appointment of a vicar general is a useful tool for a diocesan bishop who has additional functions attached to his episcopate. The most notable example is in the diocese of Rome, the Vicar General of Rome serves the same role for the suburbicarian diocese of Ostia, the traditional see of the Dean of the College of Cardinals, since it was merged with the diocese of Rome.
The Vicar General of Rome, who is normally a cardinal, the current Vicar General of Rome is Cardinal Agostino Vallini. A similar example is found in the United States and this had the status of an apostolic vicariate, and functioned as the equivalent of a diocese defined by quality rather than by geography. The archbishop had two separate administrations and two sets of vicars general to manage each and this arrangement ended with the establishment of the wholly separate Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches. Depending on the tradition, it can denote either jurisdictional authority or ceremonial precedence. The office is found only in older Catholic countries, and is now purely honorific. The Holy See has granted Polish primates the privilege of wearing cardinals crimson attire, except for the skullcap and biretta, the city may no longer have the prominence it had when the title was granted. Other former functions of primates, such as hearing appeals from metropolitan tribunals, were reserved to the Holy See by the early 20th century, the closest equivalent position in the Eastern Churches in 1911 was an exarch. The Holy See has continued in modern times to grant the title of primate, with the decree Sollicitae Romanis Pontificibus of 24 January 1956 it granted the title of Primate of Canada to the Archbishop of Quebec. As stated above, this is merely an honorary title involving no additional power, a right of precedence over other bishops and similar privileges can be granted even to a bishop who is not a primate.
Thus, in 1858, the Holy See granted the Archbishop of Baltimore precedence in meetings of the United States bishops. The title of primate is sometimes applied loosely to the archbishop of a capital, as in the case of the archbishops of Seoul in South Korea. The pre-reformation archbishop of Nidaros was sometimes referred to as Primate of Norway, the loose structure of the Benedictine Confederation is claimed to have made Pope Leo XIII exclaim that the Benedictines were ordo sine ordine. The powers of the Abbot Primate are specified, and his position defined, in a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops, the primacy is attached to the global Benedictine Confederation whose Primate resides at SantAnselmo in Rome. The Primatial powers are vested in the Abbot Primate to act by virtue of the proper law of its autonomous Benedictine congregation. However, certain branches of the Benedictine Order seem to have lost their autonomy to some extent. In a similar way the Confederation of Canons Regular of St.
Augustine, elects an Abbot Primate as figurehead of the Confederation and indeed the whole Canonical Order. The Abbots and Superiors General of the nine congregations of confederated congregations of Canons Regular elect a new Abbot Primate for a term of office lasting six years, the Current Abbot General is Rt. Rev. Fr Maurice Bitz, Abbot of St. Pierre, Anglican usage styles the bishop who heads an independent church as its primate, though commonly they hold some other title. In both the Church of England and the Church of Ireland, two bishops have the title of primate, the archbishops of Canterbury and York in England and of Armagh, only the bishop of the senior primatial see of each of these two churches participates in the meetings. The Archbishop of Canterbury, who is considered primus inter pares of all the participants, convokes the meetings and archbishops are styled The Most Reverend
In some religions, an exorcist is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or other demons. A priest, a nun, a monk, a healer, an exorcist is a person who performs the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who are alleged to have possessed a person, or a building or even an object. In a Roman Catholic context, exorcist may refer to a cleric who has been ordained into the order of exorcist. Since at least the third century, the Latin Church has formally ordained men to the order of exorcist. These exorcists routinely performed ceremonies over adults and infants preparing to be baptised, authors such as Eusebius and Augustine provide details of these minor exorcisms, Eusebius mentions the imposition of hands and prayer. Augustine noted that rites of exorcism by exsufflation were performed for the baptism of infants, by the twentieth century, the order had become purely ceremonial. As a minor order, exorcists wore the surplice and it was left open to the Catholic bishops of individual countries to petition the Vatican to establish a ministry of exorcist if it seemed useful in that nation.
The Eastern Churches did not establish a order of exorcist. In principle, every Christian has the power to command demons, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that, Jesus performed exorcisms and from him the Church has received the power and office of exorcizing. The revised 1983 Code of Canon Law similarly stated that the bishop is to give this permission only to a presbyter who has piety, prudence, the Catholic Churchs Rite of Exorcism was revised in 1999. Paragraph 13 of its states that a priest can be appointed by the local Bishop either for a single act of exorcism. The Rite specifies that whenever it uses the word exorcist without qualification, among notable exorcists, Gabriele Amorth served as chief exorcist of the Diocese of Rome, he was the founder of the International Association of Exorcists. Beliefs and practices pertaining to the practice of exorcism are prominently connected with the ancient Dravidians in the south, of the four Vedas, the Atharva Veda is said to contain the secrets related to magic and medicine.
Many of the rituals described in this book are for casting out demons and these beliefs are particularly strong and practiced in West Bengal and southern states like Kerala. Vaishnava traditions employ a recitation of names of Lord Narasimha, main Puranic resource on ghost- and death-related information is Garuda Purana. Exorcism Parapsychology Fangxiangshi, a Chinese ritual exorcist An Evening with an Exorcist, thomas J. Euteneuer Exorcisms in the Catholic Church