Army Medical Department (United States)
The Army Medical Department of the U. S. Army the Army Medical Service, encompasses the Army's six medical Special Branches, it was established as the "Army Hospital" in July 1775 to coordinate the medical care required by the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. The AMEDD is led by the Surgeon General of the U. S. Army, a lieutenant general; the AMEDD is the U. S. Army's healthcare organization, is present in the Active Army, the U. S. Army Reserve, the Army National Guard components, it is headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, which hosts the AMEDD Center and School. Large numbers of AMEDD senior leaders can be found in the Washington D. C. area, divided between the Pentagon and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. The Academy of Health Sciences, within the AMEDDC&S, provides training to the officers and enlisted service members of the AMEDD; as a result of BRAC 2005, enlisted medical training was transferred to the new Medical Education and Training Campus, consolidating the majority of military-enlisted medical training in Fort Sam Houston.
The current Surgeon General of the U. S. Army and U. S. Army Medical Command commander is LTG Nadja West. Both the AMEDD and the Army Medical Corps trace their origins back to July 27, 1775, when the Continental Congress established the "Army Hospital", at that time overseen by the "Director General and Chief Physician". Congress provided an Army medical organization only in times of war or emergency until 1818, at which point it created a permanent "Medical Department"; the Army Nurse Corps originated in 1901, the Dental Corps began in 1911, the Veterinary Corps in 1916. The Army Organization Act of 1950 renamed the Medical Department the "Army Medical Service," and on June 4, 1968, the Army Medical Service was renamed the Army Medical Department. A regimental coat of arms was devised for the Medical Department, was most first used in 1818; the 20 white stars on a blue background and the red and white stripes represent the U. S. flag of 1818. The green staff entwined with a green serpent combined two symbols: the rod of Asclepius from classical mythology, symbolic of medicine and healing.
The colors Argent and Gules are those associated with the flag of the United States. The rooster is associated with Roman god of healing and medicine, Aesculapius; the Ancient Greeks believed that the rooster's crowing at dawn drove away the evil disease spreading demons from the temples so that it could be a place of healing. The torse below the rooster shows alternating blue and silver colors which were the colors of the Army in 1818; the Latin motto Experientia et Progressus, is meant to convey the steady and unfailing progress of the Army Medical Department since 1775. The design of the AMEDD regimental insignia is derived from the regimental coat of arms, it is one of the US Army's 14 regimental corps insignias. These insignias are worn over the right breast pocket on the Army Service Uniform and signify the service member's branch of service; the "new" AMEDD insignia was approved on 27 October 2014. See also: Rod of Asclepius and Caduceus as a symbol of medicineIn 1851, "a caduceus embroidered in yellow silk on a half chevron of emerald green silk" was first authorized and worn by hospital stewards of the Medical Department.
The caduceus in its present form was approved in 1902. Today, the AMEDD branch corps insignia is 1 inch in height. With the exception of the Medical Corps, each Corps is identified by a black enamel letter centered on the caduceus indicative of the specific branch; the insignia for Medical Service Corps is silver. Rooted in classical mythology and associated with the Greek god Hermes, the US Army's long-standing use of the caduceus has made it a well known emblem of physicians and medical skill throughout the world. There are six special officer branches in the AMEDD; the Medical Corps consists of commissioned medical officers who are physicians who have completed at least one year of post-graduate training or have been promoted from O-1 to O-3 following completion of medical school through USUHS or the HPSP. The MC traces its origins to 27 July 1775, when the Continental Congress created “a Hospital” a Medical Department and corps of physicians, for the Continental Army. Medical officers in the United States Army were authorized uniforms only in 1816 and were accorded military rank only in 1847.
Congress made the designation of "Medical Corps" official in 1908, although the term had long been in use informally among the AMEDD's regular physicians. Today, members of the MC work around the world at all echelons of the Army; the Chief of the MC is a major general, whereas the senior Army Medical Department officer is the Surgeon General. Military physicians serve in one of several general career fields; the three main fields are operational field, clinical field, research field. Operational Medicine is the field of Army medicine that provides medical support to the soldier and his/her Chain of Command. Many operational physicians serve as Division and Battalion level surgeons (the word "surgeon" is used to identify a physician, assigned to a unit as a primary care provider a
A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
United States Code
The Code of Laws of the United States of America is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States. It contains 53 titles; the main edition is published every six years by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives, cumulative supplements are published annually. The official version of those laws not codified in the United States Code can be found in United States Statutes at Large; the official text of an Act of Congress is that of the "enrolled bill" presented to the President for his signature or disapproval. Upon enactment of a law, the original bill is delivered to the Office of the Federal Register within the National Archives and Records Administration. After authorization from the OFR, copies are distributed as "slip laws" by the Government Printing Office; the Archivist assembles annual volumes of the enacted laws and publishes them as the United States Statutes at Large. By law, the text of the Statutes at Large is "legal evidence" of the laws enacted by Congress.
Slip laws are competent evidence. The Statutes at Large, however, is not a convenient tool for legal research, it is arranged in chronological order so that statutes addressing related topics may be scattered across many volumes. Statutes repeal or amend earlier laws, extensive cross-referencing is required to determine what laws are in force at any given time; the United States Code is the result of an effort to make finding relevant and effective statutes simpler by reorganizing them by subject matter, eliminating expired and amended sections. The Code is maintained by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U. S. House of Representatives; the LRC determines which statutes in the United States Statutes at Large should be codified, which existing statutes are affected by amendments or repeals, or have expired by their own terms. The LRC updates the Code accordingly; because of this codification approach, a single named statute may or may not appear in a single place in the Code. Complex legislation bundles a series of provisions together as a means of addressing a social or governmental problem.
For example, an Act providing relief for family farms might affect items in Title 7, Title 26, Title 43. When the Act is codified, its various provisions might well be placed in different parts of those various Titles. Traces of this process are found in the Notes accompanying the "lead section" associated with the popular name, in cross-reference tables that identify Code sections corresponding to particular Acts of Congress; the individual sections of a statute are incorporated into the Code as enacted. Though authorized by statute, these changes do not constitute positive law; the authority for the material in the United States Code comes from its enactment through the legislative process and not from its presentation in the Code. For example, the United States Code omitted 12 U. S. C. § 92 for decades because it was thought to have been repealed. In its 1993 ruling in U. S. National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America, the Supreme Court ruled that § 92 was still valid law.
By law, those titles of the United States Code that have not been enacted into positive law are "prima facie evidence" of the law in effect. The United States Statutes at Large remains the ultimate authority. If a dispute arises as to the accuracy or completeness of the codification of an unenacted title, the courts will turn to the language in the United States Statutes at Large. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. In contrast, if Congress enacts a particular title of the Code into positive law, the enactment repeals all of the previous Acts of Congress from which that title of the Code derives; this process makes that title of the United States Code "legal evidence" of the law in force. Where a title has been enacted into positive law, a court may neither permit nor require proof of the underlying original Acts of Congress.
The distinction between enacted and unenacted titles is academic because the Code is nearly always accurate. The United States Code is cited by the Supreme Court and other federal courts without mentioning this theoretical caveat. On a day-to-day basis few lawyers cross-reference the Code to the Statutes at Large. Attempting to capitalize on the possibility that the text of the United States Code can differ from the United States Statutes at Large, Bancroft-Whitney for many years published a series of volumes known as United States Code Service, which used the actual text of the United States Statutes at Large. Only "general and permanent" laws are codified in the United States Code. If these limited provisions are significant, they may be printed as "notes" underneath related sectio
An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Two-star officers hold the rank of rear admiral, counter admiral, major general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air vice-marshal. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded two-star ranks: Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal General de Brigada Contra Almirante Brigadeiro The two-star rank in Brazil is the first rank in a general career; the officers in this position are brigade commanders. Rear-admiral Major general Rather than stars, the Canadian Forces insignia use maple leaves; the maple leaves crossed sabre and baton. Before unification, air vice marshal was the two-star rank for the RCAF; the equivalent modern German two-star ranks of the Bundeswehr are as follows: Generalmajor and Konteradmiral Generalstabsarzt and AdmiralstabsarztNot to be confused with Generalmajor and Vizeadmiral of the Wehrmacht until 1945 and of the National People's Army of East Germany until German reunification in 1990.
Air vice-marshal Major-general Rear admiral Inspector-general Major Jendral - Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps two-star rank Laksamana Muda - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency two-star rank Marsekal Muda - Indonesian Air Force two-star rank Inspektur Jenderal - Indonesian National Police two-star rank Major-general Air vice-marshal Rear admiral Additional inspector general of police Inspector General of Prisons, Additional inspector general of police Air vice-marshal Major-general Rear admiral Major General Major General Rear Admiral Rear Admiral Police Director Fire Director Jail Director Rear admiral Major general Air vice marshal Rear admiral Major general In the Russian and Soviet armies, the rank wearing two stars is lieutenant-general, however the general in charge of a unit equivalent to the one led by a NATO two-star general is major-general. This applies to the air force, MVD, police, FSB and some others, is caused by a Russian brigades being commanded by colonel, with the smallest unit commanded by a general being a division.
In the navy, the equivalent rank is kontr-admiral. Ranks and insignia of NATO Three-star rank One-star rank
Chaplain Corps (United States Army)
The Chaplain Corps of the United States Army consists of ordained clergy of multiple faiths who are commissioned Army officers serving as military chaplains as well as enlisted soldiers who serve as assistants. Their purpose is to offer religious church services and moral support to the armed forces, whether in peacetime or at war. See footnotesThe U. S. Army Chaplain Center and School is part of the Armed Forces Chaplaincy Center, which includes the Air Force Chaplain Service Institute and the U. S. Naval Chaplaincy School and Center; the three schools are co-located at Fort Jackson, in Columbia, S. C. In 2005, the Base Realignment and Closure Commission decided to put all military ministry training at the same location. While it was authorized, funding was not part of the BRAC, the Air Force departed Ft Jackson in 2012 leaving only the Army and Navy at the Armed Forces Chaplaincy Center; the purpose of the AFCC was to have closer cooperation among the three chaplain corps and to share instruction and training.
While, the goal, the core curriculums were maintained by the three service schools and a joint program of instruction was never created. The U. S. Army Chaplain School was approved on 9 February 1918, its first session began on 3 March 1918, at Virginia. Chaplain Aldred A. Pruden, who developed the plan for the school, was named the first commandant of the school, it subsequently moved to Camp Zachary Taylor, Camp Grant, Fort Leavenworth, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Harvard University, Fort Devens, Fort Oglethorpe, Carlisle Barracks, Fort Slocum, Fort Hamilton, Fort Wadsworth, Fort Monmouth. See: Military chaplain#Non-combatant status Due to a revision of DA PAM 611-21 Effective October 1, 2013, Chaplain Candidates belonging to the Staff Specialist Branch until ordination have worn the Staff Specialist insignia in lieu of religious denomination insignia; the transition from the Staff Specialist Branch to the Chaplain Branch left the candidates without an authorized branch insignia. Responding to the need, Chief of Chaplains Chaplain Donald L. Rutherford submitted a request for collar insignia, approved by HQDA, G-1 on 23 February 2012.
The design for the collar insignia was authorized on 18 June 2012. See: United States military chaplain symbols For FAQs regarding uniforms and insignia, see footnote; the Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army is the head of the Army Chaplaincy. The position was created to better organize the corps; the current Chief of Chaplains is Chaplain Paul K. Hurley, sworn in on May 22, 2015. See footnotes For a link to the chaplaincy at each of the bases listed below, see general footnote and the footnote following each base Joint Base Lewis-McChord Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst For all six USMA chapels, see footnote See footnote See footnote See also: National Museum of the United States Army and Museum of Army Chaplaincy For USA Civil War chaplains, see footnote. For historic photographs of Army chaplains in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, see footnote; the U. S. Army Chaplain Museum is located at Fort South Carolina, it was established on 14 August 1957, at the then–United States Army Chaplain School at Fort Slocum, New York.
It was dedicated on 10 February 1958, by Chaplain Patrick J. Ryan, Chief of Chaplains; when the troop-transport ship Dorchester was torpedoed during World War II, four Army chaplains ministered to the soldiers and sailors on the sinking ship, gave up their life jackets, sacrificed their lives when the ship sank. Those chaplains -- known as "The Four Chaplains" -- were Methodist. John G. Burkhalter – Chaplain during World War II and the Korean War. John B. DeValles – Chaplain during World War I. Francis P. Duffy – Chaplain during World War I, the most decorated cleric in the history of the U. S. Army. John H. Eastwood – Chaplain during World War II Herman G. Felhoelter – Chaplain during the Korean War. Killed in Chaplain–Medic massacre. Dale Goetz – Chaplain during Afghanistan War. First U. S. Army chaplain to be killed in action since the Vietnam War. Milton L. Haney – Chaplain during the Civil War. Called "The Fighting Chaplain" by the men of the 55th Illinois Infantry. Awarded the Medal of Honor Philip Hannan – Chaplain during World War II.
Emil J. Kapaun – Chaplain during the Korean War. Died in a POW camp on 23 May 1951. In the process of canonization. Awarded the Medal of Honor. John McElroy, SJ – One of two of the Army's first Catholic chaplains. Chaplain during the Mexican–American War, founder of St. John's Literary Institute, Boston College High School, Boston College. Colman O'Flaherty – Chaplain during World War I. Awarded the Distinguished Service Cross posthumously. John D. McCarty – A Protestant Episcopal priest, he served as U. S. Army chaplain at the front, during the Mexican–American War, with General Scott's army. Chaim Potok – Jewish chaplain during the Korean War, author. Anthony Rey, S. J. – One of two of the Army's first Catholic chaplains. Chaplain during the Mexican–American War and Vice President of Georgetown College. First Catholic chaplain killed during service with the U. S. military. John Rosbrugh – Chaplain during the Revolutionary War. First U. S. chaplain killed in battle. Jeff Struecker – Chaplain for the 75th Ranger Regiment.
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh